Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Turku School of Economics
Turku School of Economics is a unit of the University of Turku located in Turku, Finland. It was established as an independent higher education business school in 1950, until it was acquired by the state in 1977, it was the second largest school of its kind in Finland, with 2,000 graduate and 250 postgraduate students and a staff of 350. In January 2010, Turku School of Economics became the seventh faculty of the University of Turku, its former rector, Professor Tapio Reponen, is now a vice rector of the University of Turku. In addition to teaching a wide variety of economic and business related subjects, the faculty conducts research on matters relating to its field, offers consulting services to businesses. Teaching is carried out in Finnish, but there are a number of courses available in English; as a higher education institution, Turku School of Economics had been one of the most efficient universities in terms of masters per professor. Main departments Department of Management Management and Organization Information Systems Science Entrepreneurship Department of Accounting and Finance Accounting and Finance Department of Marketing and International Business Marketing International Business Economic Geography Economic Sociology Supply Chain Management Department of Economics Business Law Economics Quantitative Methods in EconomicsAuxiliary units Business Research and Development Centre Small Business Institute Pan-European Institute Innomarket Institute for Executive Education Media Group Institute for Competition Policy Studies Centre for Responsible Business Finland Futures Research centre Pori Unit Turku Centre for Computer Science Turku School of Economics
Université Laval is a French-language, public research university in Quebec City, Canada. The University was founded by royal charter issued by Queen Victoria in 1852, with roots in the founding of the Séminaire de Québec in 1663 by François de Montmorency-Laval, making it the oldest centre of higher education in Canada and the first North American institution to offer higher education in French; the university, whose campus was erected from the 1950s onward in the suburban borough of Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge, is ranked among the top ten Canadian universities in terms of research funding and holds four Canada Excellence Research Chairs. The university began as the Séminaire de Québec, founded in 1663 by François de Montmorency-Laval, a member of the House of Laval and the first Bishop of New France. During the French Regime the institution trained priests to serve in New France. After the Conquest of 1760, the British expanded education in Canada to include the liberal arts. French Canadians had at the time no opportunity to pursue higher education, Bishop Bourget of Montreal suggested expanding the Séminaire de Québec into Université Laval.
Louis Casault, a priest who taught physics at the Séminaire de Québec, went to Europe to seek a royal charter and study the best university systems there. The Séminaire de Québec was granted a royal charter on December 8, 1852, by Queen Victoria, at the request of Lord Elgin, creating Université Laval with "the rights and privileges of a university"; the charter was signed in 1852. Pope Benedict XV approved the plan and authorized the institution to establish chairs of theology and confer degrees. In 1878, the university opened a second campus in Montreal, which became the Université de Montréal on May 8, 1919, by a writ of Pope Benedict XV. In 1971, a second charter transferred all authority to the Université Laval council. By 1925, the university had outgrown its location; the Old City was crowded, making it difficult to add new buildings to the campus. The university moved to Sainte-Foy in the 1950s, which at the time was a semi-rural community west of the Quebec city centre; the School of Architecture returned to the old building in 1989.
Université Laval is governed by a board of a faculty senate. This structure was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906, which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters; the president, appointed by the board, was to serve as a link between the two bodies and lead the institution. In the early part of the 20th century, the need for higher education expanded beyond the classical fields of theology and medicine, the university introduced science and social-science departments such as forestry and household science. In addition, graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced."Laval", a waltz by French-Canadian ragtime composer, Wilfrid Beaudry, was dedicated to the students at Laval University and the University of Montreal.
The music for piano was published in Québec by J. Beaudry, circa 1906; the university opened its department of social and economic sciences in 1938, signalling a change of approach that continued into the 1960s, based on an idea of higher education as the key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and society. The royal charter that founded Université Laval in 1852 was designated a National Historic Event in 1972. After it was granted a university charter, several buildings were built in Old Quebec, including the School of Chemistry, the addition on Ste. Famille Street, the Mining School, the cafeteria building, all by architect Joseph Simeon Bergeron. However, the neighborhood was crowded and activities moved in nearby Sainte-Foy, more spacious. Today's campus covers 1.2 km2 and has over 30 buildings, including many iconic exemplars of modern architecture. Its earliest buildings and landscapes were designed by Edouard Fiset from the 1950s, of its lands, 56 percent are wooded areas and sports fields.
Pratically all buildings are linked by 10 km of underground walkways, which are useful in the winter and whose walls are covered by murals painted by student associations and student visitors over the years, as well as graffiti. The campus is home to the Roger-Van den Hende botanical garden which contains some 67 species of deciduous and coniferous trees and 60 different species of birds; the Louis-Jacques-Casault building hosts the regional branch of the National Archives of Quebec. The sport building is said to be the largest sport complex in eastern Canada, it is adjacent to the covered TELUS stadium. Apart from the school of architecture, located in Old Quebec since 1988, the only out of campus facilities are the school of visual arts in the downtown neighborhood of Saint-Roch's, the experimental Montmorency forest; as of 2002, Université Laval offered over 350 programs to more than 38,000 students. The university attracts more than 2,500 foreign students annually, has 1,000 students drawn from Canadian provinces outside of Quebec.
Many students come to the university for the Français pour non-francophones program that offers instruction in French as a second language to students from Canada and around the world
University of Liverpool
The University of Liverpool is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England. Founded as a college in 1881, it gained its royal charter in 1903 with the ability to award degrees and is known to be one of the six original'red brick' civic universities, it comprises three faculties organised into schools. It is a founding member of the Russell Group, the N8 Group for research collaboration and the university management school is AACSB accredited. Ten Nobel Prize winners are amongst its alumni and past faculty and the university offers more than 230 first degree courses across 103 subjects, its alumni include the CEOs of GlobalFoundries, ARM Holdings, Tesco and The Coca-Cola Company. It was the world's first university to establish departments in oceanography, civic design and biochemistry at the Johnston Laboratories. In 2006 the university became the first in the UK to establish an independent university in China, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, making it the world's first Sino-British university.
For 2017-18, Liverpool had a turnover of £543.9 million, including £95.6 million from research grants and contracts. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in England. Graduates of the university are styled with the post-nominal letters Lpool, to indicate the institution; the university has a strategic partnership with Laureate International Universities, a for-profit college collective, for University of Liverpool online. The partnership provides the technical infrastructure to deliver courses worldwide; the university was established in 1881 as University College Liverpool, admitting its first students in 1882. In 1884, it became part of the federal Victoria University. In 1894 Oliver Lodge, a professor at the university, made the world's first public radio transmission and two years took the first surgical X-ray in the United Kingdom; the Liverpool University Press was founded in 1899, making it the third oldest university press in England. Students in this period were awarded external degrees by the University of London.
Following a royal charter and act of Parliament in 1903, it became an independent university with the right to confer its own degrees called the University of Liverpool. The next few years saw major developments at the university, including Sir Charles Sherrington's discovery of the synapse and William Blair-Bell's work on chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer. In the 1930s to 1940s Sir James Chadwick and Sir Joseph Rotblat made major contributions to the development of the atomic bomb. From 1943 to 1966 Allan Downie, Professor of Bacteriology, was involved in the eradication of smallpox. In 1994 the university was a founding member of the Russell Group, a collaboration of twenty leading research-intensive universities, as well as a founding member of the N8 Group in 2004. In the 21st century physicists and technicians from the University of Liverpool were involved in the construction of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, working on two of the four detectors in the LHC. In 2004, Sylvan Learning known as Laureate International Universities, became the worldwide partner for University of Liverpool online.
The university has produced ten Nobel Prize winners, from the fields of science, medicine and peace. The Nobel laureates include the physician Sir Ronald Ross, physicist Charles Barkla, physicist Martin Lewis Perl, the physiologist Sir Charles Sherrington, physicist Sir James Chadwick, chemist Sir Robert Robinson, chemist Har Gobind Khorana, physiologist Rodney Porter, economist Ronald Coase and physicist Joseph Rotblat. Sir Ronald Ross was the first British Nobel laureate in 1902; the University is associated with Professors Ronald Finn and Sir Cyril Clarke who jointly won the Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award in 1980 and Sir David Weatherall who won the Lasker-Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science in 2010. These Lasker Awards are popularly known as America's Nobels. Over the 2013/2014 academic year, members of staff took part in numerous strikes after staff were offered a pay rise of 1% which unions equated to a 13% pay cut since 2008; the strikes were supported by both the university's Guild of Students and the National Union of Students.
Some students at the university supported the strike. The university is based around a single urban campus five minutes walk from Liverpool City Centre, at the top of Brownlow Hill and Mount Pleasant. Occupying 100 acres, it contains 192 non-residential buildings that house 69 lecture theatres, 114 teaching areas and research facilities; the main site is divided into three faculties: Life Sciences. The Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Ness Botanical Gardens are based on the Wirral Peninsula. There was a marine biology research station at Port Erin on the Isle of Man until it closed in 2006. Fifty-one residential buildings, on or near the campus, provide 3,385 rooms for students, on a catered or self-catering basis; the centrepiece of the campus remains the University's original red brick building, the Victoria Building. Opened in 1892, it has been restored as the Victoria Gallery and Museum, complete with cafe and activities for school visits Victoria Gallery and Museum, University of Liverpool.
In 2011 the university made a commitment to invest £660m into the'Student Experience', £250m of which will be spent on Student Accommodation. Announced so far have been two large On-Campus halls of residences (the first of which, Vine Court, opened September 2012, new Veterinary Science facilities, a £10m refurbishment of the Liverpool Guild of Students. New Central Teaching Laboratories for physics, earth sciences, chemistry an
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar
Alkmaar is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland. Alkmaar is well known for its traditional cheese market. For tourists, it is a popular cultural destination; the earliest mention of the name Alkmaar is in a 10th-century document. As the village grew into a town, it was granted city rights in 1254; the oldest part of Alkmaar lies on an ancient sand bank that afforded some protection from inundation during medieval times. So, it is only a couple of metres above the surrounding region, which consists of some of the oldest polders in existence. Older spellings include Alckmar. In 1573 the city underwent a siege by Spanish forces under the leadership of Don Fadrique, son of the Duke of Alva; the citizens sent urgent messages for help to the Prince of Orange. Some of his dispatches fell into the hands of Don Fadrique, with the waters beginning to rise, the Spaniards raised the siege and fled, it was a turning point in the Eighty Years War and gave rise to the expression Bij Alkmaar begint de victorie.
The event is still celebrated every year in Alkmaar on 8 October, the day. In 1799, during the French Revolutionary Wars, an Anglo-Russian expeditionary force captured the city but was defeated in the Battle of Castricum. After that battle, on 18 October 1799, the two opposing sides held the Convention of Alkmaar which met to determine the fate of the defeated Anglo-Russian force; the French victory was commemorated on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris as "Alkmaer". The North Holland Canal, opened in 1824, was dug through Alkmaar. In 1865 and 1867 the railways between Alkmaar and Den Helder and between Alkmaar and Haarlem were built respectively. In the second half of the 20th century, Alkmaar expanded with development of new neighbourhoods. On 1 October 1972, the town of Oudorp and the southern portions of Koedijk and Sint Pancras were added to the municipality of Alkmaar; the municipality of Alkmaar consists of the following cities, towns and districts: Alkmaar, Daalmeer, De Hoef, De Horn, De Nollen, Het Rak, Koedijk, Overdie and Omval.
On 1 January 2015 the municipalities of Graft-De Schermer were merged into Alkmaar. The historical village of De Rijp is thus since a part of Alkmaar; these once separate villages are now all linked together by the suburban sprawl of buildings that arose between the late 1970s and early 1990s. During this time, the population of Alkmaar doubled; the municipal council of Alkmaar consists of 39 seats, which are divided as follows after the 2018 elections: PvdA – 4 seats OPA – 6 seats CDA – 4 seats VVD – 6 seats GroenLinks – 6 seats Leefbaar Alkmaar – 2 seats D66 – 4 seats BAS – 2 seats Senior's Party of Alkmaar – 2 seats ChristenUnie - 1 seat Partij voor de Dieren - 2 seats The A9 motorway runs from Amsterdam to Alkmaar continues on to Den Helder as the N9. There are direct trains to Den Helder, Zaandam, Utrecht, Arnhem, Nijmegen,'s-Hertogenbosch, Eindhoven and Haarlem. For exact details see Alkmaar railway station. Alkmaar has two railway stations: Alkmaar Alkmaar NoordThe waterway Noordhollandsch Kanaal, which opened in 1824, runs through Alkmaar.
As of 2017. It can be crossed Koedijkervlotbrug and Rekervlotbrug. Alkmaar has many medieval buildings that are still intact, most notably the tall tower of the Grote of Sint-Laurenskerk, where many people from Alkmaar hold their wedding ceremony; the other main attraction in the summer months, is Alkmaar's cheese market at the Waagplein, one of the country's most popular tourist attractions. The cheese market traditionally takes place on the first Friday in April and the last market of the season is the first Friday in September; every Friday morning the Waagplein is the backdrop for this traditional cheese market. After the old-fashioned way of the hand clap and carriers will weigh the cheeses, it is one of only four traditional Dutch cheese markets still in existence. The traditional fare of this cheese market is those cheeses made in the local area, as opposed to the well-known brands of Dutch cheeses, including the Edam and Gouda cheeses, it is not possible to buy cheese at the market itself, only a demonstration of how this merchants' market operated in times gone by.
However, the demonstration, which takes place in front of the medieval weighing house, is surrounded by many specialized stalls where it is possible to buy all kinds of cheese related products. The Waag is home to the local tourist office and a cheese museum. Alkmaar has 399 registered rijksmonuments. Alkmaar has a big cinema. A red light district is situated at the Achterdam, Alkmaar has a nightlife scene as well which takes place in the pubs in front of the cheesemarket; every year, at the end of May Alkmaar hosts the four-day event Alkmaar Pride, which has a canal pride parade on Saturday. Beatles Museum – dedicated to The Beatles, as John Lennon's first guitar was made in Alkmaar Holland Cheese Museum – located in the historic weigh house National Beer Museum "De Boom" Op ArtMuseum City Museum Alkmaar – for history of the city Alkmaar is home to the professional football team AZ. In 2006, the club moved to a new 17,000 capacity stadium, the DSB Stadion, now named the AFAS St
A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. According to Kaplan business schools are "educational institutions that specialize in teaching courses and programs related to business and/or management"; such a school can be known as school of management, school of business administration, or colloquially b-school or biz school. A business school teaches topics such as accounting, strategy, entrepreneurship, human resource management, management science, management information systems, international business, marketing, organizational psychology, organizational behavior, public relations, research methods and real estate among others. There are several forms of business schools, including a school of business, business administration, management. Most of the university business schools consist of faculties, colleges, or departments within the university, predominantly teach business courses. In North America, a business school is understood to be a university program that offers a graduate Master of Business Administration degrees and/or undergraduate bachelor's degrees.
In Europe and Asia, some universities teach predominantly business courses. Owned business school, not affiliated with any university. Kaplan classifies business schools along four Corners: Culture: Independent of their actual location, business schools can be classified according to whether they follow the European or the US model. Compass: Business schools can be classified along a continuum, with international/ global schools on one end and regional/ local schools on the other. Capital: Business schools can either be publicly funded or funded, for example through endowments or tuition fees. Content: Business school can be classified according to whether a school considers teaching or research to be its primary focus. 1759 – The Aula do Comércio in Lisbon was the first institution to specialise in the teaching of accounting in the world. It provided a model for development of similar government-sponsored schools across Europe, closed in 1844. Therefore, the Aula do. 1819 -- The world's first business school, ESCP Europe was in France.
It is the oldest business school in the world and now has campuses in Berlin, Madrid, Paris and Warsaw. 1855 – The Institut Supérieur de Commerce d'Anvers and the Institut Saint-Ignace – École Spéciale de Commerce et d'Industrie were founded in the same year in the city of Antwerp, Belgium. After getting university status in 1965 and after 150 years of business education and rivalry between each other, both merged in 2003 into what became the University of Antwerp. 1857 – The world's first public business school, Budapest Business School was founded in Budapest in Austria-Hungary as the first business school in Central Europe. 1868 – The Ca' Foscari University was founded in Venice. It is one of the oldest in the world. 1871 – The Rouen Business School which has merged with Reims Management School under the name of NEOMA Business School. Rouen Business School is the second oldest French business school. 1871 – The ESC Le Havre was created. Created the same year than Rouen Business School it is the second oldest French business school.
1881 – The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania is the United States' first business school. HEC Paris was established by the Paris Chamber of Commerce. 1892 – The ESC Lille in northern France which has mergered with CERAM Business School under the name of Skema Business School since 2009. 1898 – On the west coast Haas School of Business is established as the College of Commerce of the University of California with Carl Copping Plehn as the Dean in 1898 and became the first public business school. The Booth School of Business The University of Chicago Booth School of Business traces its beginnings to 1898 when university faculty member James Laurence Laughlin chartered the College of Commerce and Politics. 1898 – Handelshochschule Leipzig, today Leipzig Graduate School of Management, was founded as the first Business School in Germany, so it is the oldest university teaching economics in German speaking regions. 1898 – The University of St. Gallen established the first university in Switzerland teaching business and economics.
1900 – The first graduate school of business in the United States, the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College, was founded. The school conferred the first advanced degree in business a Master of Science in Commercial Sciences, the predecessor to the MBA. 1902 – The Birmingham Business School of University of Birmingham is the United Kingdom's first business school. Established as the School of Commerce in Birmingham, United Kingdom. 1903 – The Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management of Université Libre de Bruxelles is the Belgium's first business school created by an entrepreneur Ernest Solvay, founder of the chemistry company Solvay. 1906 – The Department of Commerce was founded as part of McGill University in Montreal, Canada developing into the Desautels Faculty of Management. 1906 – The Warsaw School of Economics was established as the first university in Poland dedicated to teaching commerce and economics. 1907 – HEC Montréal is founded in Montreal, being the first Schoo