MAN Truck & Bus
MAN Truck & Bus AG is the largest subsidiary of the MAN SE corporation, and one of the leading international providers of commercial vehicles. MAN Truck & Bus also produces diesel and natural-gas engines, the MAN acronym originally stood for Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg AG pronounced or ), formerly MAN AG. Trucks and buses of the product brand MAN and buses of the product brand Neoplan belong to the MAN Truck & Bus Group, on 1 January 2011, MAN Nutzfahrzeuge was renamed as MAN Truck & Bus to better reflect the companys products on the international market. From 1967 until 1977, MAN collaborated with Frances Saviem, selling their light to medium duty trucks with MAN badging in Germany, after the end of this, a deal was struck with Volkswagen which lasted until 1993. Production of a truck using the Volkswagen LT body started in 1979 and it was available with four engines and four wheelbases over its lifetime, there was also a 4X4 version called 8.150 FAE. FAE means forward control cab, all-wheel drive, single tyres so the F nomenclature means forward control cab and this series is usually referred to as the G90, from the most common model, but also as the G-series. In the United Kingdom it was marketed as the MAN MT series. The original lineup in the UK consisted of the 6.90 and the 8.90, several models of the MAN-VWCV and the VWCV LT ranges were marketed in Spain by Enasa as Pegaso Ekus, in a typical badge engineering operation. MAN-VWCVs were built in Volkswagens Hanover factory until other Volkswagen models took priority, MAN-VWCV Range 6.90,8.90,6.100,8.136,8.100,8.150,9.136,9.150 &10.136. F & FAE are sometimes on the end of some of these model numbers, the company is a part of the Shaanxi Automobile Group. Quezon City, Assembling of trucks and buses at MAN Truck and Bus Center assembly plant in Novaliches, HX LX / FX SX LE / L2000 ME / M2000 FE / F2000 CLA TGL, with hybrid trucks. TGM TGA TGX / TGS - variant of TGS model was used for Dakar Rally TGE - A Volkswagen Crafter With A MAN Badge
Middlewich is a town in the unitary authority of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It is 19.2 miles east of the city of Chester,2.9 miles east of Winsford,5.3 miles southeast of Northwich and 4.7 miles northwest of Sandbach, the population of the town at the 2011 Census was 13,595. Middlewich lies on the confluence of three rivers, the Dane, Croco and Wheelock, in 2014, it was rated one of the most attractive postcode areas to live in England. In the Domesday Book Middlewich is spelt Mildestvich, the termination wic or wyc in Old English refers to a settlement and it is also supposed that wich or wych refers to a salt town, with Middlewich being the middle town between Northwich and Nantwich. Middlewich was founded by the Romans, who gave it the name Salinae because of its salt deposits. It has been suggested that salt production also occurred in the same area. Whittakers History of Manchester claims that the Iron Age Cornovii made Kinderton their capital, there was once thought to have been a medieval castle at Kinderton, but that is now thought to have been unlikely. Middlewich lies across the King Street fault, which follows the Roman road, King Street. An excavation in 2004, in Buckleys Field, also uncovered signs of Roman occupation, Salt manufacture has remained the principal industry for the past 2,000 years, and it has shaped the towns history and geography. Before the Norman invasion of England in 1066, there is thought to have been one brine pit in Middlewich, in the Domesday Book the area is described as being wasted, having been cleared by King William around 1070 as an act of rage against his rebellious barons. Gilbert de Venables became the first Baron of Kinderton shortly after the Norman Conquest, a manor house was built to the east of the town and became the baronial seat of the Venables family. A Jacobean screen in the church of St Michael and All Angels has the carved Venables coat of arms, the title Baron of Kinderton is now vested in the Lord Vernon. The second Battle of Middlewich took place on 26 December 1643, the population of Middlewich rose during the 19th and 20th centuries. Some of this rise is attributable to a number of parishes being combined, for parts of Newton were added to Middlewich in 1894. In the middle of the 19th century Middlewich was described as a town with works being the surrounding farming district, a silk factory. In 1887 the town was described as having an appearance, with its principal trade being salt, along with fruit and vegetables. The town had one bank and one newspaper, by 1911 the Encyclopædia Britannica mentions the existence of chemical works and the manufacture of condensed milk. In common with the rest of the United Kingdom, Middlewichs young male population was decimated during the First World War
A truck is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, smaller varieties may be similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks and concrete mixers. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles. Trucks and cars have an ancestor, the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s, the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to very short hauls, usually from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine, later that year some of Benzs trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year later, in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler, other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing, also built their own versions. The first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors, trucks of the era mostly used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904,700 heavy trucks were built in the United States,1000 in 1907,6000 in 1910, after World War I, several advances were made, pneumatic tires replaced the previously common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes,4,6, and 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, the first modern semi-trailer trucks also appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market, although it had been invented in 1890, the diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, it took longer for diesel engines to be accepted. The word truck might come from a back-formation of truckle, meaning small wheel or pulley, from Middle English trokell, another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning iron hoop. In turn, both sources emanate from the Greek trokhos, meaning wheel, from trekhein, the first known usage of truck was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships cannon carriages. In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads and its expanded application to motor-powered load carrier has been in usage since 1930, shortened from motor truck, which dates back to 1901
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers, many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare, in many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular drivers licence. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Recently, interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, as of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is increasingly globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a form of the Latin word omnibus. The first horse-drawn omnibus service was started by a businessman named Stanislas Baudry in the French city of Nantes in 1823, Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname omnibus to the vehicle. The omnibus in Nantes was a success and Baudry moved to Paris, a similar service was introduced in London in 1829. The first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833, in parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus, typically fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an. arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus. The first such vehicle, the Electromote, was made by his brother Dr. Ernst Werner von Siemens and presented to the public in 1882 in Halensee, Germany. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the criteria of a typical trolleybus. Max Schiemann opened a trolleybus in 1901 near Dresden, in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system, in the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911, in Siegerland, Germany, two passenger bus lines ran briefly, but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno. Daimler also produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 kph and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air platform above. With the success and popularity of bus, Daimler expanded production, selling more buses to companies in London and, in 1899, to Stockholm
MAN SE, formerly MAN AG, is a German mechanical engineering company and parent company of the MAN Group. MAN SE is based in Munich and its primary output is for the automotive industry, particularly heavy trucks. Further activities include the production of engines for various applications, like marine propulsion. MAN supplies trucks, buses, diesel engines and turbomachinery, until September 2012 MAN SE was one of the top 30 companies listed on the German stock exchange. The company celebrated its 250th anniversary in 2008, in 2008, its 51,300 employees generated annual sales of around €15 billion in 120 different countries. The MAN Group currently operates its production output through three main subsidiaries, with each subsidiarys output destined for different locations, MAN Truck & Bus is one of Europes leading commercial vehicle manufacturers. MAN Diesel & Turbo is a leader in large diesel ship engines, stationary engines. MAN Latin America has a position in heavy trucks in Brazil. MAN traces its origins back to 1758, when the St. Antony ironworks commenced operation in Oberhausen, as the first heavy-industry enterprise in the Ruhr region. In 1808, the three ironworks St. Antony, Gute Hoffnung, and Neue Essen merged, to form the Hüttengewerkschaft und Handlung Jacobi, Oberhausen, which was later renamed Gute Hoffnungshütte. In 1840, the German engineer Ludwig Sander founded in Augsburg the first predecessing enterprise of MAN in Southern Germany, reichenbachsche Maschinenfabrik, which was named after the pioneer of printing machines Carl August Reichenbach, and later on the Maschinenfabrik Augsburg. The branch Süddeutsche Brückenbau A. G. was founded when the company in 1859 was awarded the contract for the construction of the bridge over the Rhine at Mainz. In 1898, the companies Maschinenbau-AG Nürnberg and Maschinenfabrik Augsburg AG merged to form Vereinigte Maschinenfabrik Augsburg und Maschinenbaugesellschaft Nürnberg A. G. Augsburg, in 1908, the company was renamed Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nürnberg AG, or in short, M·A·N. While the focus remained on ore mining and iron production in the Ruhr region. Under the direction of Heinrich von Buz, Maschinenfabrik Augsburg grew from a business of 400 employees into a major enterprise with a workforce of 12,000 by the year 1913. Locomotion, propulsion and steel building were the big topics of this phase, the early predecessors of MAN were responsible for numerous technological innovations. The success of the early MAN entrepreneurs and engineers like Heinrich Gottfried Gerber, was based on a great openness towards new technologies. They constructed the Wuppertal monorail and the first spectacular steel bridges like the Großhesseloher Brücke in Munich in 1857, during 1921, the majority of M. A. N. was taken over by the Gutehoffnungshütte Actienverein für Bergbau und Hüttenbetrieb, Sterkrade
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes one seller’s product from those of others. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising, however, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company from competitors, the key components that form a brands toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, and various branding strategies. Brand equity is the totality of a brands worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components. To reach such an invaluable brand prestige requires a commitment to a way of doing business. A corporation who exhibits a strong brand culture is dedicated on producing intangible outputs such as customer satisfaction, reduced price sensitivity and customer loyalty. A brand is in essence a promise to its customers that they can expect long-term security, when a customer is familiar with a brand or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Many companies are beginning to understand there is often little to differentiate between products in the 21st century. Branding remains the last bastion for differentiation, in accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset is often the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. The word ‘brand’ is often used as a referring to the company that is strongly identified with a brand. Marque or make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, a concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a associated with a commodity. The word, brand, derives from Dutch brand meaning to burn and this product was developed at Dhosi Hill, an extinct volcano in northern India. Roman glassmakers branded their works, with Ennion being the most prominent, the Italians used brands in the form of watermarks on paper in the 13th century. Blind Stamps, hallmarks, and silver-makers marks are all types of brand, industrialization moved the production of many household items, such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories. When shipping their items, the factories would literally brand their logo or insignia on the barrels used, Bass & Company, the British brewery, claims their red-triangle brand as the worlds first trademark. Another example comes from Antiche Fornaci Giorgi in Italy, which has stamped or carved its bricks with the same proto-logo since 1731, cattle-branding has been used since Ancient Egypt. The term, maverick, originally meaning an un-branded calf, came from a Texas pioneer rancher, Sam Maverick, use of the word maverick spread among cowboys and came to apply to unbranded calves found wandering alone
Edwin Foden, Sons & Co.
Foden Trucks was a British truck and bus manufacturing company which has its origins in Sandbach, Cheshire in 1856. PACCAR acquired the company in 1980, and ceased to use the name in 2006. In 1856 Edwin Foden became apprenticed to the agricultural equipment manufacturing company of Plant & Hancock and he left the company for an apprenticeship at Crewe Railway Works but returned to Plant & Hancock at the age of 19. Shortly afterwards he became a partner in the company, on the retirement of George Hancock in 1887 the company was renamed Edwin Foden Sons & Co. Ltd. The company produced industrial engines, as well as small stationary steam engines and, from 1880. Experimental steam lorries were first produced shortly after the turn of the 20th century, in 1878, the legislation affecting agricultural use was eased and as a result, Foden produced a successful range of agricultural traction engines. The perfecting of the traction engine in 1887 gave a significant marketing advantage. In 1896 the restrictions affecting road transport were eased, which permitted vehicles under 3 tons to travel at up to 12 mph without a red flag, the time was right and Foden produced a series of four prototype wagons. The experience gained from this, enabled Foden to build a 3-ton wagon for the War Office 1901 self-propelled lorry trial. This design was faster and more economical over the arduous road trials but was placed second overall as it was claimed that the Thornycroft entry had better off-road performance. Fodens wagon was nevertheless regarded by most commentators as a clear winner and this model was the basis for a highly successful line of vehicles which were produced over the next 30 years. By 1930, Edwins son, Edwin Richard, could see the lay in diesel power. George Faulkener, related to Dennis by marriage, became Works Manager and Ernest Sherratt, Edwin Richard Foden was persuaded to come out of retirement and head the new company which became known as ERF. Their first diesel vehicle was the Foden F1 introduced in 1931, the FD6 two-stroke engine, along with Gardner engines, was also fitted in Foden motorcoaches and buses. Bus and coach production ceased in 1956 but the last chassis only left the works in 1959 when it was registered 367CKA,1958 saw the introduction of lightweight glass-reinforced plastic used in cab production and this led to the manufacture of the first British-built, mass-produced tilting cab in 1962. The first Foden GRP cab was the distinctively-styled S21 model, the more traditional metal-and-wood S20 cab, introduced in 1956, was still fitted to many Foden lorries until at least 1963, after which it was just fitted to special vehicles until 1968. In 1964, a change in the Construction & Use Regulations favoured articulated vehicles over the older rigid designs, more than 75% of heavy chassis sold in Britain in the following years were tractor units. A massive new facility was developed in the early 1970s on a green field site
A traction engine is a self-propelled steam engine used to move heavy loads on roads, plough ground or to provide power at a chosen location. The name derives from the Latin tractus, meaning drawn, since the function of any traction engine is to draw a load behind it. They are sometimes called road locomotives to distinguish them from railway locomotives – that is, Traction engines tend to be large, robust and powerful, but heavy, slow, and difficult to manoeuvre. Nevertheless, they revolutionized agriculture and road haulage at a time when the alternative prime mover was the draught horse. They became popular in industrialised countries from around 1850, when the first self-propelled portable steam engines for use were developed. All types of engines have now been superseded, in commercial use. However, several examples have been preserved worldwide, many in working order. Steam fairs are held throughout the year in the United Kingdom, and in other countries, however, where soil conditions permitted, direct hauling of implements was preferred – in America, this led to the divergent development of the steam tractor. Limits of technical knowledge and manufacturing technology meant that practicable road vehicles, powered by steam, the alteration was made by fitting a long driving chain between the crankshaft and the rear axle. The first half of the 1860s was a period of great experimentation but by the end of the decade the standard form of the engine had evolved. Until the quality of roads improved there was demand for faster vehicles and engines were geared accordingly to cope with their use on rough roads. British companies such as Manns and Garrett developed potentially viable direct ploughing engines, however conditions were against them. These market conditions arose in the wake of the First World War when there was a glut of surplus equipment available as a result of British Government policy. Large numbers of Fowler ploughing engines had been constructed in order to increase the land under tillage during the war, road steam disappeared through restrictions and charges that drove up their operating costs. Through 1921, steam tractors had demonstrated clear economic advantages over horse power for heavy hauling, the tax was payable by all road hauliers in proportion to the axle load and was particularly restrictive on steam propulsion, which was heavier than its petrol equivalent. This was at a time of unemployment in the mining industry. The tax was devastating to the businesses of heavy hauliers and showmen, the last new UK-built traction engines were constructed during the 1930s, although many continued in commercial use for many years while there remained experienced enginemen available to drive them. From the 1950s, the movement started to build up as enthusiasts realised that traction engines were in danger of dying out
Sandbach is a market town and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. The civil parish contains four settlements, Sandbach itself, Elworth, Ettiley Heath, known as Sanbec in 1086, Sondbache in 1260, and Sandbitch in the 17th–18th centuries, Sandbach derives its name from the Anglo-Saxon sand bæce, which can mean sand stream or sand valley. Traces of settlement are found in Sandbach from Saxon times, when the town was called Sanbec, little is known about the town during this period, except that it was subjected to frequent Welsh and Danish raids. The towns inhabitants were converted to Christianity in the 7th century by four priests, Cedda, Adda, Betti, the town has an entry in the Domesday Book from 1086, at which time it was sufficiently large to need a priest and a church. The entry states, Sanbec, Bigot de Loges,1 hide and 1½ virgates pay tax. 1 Frenchman has ½ plough,3 slaves, by the 13th century, during the reign of King John, much of the land around the township of Sandbach was owned by Richard de Sandbach who was the High Sheriff of Cheshire in 1230. Richard de Sandbach specifically owned a manor, he claimed an interest in the living of Sandbach and this claim against Earl Randle de Blundeville was unsuccessful. His son, John, however, was more successful as he won an interest temporarily against the Abbot of Dieulacres. The manor in Sandbach passed through families, including the Leghs. It was eventually bought by Sir Randulph Crewe, who became the Lord of the Manor, the charter also allowed for right to establish a Court-leet and a Court of Pied-powder. The original charter is preserved, and can be found in Chester, a reproduction can be found in the Sandbach Town Council chamber. The charter also granted the town the right to two annual fairs, which lasted for two days, and were held around Easter and early September. The Thursday market is held outdoors on Scotch Common, and in. And about 1621 William Webb writes that Our ale here at Sandbach being no less famous than that of a true nappe, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, a Scottish army swept down into England before being forced to retreat at the Battle of Worcester. On 3 September 1651 Sandbach summer fair was being held, and a Scottish army of around 1,000 exhausted cavalry men passed through the town, this army had been under the command of David Leslie. The town was not a retreat route, however, as the people of Sandbach. This was the notable event of the Civil War to have happened in Sandbach. As the fair and the took place on the common of the town
David Brown Ltd.
David Brown Engineering Limited is an English engineering company, principally engaged in the manufacture of gears and gearboxes. Their major gear manufacturing plant is in Swan Lane, Lockwood, Huddersfield and it is named after the companys founder, David Brown, though it is more closely associated with his grandson, Sir David Brown. Founded in 1860 as a manufacturing company by 1873 David Brown had begun to concentrate on gear systems. The company moved in 1902 to Park Works at Huddersfield, where the firm is based today and its foundry makes steel and non-ferrous castings. Including motor vehicles, aircraft, ships as well as a range of British industry. In 1951 the Huddersfield and Tractor groups freehold land and buildings at Huddersfield, Penistone, another 260,000 square feet of floor space were held under lease. Gearing manufactured by David Brown Ltd. and powered by electric motors manufactured by Brook Crompton Motors, in 1913 they established a joint venture in America with Timken for Radicon worm drive units. By the end of World War I the workforce had increased from 200 to 1000 as they started building propulsion units for warships, by 1921 the company was the largest worm gear manufacturer in the world. In 1930 the company took over P. R. Jackson Ltd, another firm of gear manufacturers. Percys eldest son became managing director in 1931 following Percys death in June that year, W S Roe was appointed joint managing director with David but he died in April 1933. The firm formed another joint venture with Richardson Gears Ltd of Footscray. In 1934 the company moved into an old Silk Mill on a site at Meltham, Brown started building tractors with Harry Ferguson there in 1936. The first vehicle to use system was the Churchill tank, and it was subsequently used on the Centurion tank. Personally controlled since its inception by David Brown the first venture into tractor production was in a joint project with Harry Ferguson in 1936 building the Ferguson-Brown tractor. David Brown became one of the biggest British tractor manufactures in the post war period, with a manufacturing plant at Meltham. The company broke new ground which others were only to follow later, the Ferguson-Brown had a lot of innovative features, including the use of cast alloy for many the components, which was light but prone to damage. The Ferguson-Brown used a Coventry Climax engine for the first 350 tractors, Browns developed their own engine which was fitted to subsequent production. Total production was 1350 +1 built from parts in 1940 after production finished, Brown and Ferguson disagreed over tractor design details in the late 30s, which led David Brown to design his own version, the VAK1, in secret
A taxicab, also known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice, Taxicab is a compound word formed from contractions of taximeter and cabriolet. Taximeter is an adaptation of the German word taxameter, which was itself a variant of the earlier German word, taxe is a German word meaning tax, charge, or scale of charges. The Medieval Latin word, taxa, also means tax or charge, meter is from the Greek metron meaning measure. A cabriolet is a type of carriage, from the French word cabrioler, from Italian capriolare. Both instituted fast and reliable postal services across Europe, the taxicabs of Paris were equipped with the first meters beginning on March 9,1898. They were originally called taxamètres, then renamed taximètres on October 17,1904, horse-drawn for-hire hackney carriage services began operating in both Paris and London in the early 17th century. The first documented public hackney coach service for hire was in London in 1605, in 1625 carriages were made available for hire from innkeepers in London and the first taxi rank appeared on the Strand outside the Maypole Inn in 1636. In 1635 the Hackney Carriage Act was passed by Parliament to legalise horse-drawn carriages for hire, coaches were hired out by innkeepers to merchants and visitors. A further Ordinance for the Regulation of Hackney-Coachmen in London and the places adjacent was approved by Parliament in 1654, a similar service was started by Nicolas Sauvage in Paris in 1637. His vehicles were known as fiacres, as the vehicle depot apparently was opposite a shrine to Saint Fiacre. The hansom cab was designed and patented in 1834 by Joseph Hansom, Hansoms original design was modified by John Chapman and several others to improve its practicability, but retained Hansoms name. These soon replaced the hackney carriage as a vehicle for hire and they quickly spread to other cities in the United Kingdom, as well as continental European cities, particularly Paris, Berlin, and St Petersburg. The cab was introduced to other British Empire cities and to the United States during the late 19th century, being most commonly used in New York City. The first cab service in Toronto, The City, was established in 1837 by Thornton Blackburn, Electric battery-powered taxis became available at the end of the 19th century. Bersey designed a fleet of cabs and introduced them to the streets of London on 19 August 1897. They were soon nicknamed Hummingbirds’ due to the idiosyncratic humming noise they made, in the same year in New York City, the Samuels Electric Carriage and Wagon Company began running 12 electric hansom cabs. The company ran until 1898 with up to 62 cabs operating until it was reformed by its financiers to form the Electric Vehicle Company, the modern taximeter was invented and perfected by a trio of German inventors, Wilhelm Friedrich Nedler, Ferdinand Dencker and Friedrich Wilhelm Gustav Bruhn
This article covers from 1904 to 1987 when this business by then owned by Rolls-Royce plc was again listed on the Stock Exchange. For the present day owners of the business enterprise, see Rolls-Royce Holdings for aero-engines etc. Rolls-Royce Limited owned a British luxury-car and aero engine manufacturing business founded in 1904 by Charles Stewart Rolls, Rolls-Royce Limited was incorporated on 15 March 1906 as a vehicle for their ownership of their Rolls-Royce business. Their business quickly developed a reputation for superior engineering quality, best car in the world, Rolls-Royce became a leading manufacturer of piston aero-engines after it was brought into building them by the First World War. In the late 1960s, Rolls-Royce Limited became hopelessly crippled by its mismanagement of development of its advanced RB211 jet engine and the consequent cost over-runs. In 1971 their financial collapse was dealt with by sale, at a price which took years to negotiate, of the entire business to a new government-owned company. Insolvent Rolls-Royce Limited was put into liquidation, everything that could be sold off was sold off but more than 45 years later there are still assets remaining to be sold. Rolls-Royce Limited continued to trade and realise the surplus assets bought from the former company, in 1977 Rolls-Royce Limited, given the necessary consent, was re-named Rolls-Royce Limited. It remained nationalised until 1987 when, re-named Rolls-Royce plc, the government sold its shares to the public, today it owns and operates Rolls-Royces principal business though it is no longer listed on the stock exchange. Instead it has been a subsidiary of a holding company currently Rolls-Royce Holdings plc since 2003. A marketing survey in 1987 showed there was one brand name more widely known than Rolls-Royce. In 1884 Henry Royce started an electrical and mechanical business and he made his first car, a two-cylinder Royce 10, in his Manchester factory in 1904. Henry Royce was introduced to Charles Rolls at the Midland Hotel, Rolls was proprietor of an early motor car dealership, C. S. Rolls & Co. in Fulham. In spite of his preference for three- or four-cylinder cars, Rolls was impressed with the Royce 10, the first Rolls-Royce car, the Rolls-Royce 10 hp, was unveiled at the Paris Salon in December 1904. During 1906 Royce had been developing an improved model with more power than the Rolls-Royce 30 hp. Initially designated the 40/50 hp, this was Rolls-Royces first all-new model, the new 40/50 was responsible for Rolls-Royces early reputation with over 6,000 built. Its chassis was used as a basis for the first British armoured car used in world wars Aero-engine manufacture began in 1914 because the government requested it. After the First World War, Rolls-Royce successfully avoided attempts to encourage British car manufacturers to merge, faced with falling sales of the 40/50 Rolls-Royce introduced the smaller, cheaper Twenty in 1922, effectively ending the one-model policy followed since 1908