Institute of Development Studies
The Institute of Development Studies is an institution for development research and learning, impact and communications, based at the University of Sussex. IDS was founded in 1966 by economist Dudley Seers, director from 1967 until 1972. From 1972 to 1981 Sir Richard Jolly was the director of IDS, authored A short history of IDS: a personal reflection. John Toye was director of IDS from 1987–97; the current director of IDS is Melissa Leach, a social anthropologist and professorial fellow at IDS, who succeeded Lawrence Haddad in 2014. Prior to her appointment she was director of the STEPS Centre. Leach's recent work has explored the politics of science and knowledge in policy processes linked to environment and health. IDS consists of twelve research clusters or teams which concentrate their research on specific angles of development: The Business and the State cluster investigates how and under what conditions businesses and market systems enable or constrain pathways for positive development.
Current research includes a Rising Powers programme focusing on the economic growth of the BRICS. The Cities cluster has a focus on the circumstances of poor and vulnerable people within cities and explores ways in which different forms of inequalities interact to produce both good and bad outcomes; the Conflict and Violence cluster research is developing new insights into how people live and interact in contexts of conflict and violence, what institutions best support them. The Digital cluster challenges prevailing technocratic views by highlighting inequalities that Information and Communication Technologies may cause; the Gender and Sexuality cluster research looks at factors where people in developing countries are affected by others either persecuting them due to their sexual orientation, religion, their gender or social class. The Governance cluster work on addressing the tensions between political liberalisation and globalisation, tensions between the politics of growth and the politics of equity the potential tensions and synergies between development concerns such as the anti-poverty agenda, the gender-equity agenda and the environmental protection agenda.
IDS is a registered charity. The top five funders of IDS are: the UK Department for International Development The Economic and Social Research Council The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation The European Union The Rockefeller Foundation. With the University of Sussex, IDS offer a range of scholarship opportunities to help fund MA degree students. IDS has engaged in teaching since 1973, it teaches at postgraduate and doctorate level and has been awarded accreditation for its teaching programme by the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes. In 2012 IDS was rated the UK's best university-affiliated think tank in the Global Go To Think Tank Report 2012 and the third-best globally. There are eight MA courses run by IDS: MA Development Studies MA Gender and Development MA Globalisation and Development MA Governance and Public Policy MA Participation and Social Change MA Poverty and Development MSc Climate Change and Policy MA Food and Development Carlos Alvarado Quesada, 48th President of Costa Rica Edwin Irizarry Mora, Puerto Rican pro-independence leader Salim Mvurya, Kenyan politician Nancy Okail, Egyptian scholar and activist Isatou Touray, Gambian trade minister Euclid Tsakalotos, Greek Minister of Finance Marta Zabaleta, Argentinian political refugee Robina P. Marks, South African High Commissioner to Sri Lanka Sir Richard Jolly, a development economist who has held various positions within the UNDP and OECD, was awarded honorary fellowship from The International Institute of Social Studies in 2007.
Robert Chambers, who has contribution to development for his work in participatory rural appraisal, is acknowledged. Ian Scoones is director of the STEPS Centre and is well known for his research into land reform in Zimbabwe. Stephen Devereux is the author of Theories of Famine. Mick Moore, head of the International Centre for Tax and Development Ben Ramalingam, author of Aid on the Edge of Chaos Carlos Fortin, political scientist, Assistant Secretary-General, United Nations, 1990–2005 Emeritus Fellow and Research Associate Bob Baulch – worked for 13 years as a fellow at IDS for 13 years before joining Prosperity Initiatives in 2008. Chris Colclough – a fellow, professorial fellow Stephany Griffith-Jones – has contributed to research and policy suggestions on how to make the domestic and international financial system more stable so it can better serve the needs of inclusive economic development and the real economy. Susan Joekes is noted for her part in the Women in Development approach. Naila Kabeer is a professor of gender and development at the Gender Institute, London School of Economics.
Simon Maxwell worked at IDS for 16 years and is now senior research associate at the Overseas Development Institute. Peter Newell is a professor at the University of Sussex, specialising in climate change, he is co-editor of the European Journal of International Relations, associate editor of the journal Global Environmental Politics and sits on the editorial board of Global Environmental Change, the Journal of Environment and Development and the Journal of Peasant Studies. Neil McCulloch – Previously a research fellow in IDS Globalisation team. An economist specialising in the analysis of poverty in developing countries and the linkages between poverty and both global and local economic reform. Has led research on the possibilities of the Tobin tax fo
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, includes the factors that have an influence in their survival and evolution. A biophysical environment can vary in scale from microscopic to global in extent, it can be subdivided according to its attributes. Examples include the marine environment, the atmospheric environment and the terrestrial environment; the number of biophysical environments is countless, given that each living organism has its own environment. The term environment can refer to a singular global environment in relation to humanity, or a local biophysical environment, e.g. the UK's Environment Agency. All life that has survived must have adapted to conditions of its environment. Temperature, humidity, soil nutrients, etc. all influence any species, within any environment. However life in turn modifies, in various forms, its conditions; some long term modifications along the history of our planet have been significant, such as the incorporation of oxygen to the atmosphere.
This process consisted in the breakdown of carbon dioxide by anaerobic microorganisms that used the carbon in their metabolism and released the oxygen to the atmosphere. This led to the existence of the great oxygenation event. Other interactions are more immediate and simple, such as the smoothing effect that forests have on the temperature cycle, compared to neighboring unforested areas. Environmental science is the study of the interactions within the biophysical environment. Part of this scientific discipline is the investigation of the effect of human activity on the environment. Ecology, a sub-discipline of biology and a part of environmental sciences, is mistaken as a study of human induced effects on the environment. Environmental studies is a broader academic discipline, the systematic study of interaction of humans with their environment, it is a broad field of study that includes the natural environment, built environments and social environments. Environmentalism is a broad social and philosophical movement that, in a large part, seeks to minimise and compensate the negative effect of human activity on the biophysical environment.
The issues of concern for environmentalists relate to the natural environment with the more important ones being climate change, species extinction and old growth forest loss. One of the studies related include employing Geographic Information Science to study the biophysical environment. Biophysics subject to the context List of conservation topics List of environmental issues Lists of environmental topics Miller, G. Tyler. Environmental science. California: Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-21588-2. McCallum, Malcolm L.. "Google search patterns suggest declining interest in the environment". Biodiversity and Conservation. Doi:10.1007/s10531-013-0476-6. Media related to Environment at Wikimedia Commons
Department for International Development
The Department for International Development is a United Kingdom government department responsible for administering overseas aid. The goal of the department is "to promote sustainable development and eliminate world poverty". DFID is headed by the United Kingdom's Secretary of State for International Development; the position has been held, by Penny Mordaunt. In a 2010 report by the Development Assistance Committee, DFID was described as "an international development leader in times of global crisis"; the UK aid logo is used to publicly acknowledge DFID's development programmes are funded by UK taxpayers. DFID's main programme areas of work are Education, Social Services, Water Supply and Sanitation and Civil Society, Economic Sector, Environment Protection and Humanitarian Assistance. In 2009/10 DFID’s Gross Public Expenditure on Development was £6.65bn. Of this £3.96bn was spent on Bilateral Aid and £2.46bn was spent on Multilateral Aid. Although the Department for International Development’s foreign aid budget was not affected by the cuts outlined by the Chancellor of the Exchequer’s 2010 spending review, DFID will see their administration budgets slashed by 19 percent over the next four years.
This would mean a reduction in back-office costs to account for only 2 percent of their total spend by 2015. In June 2013 as part of the 2013 Spending Round outcomes it was announced that DFID's total programme budget would increase to £10.3bn in 2014/15 and £11.1bn in 2015/16 to help meet the UK government's commitment to spend 0.7% of GNI on ODA. DFID is responsible for the majority of UK ODA; the National Audit Office 2009 Performance Management review looked at how DFID has restructured its performance management arrangements over the last 6 years. The report responded to a request from DFID’s Accounting Officer to re-visit the topic periodically, which the Comptroller and Auditor General agreed would be valuable; the study found that DFID had improved in its general scrutiny of progress in reducing poverty and of progress towards divisional goals, however noted that there was still clear scope for further improvement. In 2016 DFID was taken to task with accusations of misappropriation of funding in the British Overseas Territory of Montserrat.
Whistleblower Sean McLaughlin commenced legal action against the Department in the Eastern Caribbean Court, questioning the DFID fraud investigation process. The DFID Ministers are as follows: The current Permanent Secretary is Matthew Rycroft, having assumed office in January 2018; the main piece of legislation governing DFID's work is the International Development Act, which came into force on 17 June 2002, replacing the Overseas Development and Co-operation Act. The Act makes poverty reduction the focus of DFID's work, outlaws tied aid; as well as responding to disasters and emergencies, DFID works to support the United Nations' eight Millennium Development Goals, namely to: Halve the number of people living in extreme poverty and hunger Ensure that all children receive primary education Promote sexual equality and give women a stronger voice Reduce child death rates Improve the health of mothers Combat HIV & AIDS, malaria and other diseases Make sure the environment is protected Build a global partnership for those working in development.all with a 2015 deadline.
Former Secretary of State Hilary Benn has indicated that on current trends, we will not achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Although by 2010 thanks to high growth in India and China who had 62% of the world's poor in 1990 there has been significant global progress towards meeting the millennium goals; the Department has its origins from the Ministry of Overseas Development created during the Labour government of 1964–70, which combined the functions of the Department of Technical Cooperation and the overseas aid policy functions of the Foreign, Commonwealth Relations, Colonial Offices and of other government departments. After the election of a Conservative government in October 1970, the Ministry of Overseas Development was incorporated into the Foreign Office and renamed the Overseas Development Administration; the ODA was overseen by a minister of state in the Foreign Office, accountable to the Foreign Secretary. Though it became a section of the Foreign Office, the ODA was self-contained with its own minister, the policies and staff remained intact.
When a Labour government was returned to office in 1974, it announced that there would once again be a separate Ministry of Overseas Development with its own minister. From June 1975 the powers of the minister for overseas development were formally transferred to the Foreign Secretary. In 1977 to shore up its difficult relations with UK business, the government introduced the Aid and Trade Provision; this enabled aid to be linked to nonconcessionary export credits, with both aid and export credits tied to procurement of British goods and services. Pressure for this provision from UK businesses and the Department of Trade and Industry arose in part because of the introduction of French mixed credit programmes, which had begun to offer French government support from aid funds for exports, including for projects in countries to which France had not given substantial aid. After the election of the Conservatives under Margaret Thatcher in 1979, the ministry was transferred back to the Foreign Office, as a
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe, is a historic county in South East England corresponding in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. It is bounded to the west by Hampshire, north by Surrey, northeast by Kent, south by the English Channel, divided for many purposes into the ceremonial counties of West Sussex and East Sussex. Brighton and Hove, though part of East Sussex, was made a unitary authority in 1997, as such, is administered independently of the rest of East Sussex. Brighton and Hove was granted City status in 2000; until Chichester was Sussex's only city. Sussex has three main geographic sub-regions, each oriented east to west. In the southwest is the fertile and densely populated coastal plain. North of this are the rolling chalk hills of the South Downs, beyond, the well-wooded Sussex Weald; the name derives from the Kingdom of Sussex, founded, according to legend, by Ælle of Sussex in AD 477. Around 827, it was absorbed subsequently into the kingdom of England, it was the home of some of Europe's earliest recorded hominids, whose remains have been found at Boxgrove.
It is the site of the Battle of Hastings. In 1974, the Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex was replaced with one each for East and West Sussex, which became separate ceremonial counties. Sussex continues to be recognised as cultural region, it has had a single police force since 1968 and its name is in common use in the media. In 2007, Sussex Day was created to celebrate history. Based on the traditional emblem of Sussex, a blue shield with six gold martlets, the flag of Sussex was recognised by the Flag Institute in 2011. In 2013, Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Sussex; the name "Sussex" is derived from the Middle English Suth-sæxe, in turn derived from the Old English Suth-Seaxe which means of the South Saxons. The South Saxons were a Germanic tribe that settled in the region from the North German Plain during the 5th and 6th centuries; the earliest known usage of the term South Saxons is in a royal charter of 689 which names them and their king, Noðhelm, although the term may well have been in use for some time before that.
The monastic chronicler who wrote up the entry classifying the invasion seems to have got his dates wrong. The New Latin word Suthsexia was used for Sussex by Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu in his 1645 map. Three United States counties, a former county/land division of Western Australia, are named after Sussex; the flag of Sussex consists of six gold martlets, or heraldic swallows, on a blue background, blazoned as Azure, six martlets or. Recognised by the Flag Institute on 20 May 2011, its design is based on the heraldic shield of Sussex; the first known recording of this emblem being used to represent the county was in 1611 when cartographer John Speed deployed it to represent the Kingdom of the South Saxons. However it seems that Speed was repeating an earlier association between the emblem and the county, rather than being the inventor of the association, it is now regarded that the county emblem originated and derived from the coat of arms of the 14th-century Knight of the Shire, Sir John de Radynden.
Sussex’s six martlets are today held to symbolise the traditional six sub-divisions of the county known as rapes. Sussex by the Sea is regarded as the unofficial anthem of Sussex. Adopted by the Royal Sussex Regiment and popularised in World War I, it is sung at celebrations across the county, including those at Lewes Bonfire, at sports matches, including those of Brighton and Hove Albion Football Club and Sussex County Cricket Club; the county day, called Sussex Day, is celebrated on 16 June, the same day as the feast day of St Richard of Chichester, Sussex's patron saint, whose shrine at Chichester Cathedral was an important place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages. Sussex's motto, We wunt be druv, is a Sussex dialect expression meaning "we will not be pushed around" and reflects the traditionally independent nature of Sussex men and women; the round-headed rampion known as the "Pride of Sussex", was adopted as Sussex's county flower in 2002. The physical geography of Sussex relies on its lying on the southern part of the Wealden anticline, the major features of which are the high lands that cross the county in a west to east direction: the Weald itself and the South Downs.
Natural England has identified the following seven national character areas in Sussex:South Coast Plain South Downs Wealden Greensand Low Weald High Weald Pevensey Levels Romney MarshesAt 280m, Blackdown is the highest point in Sussex, or county top. Ditchling Beacon is the highest point in East Sussex. At 113 kilometres long, the River Medway is the longest river flowing through Sussex; the longest river in Sussex is the River Arun, 60 kilometres long. Sussex's largest lakes are man-made reservoirs; the largest is Bewl Water on the Kent border, while the largest wholly within Sussex is Ardingly Reservoir. The coastal resorts of Sussex and neighbouring Hampshire are the sunniest places in the United Kingdom; the coast has more sunshine than the inland areas: sea breezes, blowing off the sea, tend to clear any cloud from the coast. Most of Sussex lies in Hardiness zon
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency is a government agency of the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Sida is responsible for organization of the bulk of Sweden's official development assistance to developing countries. Sida affirms respect of human rights and gender equality proclaimed by Universal Declaration of Human Rights on their missions, together with "Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law" of Lund University, Sida gave an aide for "Equal State and Human Rights of Women in Southeast Asia" by Asia Pacific Forum held from 9 May and 3 June 2011. Sida is informed by the Yogyakarta Principles in Action the working for the rights for LGBTI and Swedish government mandated an "Action plan for Sida's work on sexual orientation and gender identity in international development cooperation 2007-2009", and the evaluation of the 2007–2009 action plan demonstrates the significant work done in many countries on LGBTI issues, including dialogue with civil society, other donors, governments.
As well as directly funding a number of LGBTI groups, Sida headquarters has promoted LGBTI issues in its networking with other donors and international stakeholders, by giving radio and TV interviews, writing a newspaper article, participating in and arranging seminars at pride festivals and the World Outgames, including LGBTI rights in newly adopted policies
A database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are developed using formal design and modeling techniques; the database management system is the software that interacts with end users and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses; the sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a "database system". The term "database" is used to loosely refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an application associated with the database. Computer scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s; these model data as rows and columns in a series of tables, the vast majority use SQL for writing and querying data. In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, referred to as NoSQL because they use different query languages.
Formally, a "database" refers to the way it is organized. Access to this data is provided by a "database management system" consisting of an integrated set of computer software that allows users to interact with one or more databases and provides access to all of the data contained in the database; the DBMS provides various functions that allow entry and retrieval of large quantities of information and provides ways to manage how that information is organized. Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it. Outside the world of professional information technology, the term database is used to refer to any collection of related data as size and usage requirements necessitate use of a database management system. Existing DBMSs provide various functions that allow management of a database and its data which can be classified into four main functional groups: Data definition – Creation and removal of definitions that define the organization of the data.
Update – Insertion and deletion of the actual data. Retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications; the retrieved data may be made available in a form the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database. Administration – Registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, recovering information, corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure. Both a database and its DBMS conform to the principles of a particular database model. "Database system" refers collectively to the database model, database management system, database. Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Database servers are multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage.
RAID is used for recovery of data. Hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions. Since DBMSs comprise a significant market and storage vendors take into account DBMS requirements in their own development plans. Databases and DBMSs can be categorized according to the database model that they support, the type of computer they run on, the query language used to access the database, their internal engineering, which affects performance, scalability and security; the sizes and performance of databases and their respective DBMSs have grown in orders of magnitude. These performance increases were enabled by the technology progress in the areas of processors, computer memory, computer storage, computer networks.
The development of database technology can be divided into three eras based on data model or structure: navigational, SQL/relational, post-relational. The two main early navigational data models were the hierarchical model and the CODASYL model The relational model, first proposed in 1970 by Edgar F. Codd, departed from this tradition by insisting that applications should search for data by content, rather than by following links; the relational model employs sets of ledger-style tables, each used for a different type of entity. Only in the mid-1980s did computing hardware become powerful enough to allow the wide deployment of relational systems. By the early 1990s, relational systems dominated in all large-scale data processing applications, as of 2018 they remain dominant: IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server are the most searched DBMS; the dominant database language, standardised SQL for the relational model, has influenced database languages for other data models. Object databases were developed in the 1980s to overcome the inconvenience of object-relational impedance mismatch, which led to the coining of the term "post-relational" and the development of hybrid object-relational databas
For other forms of development, see Development. International development or global development is a broad concept denoting the idea that societies and countries have differing levels of'development' on an international scale, it is the basis for international classifications such as developed country, developing country and least developed country, for a field of practice and research that in various ways engages with international development processes. There are, many schools of thought and conventions regarding which are the exact features constituting the'development' of a country. Development has been synonymous with economic development. More writers and practitioners have begun to discuss development in the more holistic and multi-disciplinary sense of human development. Other related concepts are, for instance, quality of life or subjective well-being.'International development' is different from the simple concept of'development'. Whereas the latter, at its most basic, denotes the idea of change through time, international development has come to refer to a distinct field of practice and research.
It remains related to the set of institutions - the Bretton Woods Institutions - that arose after the Second World War with a focus on economic growth, alleviating poverty, improving living conditions in colonised countries. The international community has codified development aims in, for instance, the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals. Although international relations and international trade have existed for many hundreds of years, it is only in the past century that international development theory emerged as a separate body of ideas. More it has been suggested that'the theory and practice of development is inherently technocratic, remains rooted in the high modernist period of political thought that existed in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War'. Throughout the 20th century, before the concept of international development became a common word, four aspects were used to describe the idea: political and economic liberalism, the significance of "free markets" social evolution in hierarchized environment Marxist critiques of class and imperialism anti-colonial take on cultural differences and national self-determination The second half of the 20th century has been called the'era of development'.
The origins of this era have been attributed to: the need for reconstruction in the immediate aftermath of World War II. The start of the Cold War and the desire of the United States and its allies to prevent the Third World from drifting towards communism. International Development in its meaning is geared towards colonies that gained independence; the governance of the newly independent states should be constructed so that the inhabitants enjoy freedom from poverty and insecurity. It has been argued that this era was launched on January 20, 1949, when Harry S. Truman made these remarks in his inaugural address: Before this date, the United States had taken a leading role in the creation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund, both established in 1944, in the United Nations in 1945; the launch of the Marshall Plan was another important step in setting the agenda for international development, combining humanitarian goals with the creation of a political and economic bloc in Europe, allied to the U.
S. This agenda was given conceptual support during the 1950s in the form of modernization theory espoused by Walt Rostow and other American economists; the changes in the'developed' world's approach to international development were further necessitated by the gradual collapse of Western Europe's empires over the next decades. By the late 1960s, dependency theory arose analysing the evolving relationship between the West and the Third World. In the 1970s and early 1980s, the modernists at the World Bank and IMF adopted the neoliberal ideas of economists such as Milton Friedman or Béla Balassa, which were implemented in the form of structural adjustment programs, while their opponents were promoting various'bottom up' approaches, ranging from civil disobedience and conscientization to appropriate technology and Rapid Rural Appraisal. In response various parts of the UN system led a counter movement, which in the long run has proved to be successful, they were led by the International Labour Organization, influenced by Paul Streeten by UNICEF.
UNDP though headed by a conservative US republican, put forward the concept of Human Development, thanks to Mahboub ul Haq and Amartya Sen, thus changing the nature of the development dialogue to focus on human needs and capabilities. By the 1990s, there were some writers for whom development theory had reached an impasse and some academics were imagining a postdevelopment era; the Cold War had ended, capitalism had become the dominant mode of social organization, UN statistics showed that living standards around the world had improved over the past 40 years. A large portion of the world's population were still living in poverty, their governments were crippled by debt and concerns about the environmental impact of globalization were rising. In response to the impasse, the rhetoric of development is now focusing on the issue of pove