Sevastopol is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port. The city is administered as a federal city of the Russian Federation following Crimea's annexation by Russia in 2014. Ukraine and most of the UN member countries continue to regard Sevastopol as a city with special status within Ukraine. Sevastopol has a population of 393,304, concentrated near the Sevastopol Bay and surrounding areas; the location and navigability of the city's harbours have made Sevastopol a strategically important port and naval base throughout history. The city has been a home to the Russian Black Sea Fleet, why it was considered as a separate city in Crimea of significant military importance and was once operated by the Soviet Union as a closed city. Although small at 864 square kilometres, Sevastopol's unique naval and maritime features have been the basis for a robust economy; the city enjoys moderate warm summers. The city is an important centre for marine biology research. In particular, dolphins have been studied and trained in the city by the military since the end of World War II.
The name of Sevastopolis was chosen in the same etymological trend as other cities in the Crimean peninsula. It is a compound of the Greek adjective, σεβαστός and the noun πόλις. Σεβαστός is the traditional Greek equivalent of the Roman honorific Augustus given to the first emperor of the Roman Empire and awarded as a title to his successors. Despite its Greek origin, the name is not from Ancient Greek times; the city was named after Empress Catherine II of the Russian Empire founded Sevastopol in 1783. She visited the city in 1787, accompanied by Joseph II, the Emperor of Austria, other foreign dignitaries. In the west of the city, there are well-preserved ruins of the ancient Greek port city of Chersonesos, founded in the 5th century BC by settlers from Heraclea Pontica; this name means "peninsula", reflecting its immediate location. It is not related to the ancient Greek name for the Crimean Peninsula as a whole: Chersonēsos Taurikē; the name of the city is spelled as: In English, the current prevalent spelling of the name is Sevastopol.
In English, the current spelling has the pronunciation or, whilst the former spelling has the pronunciation or. Ukrainian: Севастополь. Crimean Tatar: Aqyar, pronounced. In the 6th century BC, a Greek colony was established in the area of the modern-day city; the Greek city of Chersonesus existed for two thousand years, first as an independent democracy and as part of the Bosporan Kingdom. In the 13th and 14th centuries, it was sacked by the Golden Horde several times and was totally abandoned; the modern day city of Sevastopol has no connection to the ancient and medieval Greek city, but the ruins are a popular tourist attraction located on the outskirts of the city. Sevastopol was founded in June 1783 as a base for a naval squadron under the name Akhtiar, by Rear Admiral Thomas MacKenzie, a native Scot in Russian service. Five years earlier, Alexander Suvorov ordered that earthworks be erected along the harbour and Russian troops be placed there. In February 1784, Catherine the Great ordered Grigory Potemkin to build a fortress there and call it Sevastopol.
The realisation of the initial building plans fell to Captain Fyodor Ushakov who in 1788 was named commander of the port and of the Black Sea squadron. It became an important naval base and a commercial seaport. In 1797, under an edict issued by Emperor Paul I, the military stronghold was again renamed to Akhtiar. On 29 April, 1826, the Senate returned the city's name to Sevastopol. One of the most notable events involving the city is the Siege of Sevastopol carried out by the British, French and Turkish troops during the Crimean War, which lasted for 11 months. Despite its efforts, the Russian army had to leave its stronghold and evacuate over a pontoon bridge to the north shore of the inlet; the Russians chose to sink their entire fleet to prevent it from falling into the hands of the enemy and at the same time to block the entrance of the Western ships into the inlet. When the enemy troops entered Sevastopol, they were faced with the ruins of a glorious city. A panorama of the siege was created by Franz Roubaud.
After its destruction in 1942 during World War II, it was restored and is housed in a specially constructed circular building in the city. It portrays the situation at the height of the siege, on 18 June 1855. During World War II, Sevastopol withstood intensive bombardment by the Germans in 1941–42, supported by their Italian and Romanian allies during the Battle of Sevastopol. German forces used railway artillery—including history's largest-ever calibre railway artillery piece in battle, the 80-cm calibre Schwerer Gustav—and specialised mobile heavy mortars to destroy Sevastopol's heavy fortifications, such as the Maxim Gorky Fortresses. After fierce fighting, which lasted for 250 days, the untakable fortress city fell to Axis forces in July 1942, it was intended to be renamed to "Theoderichsha
Council of People's Commissars
The Council of People's Commissars was a government institution formed soon after the October Revolution during 1917. Created in the Russian Republic, the council began forming the USSR, it evolved to become the greatest executive authority of the government of the USSR. The premier of this council was thus the head of government; the 1918 Constitution of the RSFSR formalised the role of the Sovnarkom of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic: it was to be responsible to the Congress of Soviets for the "general administration of the affairs of the state". The constitution enabled the Sovnarkom to issue decrees having the force of law when the Congress was not in session; the Congress routinely approved these decrees at its next session. When the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was established during December 1922, the USSR Sovnarkom was modelled on the RSFSR Sovnarkom, it was transformed during 1946 into the Council of Ministers. The first council elected by the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets was composed.
Many early comissars opposed the party majority organized by Stalin and conspired with the Trotskyist opposition or some other opposition group, which resulted in their expulsion from the party or being arrested. The party had banned factional opposition groups at the Eleventh Party Congress during 1921. Still the original People's Comissariat included Left-Communists and other ex-oppositionists. Most alleged conspirators were executed for treason during the Great Purge, some had sentences reduced to imprisonment. Upon the creation of the USSR in 1922, the Union's government was modelled after the first Sovnarkom; the Soviet republics retained their own governments. In 1946, the Sovnarkoms were transformed into the Council of Ministers at both all-Union and Union Republic level. Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars, including LitBel Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars, including as autonomous Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars, including as autonomous Kyrgyz Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars, including as autonomous Kyrgyz Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars, including as autonomous Council of People's Commissars, including as autonomous Karelia Council of People's Commissars, including as autonomous Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars, including Kabardin Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars as Rumcherod Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Commissars Council of People's Secretaries 26 Baku Commissars Government of the Soviet Union Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union Executive Officer of the Soviet Union Council of Ministers Cabinet of Ministers Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 1917–1964 and 1964–1991
Imperial Russian Navy
The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire. It was formally established in 1696 and lasted until being dissolved during the February Revolution of 1917, it developed from a smaller force that had existed prior to Czar Peter the Great's founding the regular Russian Navy during the Second Azov campaign. It was expanded in the second half of the 18th century and by the early part of the 19th century, it reached its peak strength, behind only the British and French fleets in terms of size. Officers were drawn from the aristocracy of the Empire, who belonged to the state Russian Orthodox Church. Young aristocrats began to be trained for leadership at a national naval school. From 1818 on, only officers of the Imperial Russian Navy were appointed to the position of Chief Manager of the Russian-American Company, based in Russian America for colonization and fur trade development. After the navy was staffed by paid foreign sailors, the government began to recruit native-born sailors as conscripts, drafted as were men to serve in the army.
Service in the navy was lifelong. The navy went into a period of decline, due to Russia's slow technical and economic development in the first half of the 19th century, it had a revival in the latter part of the century during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II, but most of its Pacific Fleet along with the Baltic Fleet, sent to the Far East and was destroyed in the humiliating Russo-Japanese War of 1904. The navy had mixed experiences during the First World War, with the Germans gaining the upper hand in the Baltic Sea; the Russians took control of the Black Sea. The Russian Revolution marked the end of the Imperial Navy; the surviving ships were taken over by the Soviet Navy when it was established in 1918 after the Revolution. Under Tsar Mikhail I, the first three-masted ship built within Russia was finished in 1636. Danish shipbuilders from Holstein built it in Balakhna according to contemporary European design; the ship was christened Frederick. During the Russo-Swedish War, 1656-1658, Russian forces seized the Swedish fortresses of Dünaburg and Kokenhusen on the Western Dvina.
They renamed the former as the latter as Tsarevich-Dmitriyev. A boyar named Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin founded a shipyard at Tsarevich-Dmitriev fortress and began constructing vessels to sail in the Baltic Sea. In 1661, Russia lost this and other captured territories by the Peace of Cardis. Russia agreed to surrender to Sweden all captured territories, it ordered all vessels constructed at Tsarevich-Dmitriev to be destroyed. Boyar Ordin-Nashchokin turned his attention to the Volga Caspian Sea. With the Tsar's approval, the boyar brought Dutch shipbuilding experts to the town of Dedinovo near the confluence of the Oka and Volga rivers. Shipbuilding commenced in the winter of 1667. Within two years, four vessels had been completed: one 22-gun galley, christened Орёл, three smaller ships. Орёл was Russia's first own European-designed sailing ship. It was captured in Astrakhan by rebellious Cossacks led by Stepan Razin; the Cossacks abandoned it, half-submerged, in an estuary of the Volga. During much of the 17th century, independent Russian merchants and Cossacks, using koch boats, sailed across the White Sea, exploring the rivers Lena and Indigirka, founding settlements in the region of the upper Amur.
The most celebrated Russian explorer was Semyon Dezhnev who, in 1648, sailed along the entire northern expanse of present-day Russia by way of the Arctic Ocean. Rounding the Chukotsk Peninsula, Dezhnev passed through the Bering Sea and sailed into the Pacific Ocean. Peter the Great established a modern Russian navy. During the Second Azov campaign of 1696 against Turkey, the Russians for the first time used 2 warships, 4 fireships, 23 galleys and 1300 strugs, built on the Voronezh River. After the occupation of the Azov fortress, the Boyar Duma looked into Peter's report of this military campaign, it passed a decree on October 1696 to commence construction of a navy. This date is considered the official founding of the Imperial Russian Navy. During the Great Northern War of 1700-1721, the Russians built the Baltic Fleet; the construction of the oared fleet took place in 1702-1704 at several shipyards. In order to defend the conquered coastline and attack enemy's maritime communications in the Baltic Sea, the Russians created a sailing fleet from ships built in Russia and others imported from abroad.
From 1703-1723, the main naval base of the Baltic Fleet was located in Saint Petersburg and in Kronstadt. Bases were created in Reval and in Vyborg after it was ceded by Sweden after Russo-Swedish War. Vladimirsky Prikaz was the first organization in charge of shipbuilding. On, these functions were transferred to the Admiralteyskiy Prikaz. In 1745 the Russian Navy had 130 sailing vessels, including 36 ships of the line, 9 frigates, 3 shnyavas, 5 bombardier ships, 77 auxiliary vessels; the oared fleet consisted of 396 vessels, including 253 galleys and semi-galleys and 143 brigantines. The ships were being constructed at 24 shipyards, including the ones in Voronezh, Pereyaslavl, Olonets and Astrakhan; the naval officers came from dvoryane (n
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
HMS Prince (1854)
HMS Prince was a Royal Navy storeship purchased in 1854 from mercantile owners and lost in a storm off Balaklava in November that year during the Crimean War. She was purchased from the General Screw Steam Shipping Company for £105,000 by Admiralty Order dated July 1854 and commissioned under Commander Benjamin Baynton, she sailed for the Crimea, carrying a cargo of much needed winter uniforms. The loss of the ship and its cargo caused a public outcry in Britain because of the severe winter conditions being endured by troops in unsuitable clothing, she was destroyed at a deep water anchorage outside Balaklava by a hurricane-force storm which tore her from her anchorage and dashed her onto rocks: she broke up within ten minutes and only six of her 150 crew were saved. Correspondent William Howard Russell considered her officers to have been negligent in losing her bower anchors. Commander Bayntoun, her commanding officer, perished in the wreck.29 other Allied transport ships were wrecked during the same storm.
The wreck was discovered off Balaklava in 2010 by a Ukrainian maritime archeological team led by Sergei Voronov, of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Winfield, R.. The Sail and Steam Navy List: All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815–1889. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-032-6
The Russo-Japanese War was fought during 1904-1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea and the Yellow Sea. Russia sought a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean for maritime trade. Vladivostok was operational only during the summer, whereas Port Arthur, a naval base in Liaodong Province leased to Russia by China, was operational all year. Since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Japan feared Russian encroachment on its plans to create a sphere of influence in Korea and Manchuria. Russia had demonstrated an expansionist policy in the Siberian Far East from the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century. Seeing Russia as a rival, Japan offered to recognize Russian dominance in Manchuria in exchange for recognition of Korea as being within the Japanese sphere of influence. Russia refused and demanded Korea north of the 39th parallel to be a neutral buffer zone between Russia and Japan.
The Japanese government perceived a Russian threat to its plans for expansion into Asia and chose to go to war. After negotiations broke down in 1904, the Japanese Navy opened hostilities by attacking the Russian Eastern Fleet at Port Arthur, China, in a surprise attack. Russia suffered multiple defeats by Japan, but Tsar Nicholas II was convinced that Russia would win and chose to remain engaged in the war. Russia ignored Japan's willingness early on to agree to an armistice and rejected the idea to bring the dispute to the Arbitration Court at The Hague; the war concluded with the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by US President Theodore Roosevelt. The complete victory of the Japanese military surprised world observers; the consequences transformed the balance of power in East Asia, resulting in a reassessment of Japan's recent entry onto the world stage. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an Asian power over a European one. Scholars continue to debate the historical significance of the war.
After the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the Meiji government endeavored to assimilate Western ideas, technological advances and ways of warfare. By the late 19th century, Japan had transformed itself into a modernized industrial state; the Japanese wanted to be recognized as equal with the Western powers. The Meiji Restoration had been intended to make Japan a modernized state, not a Westernized one, Japan was an imperialist power, looking towards overseas expansionism. In the years 1869–73, the Seikanron had bitterly divided the Japanese elite between one faction that wanted to conquer Korea vs. another that wanted to wait until Japan was more modernized before embarking on a war to conquer Korea. Worse, the Western Powers were conquering small pieces of China and China had dominated Korea with its military for centuries; the Japanese were doing what they could to emulate the West in every way possible, including conqering and occupying its neighbors. In much the same way that Europeans used the "backwardness" of African and Asian nations as a reason for why they had to conquer them, for the Japanese elite the "backwardness" of China and Korea was proof of the inferiority of those nations, thus giving the Japanese the "right" to conquer them.
Inouye Kaoru, the Foreign Minister, gave a speech in 1887 saying "What we must do is to transform our empire and our people, make the empire like the countries of Europe and our people like the peoples of Europe", going to say that the Chinese and Koreans had forfeited their right to be independent by not modernizing. Much of the pressure for an aggressive foreign policy in Japan came from below, with the advocates of "people's rights" movement calling for an elected parliament favoring an ultra-nationalist line that took it for granted the Japanese had the "right" to annex Korea, as the "people's right" movement was led by those who favored invading Korea in the years 1869–73; as part of the modernization process in Japan, Social Darwinian ideas about the "survival of the fittest" were common in Japan from the 1880s onward and many ordinary Japanese resented the heavy taxes imposed by the government to modernize Japan, demanding something tangible like an overseas colony as a reward for their sacrifices.
Furthermore, the educational system of Meiji Japan was meant to train the schoolboys to be soldiers when they grew up, as such, Japanese schools indoctrinated their students into Bushidō, the fierce code of the samurai. Having indoctrinated the younger generations into Bushidō, the Meiji elite found themselves faced with a people who clamored for war, regarded diplomacy as a weakness; the British Japanologist Richard Storry wrote the biggest misconception about Japan in the West was that the Japanese people were the "docile" instruments of the elite, when in fact much of the pressure for Japan's wars from 1894 to 1941 came from below, as ordinary people demanded a "tough" foreign policy, tended to engage in riots and assassination when foreign policy was perceived to be pusillanimous. Though the Meiji oligarchy refused to allow democracy, they did seek to appropriate some of the demands of the "people's rights" movement by allowing an elected Diet in 1890 (with limited powers and an equally
Balaklava is a former city on the Crimean Peninsula and part of the city of Sevastopol. It was a city in its own right until 1957 when it was formally incorporated into the municipal borders of Sevastopol by the Soviet government, it is an administrative center of Balaklava Raion that used to be part of the Crimean Oblast before it was transferred to Sevastopol Municipality. Population: 18,649. Balaklava has changed possession several times during its history. A settlement at its present location was founded under the name of Symbolon by the Ancient Greeks, for whom it was an important commercial city. During the Middle Ages, it was controlled by the Byzantine Empire and by the Genoese who conquered it in 1365; the Byzantines called the Genoese named it Cembalo. The Genoese built a large trading empire in both the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, buying slaves in Eastern Europe and shipping them to Egypt via the Crimea, a lucrative market hotly contested with by the Venetians; the ruins of a Genoese fortress positioned high on a clifftop above the entrance to the Balaklava Inlet are a popular tourist attraction and have become the stage for a Medieval festival.
The fortress is a subject of Mickiewicz's penultimate poem in his 1826 cycle of Crimean Sonnets. In 1475 Cembalo City was conquered by Turks and they rename it to Balyk-Yuva which subsequently became Balaklava. During the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774, the Russian troops invaded Crimea in 1771. Thirteen years Crimea was definitively annexed by the Russian Empire. After that, Crimean Tatar and Turkish population was forcefully replaced by Greek Orthodox people from the Archipelago. In 1787 the city was visited by Catherine the Great; the town became famous for the Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War thanks to the suicidal Charge of the Light Brigade, a British cavalry charge due to a misunderstanding sent up a valley held on three sides by the Russians, in which about 250 men were killed or wounded, over 400 horses lost reducing the size of the mounted brigade by two thirds and destroying some of the finest light cavalry in the world to no military purpose. The British poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson immortalized the battle in verse in his Charge of the Light Brigade.
The balaclava, a tight knitted garment covering the whole head and neck with holes for the eyes and mouth takes its name from this settlement, where soldiers first wore them. Numerous towns founded in English-speaking countries in parts of the 19th Century were named "Balaklava". During the Second World War, Balaklava was the southernmost point in the Soviet-German lines. In 1954 Balaklava, together with the whole Crimea, passed from Russia to Ukraine, it became part of the independent state of Ukraine in 1991. Today there are over 50 monuments in the town dedicated to the remembrance of military valour in past wars, including the Great Patriotic War, the Crimean War and the Russian Civil War. In 2014, following the Crimean crisis, along with the rest of the Crimea, was annexed by the Russian Federation. One of the monuments is an underground classified submarine base, operational until 1993; the base was said to be indestructible and designed to survive a direct atomic impact. During that period, Balaklava was one of the most secret residential areas in the Soviet Union.
The entire population of Balaklava at one time worked at the base. The base remained operational after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 until 1993 when the decommissioning process started; this process saw the removal of low-yield torpedoes. In 1996, the last Russian submarine left the base; the base has since been opened to the public as the Naval museum complex Balaklava. Cape Aya – a headland near Balaklava known for its scenic grottoes Great Storm of 1854 Hicks Withers-Lancashire Balaklava and the Sevastopol Inquiry, 1855, by Commander W. Gordon, R. N. Balaklava Photoalbum Genoese fortress in Balaklava Russian underground Submarine Base Englishrussia.com Russian underground Submarine Base Iconicarchive.ch Panorams of Balaklava Photos of underground Submarine Base