Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep; the city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance. Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which grew and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam renamed Thailand, during the late-19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West; the city was at the centre of Thailand's political struggles throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule, underwent numerous coups and several uprisings.
The city grew during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand's politics, education and modern society. The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok; the city is now a regional force in business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, has emerged as a centre for the arts and entertainment; the city is known for cultural landmarks, as well as its red-light districts. The Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world's top tourist destinations, has been named the world's most visited city in several rankings. Bangkok's rapid growth coupled with little urban planning has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure. An inadequate road network, despite an extensive expressway network, together with substantial private car usage, have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion, which caused severe air pollution in the 1990s.
The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve the problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; the history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, when it was a village on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, under the rule of Ayutthaya. Because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town increased in importance. Bangkok served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, was the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam. After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly crowned King Taksin established his capital at the town, which became the base of the Thonburi Kingdom. In 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern bank's Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom; the City Pillar was erected on 21 April 1782, regarded as the date of foundation of the present city.
Bangkok's economy expanded through international trade, first with China with Western merchants returning in the early to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siam's modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late-19th century; the reigns of Kings Mongkut and Chulalongkorn saw the introduction of the steam engine, printing press, rail transport and utilities infrastructure in the city, as well as formal education and healthcare. Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932. Allied with Japan in World War II, it was subjected to Allied bombing, but grew in the post-war period as a result of US aid and government-sponsored investment. Bangkok's role as a US military R&R destination boosted its tourism industry as well as establishing it as a sex tourism destination. Disproportionate urban development led to increasing income inequalities and migration from rural areas into Bangkok.
Following the US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973, Japanese businesses took over as leaders in investment, the expansion of export-oriented manufacturing led to growth of the financial market in Bangkok. Rapid growth of the city continued through the 1980s and early 1990s, until it was stalled by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. By many public and social issues had emerged, among them the strain on infrastructure reflected in the city's notorious traffic jams. Bangkok's role as the nation's political stage continues to be seen in strings of popular protests, from the student uprisings in 1973 and 1976, anti-military demonstrations in 1992, successive anti-government demonstrations by opposing groups from 2008 on. Administration of the city was first formalized by King Chulalongkorn in 1906, with the establishment of Monthon Krung Thep Phra Maha Nakhon as a national subdivision. In 1915 the monthon was split into several provinces, the administrative boundaries of which have since further changed.
The city in its current form was created in 1972 with the formation of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, following the merger of Phra Nakhon Province on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya and Thonburi Province on the west during the previous year. The origin of th
Sudarat Keyuraphan is a Thai politician and chairwoman of Pheu Thai Party's strategic committee. She served multiple terms as a Member of Parliament, she had been nominated as her party's prime minister candidate for 2019 Thai general election. Sudarat was born in Bangkok to Mrs. Renu Keyuraphan, her father was the former Member of Parliament from Nakhon Ratchasima Province. Sudarat graduated her high-school from St. Joseph Convent School in Bangkok and earned Bachelor Degree from Chulalongkorn University in Commerce and Accountancy and Master Degree from Sasin Graduate Institute of Business Administration of Chulalongkorn University and in 2018, she earned her Doctoral Degree from Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University in Buddhist Studies. Sudarat is married to Mr. Somyos Leelapunyalert, a real estate entrepreneur, they have 3 children whose names are Phumphat and Yossuda. Sudarat began her political career in 1991 when she was elected as the Member of Parliament representing district 12 in Bangkok.
In 1992 election, Sudarat has been re-elected as the Member of Parliament in Bangkok and has been appointed as Deputy Government Spokesmen in Chuan Leekpai’s Government. In 1994, Sudarat has been appointed as the Secretary-General of Palang Dharma Party, she has been appointed as Deputy Minister of Transport in Chuan Leekpai’s Government. On 1995 Election, Sudarat was re-elected as Member of Parliament from Bangkok and has been appointed as The Deputy Minister of Interior in Banharn Silpa-archa’s Government. During her administration there was 11 months delay in Bang Na Expressway project, it was a huge scandal in Thailand because Thai Government might have to pay several thousand Million baht compensation. In 1996, Sudarat was once again been elected as the Member of Parliament and was the only member to be elected from Palang Dharma Party. Two years in 1998, Sudarat has co-founded Thai Rak Thai Party together with Thaksin Shinawatra and 21 other founding members, including Somkid Jatusripitak, Thanong Bidaya, Purachai Piumsombun, Thammarak Isaragura na Ayuthaya, Prommin Lertsuridej.
Sudarat has been appointed as the Deputy Leader of Thai Rak Thai Party. The party has won over 61% in 2006 elections and became the largest party. In 2001 Election, Sudarat was elected as The Member of Parliament and been appointed as Minister of Public Health in February 17, 2001 under Thaksin Shinawatra’s Government, she was involved in a long-running scandal over the purchase of overpriced computers for Hospitals,Ministry of Public Health. In 2006 Sudarat was appointed as Minister of Agriculture and Cooperatives she lost her position because of the September 2006 coup; as one of 111 executive members of the TRT, she was banned from political activities for five years after the 2006 coup d'état. 1996 - Thailand Tatler Award “Most talked about personality of the year” 1997 – Notable Alumni Awards from Faculty of Commerce and Accountancy from Chulalongkorn University 2003 – Tobacco-Free World Award from WHO 2003 – Mental Health Princess Award in supporting Mental health from Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana 2014 – World Buddhist Outstanding Leader Award from World Fellowship of Buddhists 2015 – Asoka Pilla Trophy Religion Leader from The Association of Distinguished Contributors to Buddhism of Thailand 1996 Knight Grand Cordon of the Most Noble Order of the Crown of Thailand 1999 Knight Grand Cordon of the Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant 2005 Member of the Most Illustrious Order of Chula Chom Klao 2005 Knight Grand Cross of the Most Admirable Order of the Direkgunabhorn
Mae Sai District
Mae Sai is the northernmost district of Chiang Rai Province in northern Thailand. The town of Mae Sai is a major border crossing between Myanmar. Asian Highway Network AH2 crosses the Mae Sai River to the town Tachileik in Myanmar. One-day passes for non-Burmese nationals crossing into Myanmar are issued at Myanmar customs in Tachileik. Passports are confiscated and a temporary travel permit is issued. Since the changes in Thai immigration policy since March 2016 crossing this border as a foreign national is depended on individual Thai customs officers as they have discretion. Visa runs are no longer available as of May 2016. Mae Sai is 259 km north of Chiang Mai, 61 km north of Chiang Rai, 850 km north of Bangkok. Neighboring districts are Chiang Saen, Mae Chan and Mae Fa Luang. To the north is Myanmar, separated by the Mae Sai River and the Ruak River; the westernmost part of the district is dominated by the hills of the Daen Lao Range, the most important one is the Doi Tung with the Wat Phra That Doi Tung temple on top.
Doi Nang Non is another notable mountain in Mae Sai District. The minor district Mae Sai was created on 1 March 1939, when the two tambon Mae Sai and Pong Pha were split off from Chiang Saen district; the area was upgraded to a full district on May 1, 1950. The district is subdivided into eight subdistricts, which in turn are further subdivided into 92 villages. There are two subdistrict municipalities within the district - Mai Sai itself covering parts of the tambon Mae Sai and Wiang Phang Kham, Huai Khrai covering parts of the tambon Huai Khrai. There are further eight Tambon administrative organizations; the geocode 7 is not used. Mae Sai travel guide from Wikivoyage Chiang Rai Province travel guide from Wikivoyage amphoe.com http://www.maesai.go.th Website of Mae Sai township
Walking Street, Pattaya
Walking Street is an entertainment and red-light district in the city of Pattaya, Thailand. The street is a tourist attraction which draws foreigners and Thai nationals for its night life; the Walking Street area includes seafood restaurants, live music venues, beer bars, discothèques, sports bars, go-go bars and hotels. On the street, tourists are offered the opportunity to watch a variety of sex shows, for example, including sexual acts between performers of the show; the area is closed to vehicles from 19:00 until 03:00. Car and motorcycle parking is provided at the Bali Hai end. Although the closing time of the bars and clubs is 04:00, some stay open illegally. Walking Street is located in the central part of the Pattaya city on the eastern seaboard along the coast of the Gulf of Siam; the street is notable for its large neon signage. A large video sign was erected in March 2010 at the Beach Road entrance and numerous bars and attractions on Walking Street advertise using bright and large neon signs.
Pattaya authorities began cracking down on oversized signs in 2015 in an effort to improve accessibility on Walking Street for emergency vehicles. In addition to a large number of institutions offering sexual entertainment, a significant number of prostitutes, both girls and gay men, work on the street. Although prostitution in Thailand is illegal, there are estimated to be 27,000 prostitutes working in Pattaya, many in Walking Street. Many of the prostitutes work as bargirls in the clubs along the street. A bar fine is payable to take the prostitute out of the bar. In 2016, Thailands first female Minister of Tourism, Kobkarn Wattanavrangkul, announced that “closed to the sex trade” following adverse coverage in foreign media. In Pattaya, the aim was to push prostitution back to beyond Second Street, leaving the areas near the beach a family-friendly tourist area. Although there have been many police raids and crackdowns, the sex trade continues in Walking Street. Pattaya travel guide from Wikivoyage
Chiang Mai sometimes written as "Chiengmai" or "Chiangmai" is the largest city in northern Thailand. It is the capital of Chiang Mai Province and was a former capital of the kingdom of Lan Na, which became the Kingdom of Chiang Mai, a tributary state of Siam from 1774 to 1899, the seat of princely rulers until 1939, it is 700 km north of Bangkok near the highest mountains in the country. The city sits astride the Ping River, a major tributary of the Chao Phraya River. Chiang Mai means "New City" and was so named because it became the new capital of Lan Na when it was founded in 1296, succeeding Chiang Rai, the former capital founded in 1262, its ceremonial full name is Nopburi Si-Nakhonping Chiangmai which means Chiangmai, Ping's City of the Nine referring the ancient nine Lannese tribes in this area. In May 2006 Chiang Mai was the site of the Chiang Mai Initiative, concluded between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the "ASEAN+3" countries. Chiang Mai was one of three Thai cities contending for Thailand's bid to host the World Expo 2020.
Ayutthaya was chosen by the Thai Parliament to register for the international competition. In early December 2017, Chiang Mai was awarded the UNESCO title of Creative City. In 2015, Chiang Mai was on the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage inscription. Chiang Mai was one of two tourist destinations in Thailand on TripAdvisor's 2014 list of "25 Best Destinations in the World", where it stands at number 24. Chiang Mai's historic importance is derived from its close proximity to the Ping River and major trading routes. While the city of Chiang Mai only covers most parts of the Mueang Chiang Mai District, with a population of 160,000, the city's sprawl extends into several neighboring districts; the Chiang Mai metropolitan area has a population of nearly one million people, more than half the total of Chiang Mai Province. The city is subdivided into four khwaeng: Nakhon Ping, Srivijaya and Kawila; the first three are on the west bank of the Ping River, Kawila is on the east bank. Nakhon Ping District includes the northern part of the city.
Srivijaya and Kawila consist of the western and eastern parts, respectively. The city center—within the city walls—is within Srivijaya ward; the Ping River, one of the main tributaries of the Chao Phraya River, originates at Doi Thuai, in the mountains of the Daen Lao Range in Chiang Dao District. The river, the largest in the region, runs from north to south, forming a river basin east of Chiang Mai. Mae Ping River served as the route of trade and communication between Chiang Mai and its controlled states in Lanna, as well as the outside world. Mangrai founded Chiang Mai in 1294 or 1296 on the site of an older city of the Lawa people called Wiang Nopburi. Gordon Young, in his 1962 book The Hill tribes of Northern Thailand, mentions how a Wa chieftain in British Burma told him that the Wa, a people who are related to the Lawa, once lived in the Chiang Mai valley in "sizeable cities". Chiang Mai succeeded Chiang Rai as the capital of Lan Na. Pha Yu enlarged and fortified the city, built Wat Phra Singh in honor of his father Kham Fu.
The ruler was known as the chao. The city was surrounded by a moat and a defensive wall since nearby Taungoo Dynasty of the Bamar people was a constant threat, as were the armies of the Mongol Empire, which only decades earlier had conquered most of Yunnan, in 1292 overran the bordering Dai kingdom of Chiang Hung. With the decline of Lan Na, the city lost importance and was occupied by the Taungoo in 1556. Chiang Mai formally became part of the Thonburi Kingdom in 1775 by an agreement with Chao Kavila, after the Thonburi king Taksin helped drive out the Taungoo Bamar; because of Taungoo counterattacks, Chiang Mai was abandoned between 1776 and 1791. Lampang served as the capital of what remained of Lan Na. Chiang Mai slowly grew in cultural and economic importance to its current status as the unofficial capital of Northern Thailand, second in importance only to Bangkok; the modern municipality dates to a sanitary district, created in 1915. It was upgraded to a municipality on 29 March 1935, as published in the Royal Gazette, Book No. 52 section 80.
First covering just 17.5 km2, the city was enlarged to 40.2 km2 on 5 April 1983. "... Chiang Mai represents the prime diamond on the crown of Thailand, the crown cannot be sparkle and beauteous without the diamond..." The city emblem shows the stupa at Wat Phra That Doi Suthep in its center. Below it are clouds representing the moderate climate in the mountains of northern Thailand. There is a nāga, the mythical snake said to be the source of the Ping River, rice stalks, which refer to the fertility of the land. Chiang Mai has a tropical savanna climate, tempered by the low latitude and moderate elevation, with warm to hot weather year-round, though nighttime conditions during the dry season can be cool and much lower than daytime highs; the maximum temperature recorded was 42.4 °C in May 2005. Cold and hot weather effects occur but cold effects last longer than hot effects and contribute to higher cold related motility risk among old people aged more than 85 years. A continuing environmental issue in Chiang Mai is the incidence of air pollution that occurs every year towards the end of the dry season between February and April.
In 1996, speaking at the Fourth International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement conference—held in Chiang Mai that year—the Go
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS is the main advocate for accelerated and coordinated global action on the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The mission of UNAIDS is to lead and support an expanded response to HIV and AIDS that includes preventing transmission of HIV, providing care and support to those living with the virus, reducing the vulnerability of individuals and communities to HIV and alleviating the impact of the epidemic. UNAIDS seeks to prevent the HIV/AIDS epidemic from becoming a severe pandemic. UNAIDS has five goals: advocacy for effective action on the pandemic. UNAIDS is headquartered in Geneva, where it shares some site facilities with the World Health Organization, it is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its first executive director was Peter Piot; the agency promotes the GIPA principle formulated in 1994, endorsed by the United Nations in 2001 and 2006. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Children's Fund World Food Programme United Nations Development Programme United Nations Population Fund United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime International Labour Organization United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization World Health Organization World Bank UN WomenThe cosponsors and the UNAIDS Secretariat comprise the Committee of Cosponsoring Organizations, which meets twice each year.
The aim of UNAIDS is to help mount and support an expanded response to HIV/AIDS, one that engages the efforts of many sectors and partners from government and civil society. Established by ECOSOC resolution 1994/24 on 26 July 1994, UNAIDS launched in January 1996; the organizations is guided by a Programme Coordinating Board with representatives of 22 governments from all geographic regions, the UNAIDS Cosponsors, five representatives of nongovernmental organizations, including associations of people living with HIV/AIDS. Peter Piot was the first executive director of UNAIDS, he served from its inception in 1995 until 2008, when he departed to lead the Institute for Global Health at Imperial College London. On 1 January 2009, Michel Sidibé became the new executive director of UNAIDS. Sidibé, offered his resignation on 13 December 2018 from his post following an expert report on sexual harassment in the agency that criticized his "defective leadership" and fostering a work environment that tolerated bullying, sexual harassment and a culture of fear among the staff.
Gunilla Carlsson is the Deputy Executive Director of Management and Governance, Shannon Hader is the Deputy Executive Director of Programme. UNAIDS has eleven global Goodwill Ambassadors who help strengthen awareness of the organisation's work, they are: Myung-Bo Hong, Michael Ballack, Toumani Diabaté, Crown Princess Mette-Marit of Norway, Princess Stephanie of Monaco, Annie Lennox, Naomi Watts, Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, David Luiz, Vera Brezhneva, Victoria Beckham and Pia Wurtzbach. The United Nations Declaration Commitment on HIV/AIDS provides the guiding framework for UNAIDS action. Promoting partnerships among various stakeholders is reflected within the leadership section of the Declaration of Commitment. In particular, it calls for complementation of government efforts by the full and active participation of civil society, the business community and the private sector through: Establishing and strengthening mechanisms that involve civil society including faith-based organizations, the private sector, people living with HIV/AIDS at all levels Encouraging and supporting local and national organizations to expand and strengthen regional partnerships and networks Full participation of people living with HIV/AIDS, those in vulnerable groups and people at risk young people Addressing issue of stigma and discrimination.
UNAIDS works to promote partnerships among and between this diverse and broad range of non-state entities. This calls for increases in both the number of new actors, as well as in innovative ways of working, to facilitate increased capacity of non-state entities to respond to the epidemic at all levels. With the momentum generated by the UN Special Session on HIV/AIDS, the main challenges are to: Sustain and deepen involvement of those contributing and critical to the response such as PLWHA organizations Move beyond the organizations involved and reach out to optimally engage a broad range of sectors/actors. UNAIDS has collaborated with the Roman Catholic Church Caritas Internationalis, in the fight against AIDS, something which materialized in a December 2005 message by Pope Benedict XVI. However, it indicated in a 2009 communiqué that it did not agree with the Pope's statement that condoms were unhelpful in AIDS prevention, instead calling them "essential". In engaging non-state entities in an expanded response to the epidemic, the UNAIDS Secretariat: Fosters and supports global and country level partnerships which include linkages between and among civil society, private sector, philanthropy and with particular attention to organizations of pe
Nonthaburi is one of the central provinces of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489, which came into force on 9 March 1946. Neighboring provinces are Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Pathum Thani and Nakhon Pathom. Nonthaburi is the most densely populated province after Bangkok; the Bang Kwang Central Prison is in the province. Nonthaburi is directly northwest of Bangkok on the Chao Phraya River; the province is part of the greater Bangkok Metropolitan Area. In most parts it is as urbanized as the capital, the boundary between the two provinces is nearly unrecognisable. Nonthaburi was declared a city in the middle of the 16th century, it was a village named Talat Khwan. During the reign of King Prasat Thong, a canal was dug to create a shortcut for the flow of the Chao Phraya; the river changed its flow into the new canal, still the riverbed today. In 1665 King Narai built a fortress, as the shorter river course was giving enemies an easier route to the capital, Ayutthaya.
The town was moved near the fortress. From 1943 to 1946 the province was incorporated into Bangkok; the provincial seal shows a traditional product of Nonthaburi. The provincial flower and tree is the yellow flame tree; the provincial slogan translates to "Grand royal mansion, renowned Suan Somdet, Ko Kret's pottery, famous ancient temples, tasty durians, the beautiful government office". The royal mansion refers to Phra Tamnak Nonthaburi in Mueang Nonthaburi District, the former residence of Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn. Princess Mother Srinagarindra Garden is a water garden with statue of princess Srinagarindra in the Pak Kret District; the provincial administration building once received an award as the most beautiful such building by the Ministry of Interior. Nonthaburi Province is renowned for growing the best durians in the country. Durian has been a well-known fruit in this province for 400 years; the fruit is known as "durian Nont". It is known as the most expensive durian in the world. There are six groups of Nonthaburi durian which are Kop, Kan Yao, Thong Yoi, miscellaneous.
Most durian orchards are near rivers such as the Chao Phraya. This is because the soil next to the river is good for planting, good for durian trees. Many durian orchards have disappeared due to pollution; the price of durian Non depends on its group. Kan Yao is the most expensive, starting from around 10,000 baht up to 20,000 baht for one durian; the Kan Yao itself is not easy to find in normal markets. The main reason for the high price is; the recent flood in 2011 cleared out all of the durian trees in Nonthaburi, only a few trees have been newly planted. Residential areas are expanding into agricultural areas; the province is divided into six districts. The districts are further subdivided into 433 villages. In 2010, Nonthaburi Province had a population of 640,631 male and 693,452 female. International School Bangkok Watpracharangsan School Muang Thong Thani Province page from the Tourist Authority of Thailand Official website Nonthaburi provincial map, coat of arms and postal stamp Local history and Durian