Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital
The Hôpital Necker – Enfants Malades is a French teaching hospital in central Paris. It is a hospital of the Assistance publique – Hôpitaux de Paris group and is affiliated to the University of Paris Descartes, it is the oldest paediatric hospital in the world. The Necker Hospital was founded in 1778 by Madame Necker, born Suzanne Curchod, mother of Madame de Stael and wife of Jacques Necker, minister of Louis XVI. Jacques Necker was a leader in the movement to reform crowded hospitals by building smaller treatment centers closer to the patients' neighborhoods. Madame Necker subsequently remodeled an old monastery into the hospital, which prior to the French Revolution was known as the Hospice de Charité, it was a Catholic institution where a baptism certificate and a confession were requirements for admission. Many poor parishioners would come to the hospital for their last rites before death. Hospitals at the time were seen as "gates to heaven" which were run by the Catholic Sisters of Charity, rather than the scientific institutions run by doctors they would become.
Male and female patients were kept separate from each other. Triage procedures, established all over Paris in 1802, systematically excluded pregnant women, the mentally ill, venereal patients. Patients were divided into four categories: fever, malignant fever and convalescent; the Hôpital des Enfants Malades, not to be confused with the foundling hospital, the Hôpital des Enfants Trouvés, was created by the Conseil général des Hospices in January 1801 to help manage the health and social structures of Paris. With the aim of reorganising the hospital, the Council proposed a new classification based on the common distinction between hospitals and special hospitals and announced the creation of a hospital "for the children of both sexes under the age of fifteen years"; the newly formed Hôpital des Enfants Malades opened in June 1802 on the site of the previous orphanage hospital Hôpital de l'Enfant Jésus. It was the first paediatric hospital in the Western world; the two physically contiguous hospitals were merged in 1920, but the Necker division continued to care for adults and Enfants malades for children.
In 1987, American artist, Keith Haring, created a mural named Tower, covering a stairwell of the hospital. He painted the mural while in Paris for the 10th anniversary exhibition of American artists at the Centre Pompidou; the stairwell became derelict over time and paint worn off and was condemned by hospital's administrators. However, it was conserved and restored in September 2017; the attached surgery center the stairwell had once attached to had been demolished and a new hospital building had been constructed. The mural now stands as centerpiece of the hospital gardens. French physician René Laennec invented the stethoscope in 1816 while he was working at the Hôpital Necker. Doctors placed their heads directly on their patient's chest and listened for any irregular sounds to aid in diagnosis, but when a large young woman came to the hospital, he realized that this method would be less effective given her size. Instead, he used a rolled up piece of paper to press against the patient's chest, which made the heartbeat much clearer than before.
Further experimentation yielded Laennec's famous hollow wooden tube, the forerunner of today's stethoscopes. His invention's ability to magnify the internal sounds of the body advanced the medical practice of auscultation, proved beneficial to the Hôpital Necker, which had a high fatality rate for Phthisis pulmonalis; this was because Laennec discovered with his stethoscope that patients who developed the disease first displayed a particular irregularity how their voices were manifested within their bodies, thus allowing patients to be diagnosed earlier. Among eminent physicians working at the Hôpital des Enfants Malades were Auguste Chaillou, Eugène Bouchut, Director Jacques-Joseph Grancher), Director Victor Henri Hutinel, Eugène Apert and Édouard Kirmisson. Great Ormond Street Hospital Official website http://www.necker.fr/
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology
Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, founded in 1978, had been a specialist school connected to the petrochemical system. After a development initiative over decades, it became a multi-disciplinary university with eleven colleges and departments. In 1978, a specialist school of petrochemical technology and its second branch was established in Beijing. In 1985, the school was incorporated into the largest oil company in China. In 1987, a new building was cornerstoned in the southest area of Beijing. In 1990, the headquarters of the school moved to Daxing. In 1992, the Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology was founded. In 2008, the BIPT celebrated its 30th anniversary, a special logo was designed for the grand celebration. Chemical Engineering College Mechanical Engineering College Information Engineering College School of Economics and Management School of Humanities and Social Sciences Material Science and Engineering Department Mathematics and Physics Department Foreign Languages Department Department of Physical Education Engineering Education Center International Education College Continuing Education College The Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology own a practice base in Yanshan Petrochemical Group, located in Fangshan District.
Students from chemical industry majors of BIPT come to the base every year for field work based in the factory. Students of other majors have a chance to visit the factory for one time during their college life; this is to strengthen their competence. The BIPT has established a long-term stable cooperative relationship with some overseas universities; some of the cooperated universities: University of the West of Scotland ESME Sudria ESIEE-AMIENS University of Duisburg-Essen Narvik University College Columbus State University St. Cloud State UniversityIn 2014, the BIPT will open a new Mastère en sciences course in partnership with ESME Sudria. Two separated campuses in Tsingyuan and Kangzhuang have long time been a bottleneck in the university’s evolvement, the opening of Line 4, Beijing Subway and the construction of Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway has galloped local real estate price and which made a further expansion harder than ever. A recent decision in spring 2011 will compel the Economic and Management College garrison in Kangzhuang campus along while other ten colleges move to Tsingyuan campus, but students and professors of E&M College have been complaining the poor conditions and dispossessed surroundings of Kangzhuang campus.
Official website Alumni Association
Biomedical Engineering or Medical Engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes. This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine, combining the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical biological sciences to advance health care treatment, including diagnosis and therapy. Included under the scope of a biomedical engineer is the management of current medical equipment within hospitals while adhering to relevant industry standards; this involves equipment recommendations, routine testing and preventative maintenance, through to decommissioning and disposal. This role is known as a Biomedical Equipment Technician or clinical engineering. Biomedical engineering has emerged as its own study, as compared to many other engineering fields; such an evolution is common as a new field transition from being an interdisciplinary specialization among already-established fields, to being considered a field in itself.
Much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development, spanning a broad array of subfields. Prominent biomedical engineering applications include the development of biocompatible prostheses, various diagnostic and therapeutic medical devices ranging from clinical equipment to micro-implants, common imaging equipment such as MRIs and EKG/ECGs, regenerative tissue growth, pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic biologicals. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data; as an interdisciplinary field of science, bioinformatics combines computer science, statistics and engineering to analyze and interpret biological data. Bioinformatics is considered both an umbrella term for the body of biological studies that use computer programming as part of their methodology, as well as a reference to specific analysis "pipelines" that are used in the field of genomics. Common uses of bioinformatics include the identification of candidate nucleotides.
Such identification is made with the aim of better understanding the genetic basis of disease, unique adaptations, desirable properties, or differences between populations. In a less formal way, bioinformatics tries to understand the organisational principles within nucleic acid and protein sequences. Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics. A biomaterial is any surface, or construct that interacts with living systems; as a science, biomaterials is about fifty years old. The study of biomaterials is called biomaterials science or biomaterials engineering, it has experienced steady and strong growth over its history, with many companies investing large amounts of money into the development of new products. Biomaterials science encompasses elements of medicine, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science. Biomedical optics refers to the interaction of biological tissue and light, how this can be exploited for sensing and treatment.
Tissue engineering, like genetic engineering, is a major segment of biotechnology – which overlaps with BME. One of the goals of tissue engineering is to create artificial organs for patients that need organ transplants. Biomedical engineers are researching methods of creating such organs. Researchers have grown solid tracheas from human stem cells towards this end. Several artificial urinary bladders have been grown in laboratories and transplanted into human patients. Bioartificial organs, which use both synthetic and biological component, are a focus area in research, such as with hepatic assist devices that use liver cells within an artificial bioreactor construct. Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct manipulation of an organism's genes. Unlike traditional breeding, an indirect method of genetic manipulation, genetic engineering utilizes modern tools such as molecular cloning and transformation to directly alter the structure and characteristics of target genes.
Genetic engineering techniques have found success in numerous applications. Some examples include the improvement of crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria, the manufacture of erythropoietin in hamster ovary cells, the production of new types of experimental mice such as the oncomouse for research. Neural engineering is a discipline that uses engineering techniques to understand, replace, or enhance neural systems. Neural engineers are uniquely qualified to solve design problems at the interface of living neural tissue and non-living constructs. Pharmaceutical engineering is an interdisciplinary science that includes drug engineering, novel drug delivery and targeting, pharmaceutical technology, unit operations of Chemical Engineering, Pharmaceutical Analysis, it may be deemed as a part of pharmacy due to its focus on the use of technology on chemical agents in providing better medicinal treatment. This is an broad category—essentially covering all health care products that do not achieve their intended results through predominantly chemical or biological means, do not involve metabolism.
A medical device is intended for
Nord-Pas-de-Calais (French pronunciation:, is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France, it consisted of the departments of Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel, the North Sea and Picardy; the majority of the region was once part of the historical Netherlands, but became part of France between 1477 and 1678 during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and Picardy; these provincial designations are still used by the inhabitants. With its 330.8 people per km2 on just over 12,414 km2, it is a densely populated region, having some 4.1 million inhabitants, 7% of France's total population, making it the fourth most populous region in the country, 83% of whom live in urban communities. Its administrative centre and largest city is Lille; the second largest city is Calais, which serves as a major continental economic/transportation hub with Dover of Great Britain 42 kilometres away.
Other major towns include Valenciennes, Douai, Béthune, Maubeuge, Arras and Saint-Omer. Numerous films, like Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis. Nord-Pas-de-Calais combines the names of the constituent departments of Pas-de-Calais; the regional council, spells the name Nord-Pas de Calais. The northern part of the region was a part of the County of Flanders, with Douai as its capital; those who wish to evidence the historical links the region has with Belgium and the Netherlands prefer to call this region the French Low Countries, which means French Netherlands in French. Other alternative names are Région Flandre-Artois, Hauts-de-France, Picardie-du-Nord. Inhabited since prehistoric times, the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region has always been a strategic region in Europe. French President Charles de Gaulle, born in Lille, called the region a "fatal avenue" through which invading armies passed. Over the centuries, it was conquered in turn by the Celtic Belgae, the Romans, the Germanic Franks, the Spanish and Austrian Netherlands, the Dutch Republic.
After the final French annexation in the early 18th century, much of the region was again occupied by Germany during the First and Second World Wars. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the Roman practice of co-opting Germanic tribes to provide military and defense services along the route from Boulogne to Cologne created a Germanic–Romance linguistic border in the region that persisted until the 8th century. By the 9th century, most inhabitants north of Lille spoke a dialect of Middle Dutch, while the inhabitants to the south spoke a variety of Romance dialects; this linguistic border is still evident today in the place names of the region. Beginning in the 9th century, the linguistic border began a steady move to the east. By the end of the 13th century, the linguistic border had shifted to the river Lys in the south and Cap-Griz-Nez in the west. During the Middle Ages, the Pas-de-Calais department comprised County of Boulogne and the County of Artois, while the Nord department was made up of the southern portions of the County of Flanders and the County of Hainaut.
Boulogne and Flanders were fiefs of the French crown, while Hainaut and after 1493 Flanders were within the Holy Roman Empire. Calais was an English possession from 1347 to 1558. In the 15th century, all of the territories, except Calais, were united under the rule of the Dukes of Burgundy, along with other territories in northern France and areas in what is now Belgium and the Netherlands. With the death of the Burgundian duke Charles the Bold in 1477, the Boulonnais and Artois were seized by the French crown, while Flanders and Hainaut were inherited by Charles's daughter Marie. Shortly thereafter, in 1492, Artois was ceded back to Marie's son Philip the Handsome, as part of an attempt to keep Philip's father, Emperor Maximilian I, neutral in French King Charles VIII's prospective invasion of Italy. Thus, most of the territories of what is now Nord-Pas-de-Calais were reunited to the Burgundian inheritance, which had passed through Marie's marriage to the House of Habsburg; these territories formed an integral part of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands as they were defined during the reign of Philip's son, Emperor Charles V, passed to Charles's son, Philip II of Spain.
During the Italian Wars much of the conflict between France and Spain occurred in the region. When the Netherlands revolted against Spanish rule, beginning in 1566, the territories in what is now Nord-Pas-de-Calais were those most loyal to the throne, proved the base from which the Duke of Parma was able to bring the whole southern part of the Netherlands back under Spanish control, it was a base for Spanish support of French Catholics in the French Wars of Religion. During the wars between France and Spain in the 17th century, these territories became the principal seat of conflict between the two states and French control over the area was established. Beginning with the annexation of Artois in 1659, most of the current Nord department territory had been acquired by the time of the Treaty of
ASTech Paris Région is a French cluster of aerospace engineering companies and research centres. It is in the region of Île-de-France in the middle of France and is concentrated in and around the city of Paris. There are over 500 companies, including EADS and Air France Industries. About 100,000 people work there in the space flight industries; the headquarters of ASTech is located in a town in Hauts-de-Seine department. The chairman of the cluster is Gérard Laruelle. Website of ASTech Paris Région