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EPR paradox

The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox is a thought experiment proposed by physicists Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, with which they argued that the description of physical reality provided by quantum mechanics was incomplete. In a 1935 paper titled "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be Considered Complete?", they argued for the existence of "elements of reality" that were not part of quantum theory, speculated that it should be possible to construct a theory containing them. Resolutions of the paradox have important implications for the interpretation of quantum mechanics; the thought experiment involves a pair of particles prepared in an entangled state. Einstein and Rosen pointed out that, in this state, if the position of the first particle were measured, the result of measuring the position of the second particle could be predicted. If, the momentum of the first particle were measured the result of measuring the momentum of the second particle could be predicted.

They argued that no action taken on the first particle could instantaneously affect the other, since this would involve information being transmitted faster than light, forbidden by the theory of relativity. They invoked a principle known as the "EPR criterion of reality", positing that, "If, without in any way disturbing a system, we can predict with certainty the value of a physical quantity there exists an element of reality corresponding to that quantity." From this, they inferred that the second particle must have a definite value of position and of momentum prior to either being measured. This contradicted the view associated with Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, according to which a quantum particle does not have a definite value of a property like momentum until the measurement takes place; the work was done at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1934, which Einstein had joined the prior year after he had fled Nazi Germany. The resulting paper was written by Podolsky, Einstein thought it did not reflect his own views.

The publication of the paper prompted a response by Niels Bohr, which he published in the same journal, in the same year, using the same title. This exchange was only one chapter in a prolonged debate between Bohr and Einstein about the fundamental nature of reality. Einstein struggled to the end of his life for a theory that could better comply with his idea of causality, protesting against the view that there exists no objective physical reality other than that, revealed through measurement interpreted in terms of quantum mechanical formalism. However, since Einstein's death, experiments analogous to the one described in the EPR paper have been carried out, starting in 1976 by French scientists Lamehi-Rachti and Mittig at the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre; these experiments appear vindicating Bohr. Most physicists who have examined the issue concur that experiments, such as those of Alain Aspect and his group, have confirmed that physical probabilities, as predicted by quantum theory, do exhibit the phenomena of Bell-inequality violations that are considered to invalidate EPR's preferred "local hidden-variables" type of explanation for the correlations to which EPR first drew attention.

The original paper purports to describe what must happen to "two systems I and II, which we permit to interact...", after some time, "we suppose that there is no longer any interaction between the two parts." As explained by Manjit Kumar, the EPR description involves "two particles, A and B, interact and move off in opposite directions." According to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, it is impossible to measure both the momentum and the position of particle B exactly. However, it is possible to measure the exact position of particle A. By calculation, with the exact position of particle A known, the exact position of particle B can be known. Alternatively, the exact momentum of particle A can be measured, so the exact momentum of particle B can be worked out. Kumar writes: "EPR argued that they had proved that... B can have exact values of position and momentum.... Particle B has a position, real and a momentum, real." EPR appeared to have contrived a means to establish the exact values of either the momentum or the position of B due to measurements made on particle A, without the slightest possibility of particle B being physically disturbed.

EPR tried to set up a paradox to question the range of true application of quantum mechanics: Quantum theory predicts that both values cannot be known for a particle, yet the EPR thought experiment purports to show that they must all have determinate values. The EPR paper says: "We are thus forced to conclude that the quantum-mechanical description of physical reality given by wave functions is not complete." The EPR paper ends by saying: While we have thus shown that the wave function does not provide a complete description of the physical reality, we left open the question of whether or not such a description exists. We believe, that such a theory is possible; the 1935 EPR paper condensed the philosophical discussion into a physical argument. The authors claim that given a specific experiment, in which the outcome of a measurement is known before the measurement takes place, there must exist something in the real world, an "element of reality", that determines the measurement outcome, they postulate that these elements of reality are, in modern terminology, local, in the sense that each belongs to a certain point in spacetime.

Each element may, again in modern terminology, only be influenced by events which

Nathaniel Platt Bailey

Nathaniel Platt Bailey was an American merchant and philanthropist. Bailey was born on June 1809 at Chateangay near Plattsburgh, New York, he was his second wife, Phoebe Bailey. His father's first wife was Hannah Hagaman, who died in 1798. Among his siblings was Phebe Altie Bailey, Theodorus Bailey, John William Bailey, Mary Elizabeth Bailey, his father was a pioneer settler and surveyor in Clinton and Franklin Counties who became a Judge. His paternal grandparents were Col. John Bailey, his uncle was Theodorus Bailey, a U. S. Representative and U. S. Senator from New York, his maternal grandparents were Phebe Platt and Capt. Nathaniel Platt. In 1824, Bailey came to New York and entered into business as a merchant, retiring when he was thirty-five years old, he was a Vestryman of Trinity Church served as a senior Governor of New York Hospital. Bailey owned 28 acres in the Bronx, part of what is now called West Fordham (formerly the site of Fort No. 6 during the Revolutionary War, extending from Fordham Road to Kingsbridge Road and from Bailey Avenue to University Avenue.

There, Bailey built a large mansion that overlooked the Harlem River, the New Jersey Palisades to the west. Upon his death, the estate was subdivided into streets and avenues and the bulk of the property became the grounds of the current U. S. Veterans Medical Center. Bailey was a member of the Union League Club, the Union Club, the Century Club and the Saint Nicholas Society of the City of New York, for which he served one term as president the 26th President in 1884, succeeding Abraham Riker Lawrence, he served as third vice-president in 1879, second vice-president in 1880 to 1881, first vice-president from 1882 to 1883. On July 26, 1836, Bailey was married to Eliza Meier Lorillard. Eliza was a daughter of Jacob Lorillard Jr. a wealthy leather merchant, a granddaughter of Jacob Lorillard. Her sister Emily Lorillard married Lewis G. Morris. Together, they were the parents of three children, including: Ann Mary Bailey, who married her second cousin, Theodorus Bailey Woolsey, a grandson of Theodorus Bailey.

Lorillard Bailey, a twin who died aged 21, unmarried. James Muhlenberg Bailey, a twin who married Alletta Remsen Lynch, a daughter of Edward Livingston Lynch and a descendant of Robert Livingston, first Lord of Livingston Manor, Robert R. Livingston of Clermont. Bailey died at his country residence in Fordham Heights in New York City on October 12, 1891. After a funeral at Trinity Chapel on West 25th Street, he was buried alongside his family in the Poughkeepsie Rural Cemetery in Poughkeepsie, New York. In 1899, his Bronx estate was sold to the Sisters of Charity for $290,000 and was used to operate the Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum. Through his son James, he was a grandfather of Alletta Nathalie Lorillard Bailey, an amateur architectural historian and photographer, who married Lewis Gouverneur Morris II in 1908. After Alletta's death, Morris remarried to widow of Prince Miguel, Duke of Viseu. Bailey is the namesake of a playground known as Bailey Playground and bounding Bailey Avenue in Kingsbridge, Bronx.

Nathaniel Platt Bailey at Find a Grave Portrait of Nathaniel Platt Bailey by Henry Inman, c. 1830, at the New-York Historical Society

Porkalathil Oru Poo

Porkalathil Oru Poo is a film based on the real life of Isaipriya, a television journalist raped and murdered by members of the Sri Lankan army during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War. The film has been banned by the Censor Board due to its controversial content and remains unreleased. Porkalathil Oru Poo was refused clearance and banned by the Censor Board of India after it was reviewed by its member S. Ve. Shekher on the grounds it would damage ties with Sri Lanka; the filmmakers have said. On 8 October 2016, Justice T. S. Sivagnanam of the Madras High Court upheld the decision of the Film Certificate Appellate Tribunal's denial for certification of the film, he added that Isaipriya's mother and sister opposed the release of the movie, fearing that it may affect their current life. The music for the film is composed by Ilaiyaraaja. Priya Subash Chandra Bose Nagineedu Porkalathil Oru Poo on IMDb

Keyes, Oklahoma

Keyes is a town in Cimarron County, United States. The population was 324 at the 2010 census. Keyes was established in 1925 by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway; the company named the town after a deceased railroad engineer. Keyes is located at 36°48′30″N 102°15′00″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.4 square miles, all land. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 324 people, 131 households, 88 families residing in the town. There were 234 housing units; the racial makeup of the town was 94.1% White, 0.6% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 2.8% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.2% of the population. There were 131 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.2% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.8% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.08. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 19.8% from 25 to 44, 26.5% from 45 to 64, 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.2 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.2 males. According to the 2013 American Community Survey, The median income for a household in the town was $36,827, the median income for a family was $62,639. Males had a median income of $36,750 versus $40,833 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,522. About 8.1% of families and 23.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 53.5% of those under age 18 and 0.0% of those age 65 or over. The town's location in the Hugoton Friedrich Basin makes it an ideal source for helium production from natural gas. A helium plant was built near Keyes in 1958. 169,000 million cubic feet of liquid helium is produced annually by the Keyes Helium Company

LRTA Class 2000

The LRTA Class 2000 is an electric multiple unit of the Light Rail Transit Authority in Manila, which began operation in 2003. It is used in Line 2; the trains were manufactured by Hyundai Rotem, the electric products were made by Toshiba. A total of 72 cars were built between 2002 and 2003. In 2017, the some train fleet was retrofitted with the Passenger Assist Railway Display System, a passenger information system powered by LCD screens installed near the ceiling of the train that shows news, current train location and station layouts; the trains run in 8 sets, with 8 trains being repaired/overhauled and 2 being repaired from a collision between Araneta Center-Cubao and Anonas Stations. The car body is made of stainless steel. Trains prominently use wrap advertising; the bogie is a bolsterless type, the axle length is 2.2 m, the bogie center length is 15.8 m. The primary suspension consists of a conical rubber suspension and the secondary suspension is a diaphragm air spring. Traction converter is IGBT-VVVF type, one inverter is installed in each one.

The traction motor is a 120 kW three-phase induction motor, the cooling method is self-ventilation type. Railway Systems-Project Record View http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/1000023377_01.pdf 導入実績:鉄道システム:東芝 http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/1000023375.pdf "Railway Systems-Project Record View"

Prom Meesawat

Prom Meesawat is a Thai professional golfer. He won his age group at the World Junior Golf Championships in 1997 and 2002 and was Asia Pacific Junior Champion several times, he won the Thailand Open Amateur Championship in 2001, 2002 and 2003 and was victorious in a professional tournament as a fifteen-year-old amateur. He joined the Asian Tour. In 2005 he won a professional event in Thai circuit, his first Asian Tour win came at the 2006 SK Telecom Open in South Korea. In 2012 a string of good results in Asian Tour events that were co-sanctioned with the European Tour earned Meesawat full playing rights on the European Tour for 2013. Prom returned to the Asian Tour full-time. In January 2019, Messawat qualified for the 2019 Open Championship with a top-4 finish at the SMBC Singapore Open. 1Co-sanctioned by the Korean Tour Asian Tour playoff record 1999 Singha Masters 2005 TPC Tour Championships 2006 Singha Pattaya Open 2011 Singha Pattaya Open 2012 Singha Pattaya Open 2019 Singha Thailand Masters European Tour playoff record Amateur Eisenhower Trophy: 2002 Bonallack Trophy: 2002 Professional Royal Trophy: 2007 World Cup: 2018 Amata Friendship Cup: 2018 Prom Meesawat at the Asian Tour official site Prom Meesawat at the Japan Golf Tour official site Prom Meesawat at the Official World Golf Ranking official site