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ELIZA effect

The ELIZA effect, in computer science, is the tendency to unconsciously assume computer behaviors are analogous to human behaviors. In its specific form, the ELIZA effect refers only to "the susceptibility of people to read far more understanding than is warranted into strings of symbols—especially words—strung together by computers". A trivial example of the specific form of the Eliza effect, given by Douglas Hofstadter, involves an automated teller machine which displays the words "THANK YOU" at the end of a transaction. A casual observer might think that the machine is expressing gratitude. More the ELIZA effect describes any situation where, based on a system's output, users perceive computer systems as having "intrinsic qualities and abilities which the software controlling the cannot achieve" or "assume that reflect a greater causality than they do". In both its specific and general forms, the ELIZA effect is notable for occurring when users of the system are aware of the determinate nature of output produced by the system.

From a psychological standpoint, the ELIZA effect is the result of a subtle cognitive dissonance between the user's awareness of programming limitations and their behavior towards the output of the program. The discovery of the ELIZA effect was an important development in artificial intelligence, demonstrating the principle of using social engineering rather than explicit programming to pass a Turing test; the effect is named for the 1966 chatterbot ELIZA, developed by MIT computer scientist Joseph Weizenbaum. When executing Weizenbaum's DOCTOR script, ELIZA parodied a Rogerian psychotherapist by rephrasing the "patient"'s replies as questions: Human: Well, my boyfriend made me come here. ELIZA: Your boyfriend made you come here? Human: He says I'm depressed much of the time. ELIZA: I am sorry to hear you are depressed. Human: It's true. I'm unhappy. ELIZA: Do you think coming here will help you not to be unhappy? Though designed as a mechanism to support "natural language conversation" with a computer, ELIZA's DOCTOR script was found to be successful in eliciting emotional responses from users who, in the course of interacting with the program, began to ascribe understanding and motivation to the program's output.

As Weizenbaum wrote, "I had not realized... that short exposures to a simple computer program could induce powerful delusional thinking in quite normal people." Indeed, ELIZA's code had not been designed to evoke this reaction in the first place. Upon observation, researchers discovered users unconsciously assuming ELIZA's questions implied interest and emotional involvement in the topics discussed when they consciously knew that ELIZA did not simulate emotion. Turing test Loebner Prize Semiotics Chatbot Intentional stance Uncanny valley Philosophical zombie Hofstadter, Douglas. Preface 4: The Ineradicable Eliza Effect and Its Dangers. Turkle, S. Eliza Effect: tendency to accept computer responses as more intelligent than they are ELIZA effect, from the Jargon File, version 4.4.7. Accessed 8 October 2006; this article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later

Moment problem

In mathematics, a moment problem arises as the result of trying to invert the mapping that takes a measure μ to the sequences of moments m n = ∫ − ∞ ∞ x n d μ. More one may consider m n = ∫ − ∞ ∞ M n d μ. for an arbitrary sequence of functions Mn. In the classical setting, μ is a measure on the real line, M is the sequence. In this form the question appears in probability theory, asking whether there is a probability measure having specified mean, variance and so on, whether it is unique. There are three named classical moment problems: the Hamburger moment problem in which the support of μ is allowed to be the whole real line. A sequence of numbers mn is the sequence of moments of a measure μ if and only if a certain positivity condition is fulfilled; this is because a positive-semidefinite Hankel matrix corresponds to a linear functional Λ such that Λ = m n and Λ ≥ 0. Assume Λ can be extended to R ∗. In the univariate case, a non-negative polynomial can always be written as a sum of squares.

So the linear functional Λ is positive for all the non-negative polynomials in the univariate case. By Haviland's theorem, the linear functional has a measure form, Λ = ∫ − ∞ ∞ x n d μ. A condition of similar form is necessary and sufficient for the existence of a measure μ supported on a given interval. One way to prove these results is to consider the linear functional φ that sends a polynomial P = ∑ k a k x k to ∑ k a k m k. If mkn are the moments of some measure μ supported on evidently Vice versa, if holds, one can apply the M. Riesz extension theorem and extend ϕ to a functional on the space of continuous functions with compact support C0, so that By the Riesz representation theorem, holds iff there exists a measure μ supported on, such that φ = ∫ f d μ for every ƒ ∈ C0, thus the existence of the measure μ is equivalent to. Using a representation theorem for positive polynomials on, one can reformulate as a condition on Hankel matrices. See Shohat & Tamarkin 1943 and Krein & Nudelman 1977 for more details.

The uniqueness of μ in the Hausdorff moment problem follows from the Weierstrass approximation theorem, which states that polynomials are dense under the uniform norm in the space of continuous functions on. For the problem on an infinite interval, uniqueness is a more delicate question. An important variation is the truncated moment problem, which studies the properties of measures with fixed first k moments. Results on the truncated moment problem have numerous applications to extremal problems and limit theorems in probability theory. See also: Chebyshev–Markov–Stieltjes inequalities and Krein & Nudelman 1977. Stieltjes moment problem Hamburger moment problem Hausdorff moment problem Moment Carleman's condition Hankel matrix Shohat, James Alexander; the Problem of Moments. New York: American mathematical society. Akhiezer, Naum I.. The classical moment problem and some related questions in analysis. New York: Hafner Publishing Co. Krein, M. G.. A.. The Markov moment problem and extremal problems.

Ideas and problems of P. L. Chebyshev and A. A. Markov and their further development. Translations of Mathematical Monographs, Vol. 50. American Mathematical Society, Providence, R. I. Schmüdgen, Konrad; the moment problem. Springer International Publishing

John Basil Lamar

John Basil Lamar was an American politician and planter. Lamar was born in Georgia, he attended the Franklin College, which became the University of Georgia in Athens, beginning in 1827 but did not graduate. In 1830, he moved to a plantation near Macon and became a successful planter, he owned holdings in Florida. In 1837 and 1838, Lamar served in the Georgia House of Representatives, he was elected in 1842 to represent Georgia in the United States House of Representatives during the 28th Congress. After his resignation in 1843, Lamar returned to his agricultural pursuits. In 1851, some of literary work was published in Polly Peablossom's Wedding, edited by T. A. Burke, he has and had a significant reputation for his humorous writings, was a founder and practitioner of both the school of Realism in America and genre of Southern Humor. From 1855 to 1858, he served on the UGA board of trustees and served at the state convention which passed the Ordinance of Secession in 1861. During the American Civil War, Lamar served as an aide to Confederate States Army General Howell Cobb, his brother-in-law and close friend.

He was wounded during Battle of Crampton's Gap Maryland trying to rally Cobb's Brigade. He died within a day on September 15, 1862. After temporary burial in Charles Town, Virginia, he was reinterred in Macon's Rose Hill Cemetery. List of signers of the Georgia Ordinance of Secession Confederate States of America, causes of secession, "Died of states' rights"United States Congress. "John Basil Lamar". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-04-30 History of the University of Georgia, Thomas Walter Reed, Imprint: Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia, ca. 1949 p.309 "John Basil Lamar". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-02-14. John Basil Lamar historical marker

WQLX

WQLX is a radio station broadcasting a hot adult contemporary format. Licensed to Chillicothe, United States, it broadcast country music from Hillsboro, Ohio at 106.7 FM. The station is owned by iHeartMedia, Inc. and features programming from their Premium Choice network dubbed "Today's Mix". The station replaced the former "Mix 94.3" WFCB, which had its Hot AC format and broadcast signal moved from Chillicothe to Columbus in 2002, now is known as WODC. Prior to 2009, WQLX was WSRW-FM at 106.7 MHz featuring a country music format and sharing the "Buckeye Country" branding with WCHO-FM. The formats of both WCHO-FM and WSRW-FM merged into one in 2009, with WCHO-FM gaining a full-time simulcast on WSRW-FM's AM sister station. WSRW-FM moved to the 106.5 frequency in a frequency class downgrade and relocation to Chillicothe. WSRW-FM took a temporary branding as "Ross 106.5" following the move before adopting the "Mix" banner and WQLX calls. Clear Channel moved the WSRW-FM calls to Michigan; the station is well known for its advocacy of the prevention of baby seal bludgeoning.

Query the FCC's FM station database for WQLX Radio-Locator information on WQLX Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WQLX

The Day of the Dolphin

The Day of the Dolphin is a 1973 American science-fiction thriller film directed by Mike Nichols and starring George C. Scott. Based on the 1967 novel Un animal doué de raison, by French writer Robert Merle, the screenplay was written by Buck Henry. A brilliant and driven scientist, Jake Terrell, his young and beautiful wife, train dolphins to communicate with humans; this is done by teaching the dolphins to speak English in dolphin-like voices. Two of his dolphins and Beta, are stolen by officials of the shadowy Franklin Foundation headed by Harold DeMilo, the supportive backer of the Terrells' research. After the dolphins are kidnapped, an investigation by an undercover government agent for hire, Curtis Mahoney, reveals that the Institute is planning to further train the dolphins to carry out a political assassination by having them place a magnetic limpet mine on the hull of the yacht of the President of the United States. George C. Scott as Dr Jake Terrell Trish Van Devere as Maggie Terrell Paul Sorvino as Curtis Mahoney Fritz Weaver as Harold DeMilo Jon Korkes as David Edward Herrmann as Mike Leslie Charleson as Maryanne John David Carson as Larry Victoria Racimo as Lana John Dehner as Wallingford Severn Darden as Schwinn William Roerick as Dunhill Elizabeth Wilson as Mrs Rome Phyllis Davis as Receptionist Dolphin voices Elliot Peterson and Elliot Fink The novel was translated into English by Helen Weaver and published in the US in 1969 under the title The Day of the Dolphin.

The film version was going to be directed by Roman Polanski for United Artists in 1969, with Polanski writing the script. However, while Polanski was in London, looking for filming locations in August 1969, his pregnant wife, the actress Sharon Tate, was murdered in their Beverly Hills home by disciples of Charles Manson. Polanski abandoned the project; the following year it was announced Franklin Schaffner would make the movie for the Mirisch Corporation. These plans were frustrated and Joseph Levine ended up buying the project from United Artists for Mike Nichols. Scott was paid $750,000 for his role; the film was shot on Abaco Island in The Bahamas. Production was difficult. Scott held up production for three days at the start of the shoot. Nichols described it as the toughest shoot he had done to date; the film received mixed reviews when released in 1973. Pauline Kael, the film critic for The New Yorker, suggested that if the best subject that Nichols and Henry could think of was talking dolphins they should quit making movies altogether.

Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune penned a positive review commenting that, "Ultimately, The Day of the Dolphin works because of the values it celebrates and Scott communicates. The values are love. In spite of their material and Scott have given us a film that reminds us what love and care can do not so much for the object of affection, but for the person who tenders it. On that level, The Day of the Dolphin is a fable."The film was not successful commercially, though it was nominated for two Academy Awards, for Best Original Score and Best Sound. Levine claimed the movie had guaranteed pre-sales of $8,450,000 to cover costs, including a sale to NBC, which had expressed interest into turning the story into a TV series. Alpha the dolphin was named best animal actor in the 24th Patsy Awards. Levine admitted the film was not a success: The rushes looked great, but it just didn't jell somehow. I think Mike was the wrong guy to direct, and George C. Scott!... He got paid $750,000 for that movie—and ran us over schedule.

The first three days of shooting he reported in with a "virus". Merle's novel, a satire of the Cold War, is the basis for this film, but the film's plot was different from that of the novel; the movie is instead inspired in part from the scientist John C. Lilly's life. A physician, biophysicist and inventor, Lilly specialized in the study of consciousness. In 1959, he founded the Communications Research Institute at St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands and served as its director until 1968. There he worked with dolphins exploring human-dolphin communication. See Bottlenose dolphin communication and John Lilly and cetacean communication. List of American films of 1973 Military dolphin The Day of the Dolphin on IMDb The Day of the Dolphin at the TCM Movie Database The Day of the Dolphin at AllMovie The Day of the Dolphin at Rotten Tomatoes

2014–15 Iranian Futsal Super League

The 2014–15 Iranian Futsal Super League are the 16th season of the Iran Pro League and the 11th under the name Futsal Super League. Dabiri Tabriz are the defending champions; the season will feature 12 teams from the 2013–14 Iranian Futsal Super League and two new teams promoted from the 2013–14 Iran Futsal's 1st Division: Moghavemat Alborz and Ferdosi Mashhad. Winner: Tasisat Daryaei Runners-up: Giti Pasand Isfahan Third-Place: Mes Sungun Top scorer: Moslem Rostamiha Best Player: Alireza Vafaei Best Manager: Vahid Shamsaei Best Goal Keeper: Mostafa Nazari Best Young Player: Moslem Rostamiha 2014–15 Futsal's 1st Division 2015 Futsal's 2nd Division 2014–15 Persian Gulf Cup 2014–15 Azadegan League 2014–15 Iran Football's 2nd Division 2014–15 Iran Football's 3rd Division 2014–15 Hazfi Cup Iranian Super Cup Iran Futsal League on PersianLeague Futsal Planet