All Saints' Church, North Street, York
All Saints' Church is a Church of England parish church on North Street, North Yorkshire. The church is a Grade I listed building; the earliest part of the church is the nave dating from the 12th century. The arcades date from the 13th century and the east end was rebuilt in the 14th century, when the chancel chapels were added. An anchorite building was erected at the west end in the fifteenth century and a squint made through the wall so that Dame Emma Raughton could observe and hear the mass being said; this was rebuilt in 1910. The church was restored between 1866 and 1867 by JB and W Atkinson of York, which included the rebuilding of the south aisle wall, the addition of a porch and a vestry, half of the roof being replaced, new seating provided throughout, the pillars and walls scraped, a new organ provided The masonry work was done by Mr. Brumby of Skeldergate, the carpentry by Mr. Dennison, the plumbing and glazing by Messrs. Hodgson and the painting by Mr. Lee of Gillygate; the chancel ceiling and reredos were decorated by Mr. Knowles.
The chancel was laid with Minton tiles. The total cost of the restoration, including the new organ, was £1,500; the pulpit dates from 1675. The chancel screen was installed in 1906, designed by Edwin Ridsdale Tate, he rebuilt the anchorites house in 1910. The church was restored again in 1991 by the architect Peter Marshall; the church is noted as containing the finest collection of medieval glass in York dating from the early 14th century. The most famous is that depicting the Prick of Conscience dating from c. 1410. From the north aisle, the windows are A set of 15th century coats of arms The St Thomas window dating from c. 1410 The Corporal Acts of Mercy dating from c. 1410 The Prick of Conscience window dating from c. 1410 The Lady Chapel east window dating from c. 1330 The Chancel east window dating from c. 1410 The south aisle east window dating from c. 1350 The St Michael and St John window dating from c. 1430 The Nine Orders of Angels window dating from c. 1410 The St James window dating from c. 1410 John Etty Revd.
John Stoddart Joan Stoddart James Pennyman Joshua Witton. William Stockton Robert Colynson Thomas Clerk Thomas Askwith Charles Townley The pipe organ was built by Forster and Andrews and dates from 1867. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register
York Castle is a fortified complex in the city of York, England. It has comprised a sequence of castles, law courts and other buildings, which were built over the last nine centuries on the south side of the River Foss; the now-ruinous keep of the medieval Norman castle is referred to as Clifford's Tower. Built on the orders of William I to dominate the former Viking city of York, the castle suffered a tumultuous early history before developing into a major fortification with extensive water defences. After a major explosion in 1684 rendered the remaining military defences uninhabitable, York Castle continued to be used as a jail and prison until 1929; the first motte and bailey castle on the site was built in 1068 following the Norman conquest of York. After the destruction of the castle by rebels and a Viking army in 1069, York Castle was rebuilt and reinforced with extensive water defences, including a moat and an artificial lake. York Castle formed an important royal fortification in the north of England.
In 1190, 150 local Jews were killed in a pogrom in the castle keep. Henry III rebuilt the castle in stone in the middle of the 13th century, creating a keep with a unique quatrefoil design, supported by an outer bailey wall and a substantial gatehouse. During the Scottish wars between 1298 and 1338, York Castle was used as the centre of royal administration across England, as well as an important military base of operations. York Castle fell into disrepair by the 15th and 16th centuries, becoming used as a jail for both local felons and political prisoners. By the time of Elizabeth I the castle was estimated to have lost all of its military value but was maintained as a centre of royal authority in York; the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642 saw York Castle being repaired and refortified, playing a part in the Royalist defence of York in 1644 against Parliamentary forces. York Castle continued to be garrisoned until 1684, when an explosion destroyed the interior of Clifford's Tower; the castle bailey was redeveloped in a neoclassical style in the 18th century as a centre for county administration in Yorkshire, was used as a jail and debtors' prison.
Prison reform in the 19th century led to the creation of a new prison built in a Tudor Gothic style on the castle site in 1825. By the 20th century the ruin of Clifford's Tower had become a well-known tourist destination and national monument; the other remaining buildings serve as the Crown Court. York was a Viking capital in the 10th century, continued as an important northern city in the 11th century. In 1068, on William the Conqueror's first northern expedition after the Norman Conquest, he built a number of castles across the north-east of England, including one at York; this first castle at York was a basic wooden motte and bailey castle built between the rivers Ouse and Foss on the site of the present-day York Castle. It was built in haste; the motte was around 200 feet wide at the base. As it was built in an urban environment, hundreds of houses had to be destroyed to make way for the development. William Malet, the sheriff of Yorkshire, was placed in charge of the castle and defended it against an immediate uprising by the local population.
In response to the worsening security situation, William conducted his second northern campaign in 1069. He built another castle in York, on what is now Baile Hill on the west bank of the Ouse opposite the first castle, in an effort to improve his control over the city; this second castle was a motte and bailey design, with the Baile Hill motte reached by a horizontal bridge and steps cut up the side of the motte. That year, a Danish Viking fleet sailed up to York along the Humber and the Ouse, attacked both castles with the assistance of Cospatrick of Northumbria and a number of local rebels; the Normans, attempting to drive the rebels back, set fire to some of the city's houses. The fire grew out of control and set fire to York Minster and, some argue, the castles as well; the castles were captured and dismantled, Malet was taken hostage by the Danes. William conducted a widespread sequence of punitive operations across the north of England in the aftermath of the attacks in 1069 and 1070; this "Harrying of the North" restored sufficient order to allow the rebuilding of the two castles, again in wood.
The bailey at York Castle was enlarged in the process. By the time Domesday Book was written in 1086, York Castle was surrounded by a water-filled moat and a large artificial lake called the King's Pool, fed from the river Foss by a dam built for the purpose. More property, including two watermills, had to be destroyed to make way for the water defences. Over time the Baile Hill site was abandoned in favour of the first castle site, leaving only the motte, which still exists. Henry II visited York Castle four times during his reign; the royal chambers at the time were inside the keep for safety, Henry paid £15 for repairs to the keep. During his 1175 visit, Henry used the castle as the base for receiving the homage of William the Lion of Scotland. Castle mills were built close by to support the garrison, the military order of the Knights Templar was granted ownership of the mills in the mid-12th century; the m
Holy Trinity Church, Micklegate, York
Holy Trinity Church, York is a Grade I listed parish church in the Church of England in York. The church is in the building constructed for Micklegate Priory, York, a Benedictine foundation under Marmoutier Abbey; the church dates from the 12th century with additions in 14th centuries. The tower dates from 1453; the church was remodelled after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The south aisle was rebuilt during a restoration between 1850 and 1851 by W Atkinson of York; the body of the building was re-pewed, a new aisle, 10 feet wide and 60 feet was added on the south side, by opening the original arcades. The chancel and vestry were rebuilt between 1887 by Fisher and Hepper; the chancel was 38 feet long and 23 feet wide. It included a new organ chamber; the west front was reconstructed in 1902 to 1905 by Charles Hodgson Fowler. In 1953 the church was united with Micklegate. Dr. John Burton; the pipe organ is by Norman and Beard. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register.
Baring-Gould, Sabine. "The Ghost of Trinity Church, York". Yorkshire Oddities and Strange Events. London: Methuen. Pp. 1–21
The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic church – and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholics and the nascent Lutheran branch until the 1521 Edict of Worms; the edict condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, Girolamo Savonarola.
Due to the reform efforts of Huss and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, as were the including Lollards in England and Waldensians in Italy and France. Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible; the Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin rather than good works. Although this is considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by Molinist and Jansenist Catholics; the priesthood of all believers downplayed the need for saints or priests to serve as mediators, mandatory clerical celibacy was ended. Simul justus et peccator implied that although people could improve, no one could become good enough to earn forgiveness from God.
Sacramental theology was simplified and attempts at imposing Aristotelian epistemology were resisted. Luther and his followers did not see these theological developments as changes; the 1530 Augsburg Confession concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", after the Council of Trent, Martin Chemnitz published the 1565–73 Examination of the Council of Trent in order to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles. The initial movement in Germany diversified, other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zürich and Calvin in Geneva. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds, unfolded differently than in Germany; the spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions.
Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, sometimes employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon with the Unitarians of Transylvania. Anabaptist movements were persecuted following the German Peasants' War. Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted Waldensians. Central Europe was the site of much of the Thirty Years' War and there were continued expulsions of Protestants in central Europe up to the 19th century. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the Warsaw Pact countries, although some remain today.
Absence of Protestants however, does not imply a failure of the Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated and ended up worshipping in communions separate from Catholics contrary to the original intention of the Reformers, they were suppressed and persecuted in most of Europe at one point; as a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin who wanted them to live their faith openly. Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America; as a result Reformation impulses continued to affect the Latin Church well past the end of what is considered the Reformation era. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus in the early 15th century; as it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support.
Common factors that played a role during the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation included the rise of nationalism, the
York Museum Gardens
The York Museum Gardens are botanic gardens in the centre of York, beside the River Ouse. They cover an area of 10 acres of the former grounds of St Mary's Abbey, were created in the 1830s by the Yorkshire Philosophical Society along with the Yorkshire Museum which they contain; the gardens are managed by the York Museums Trust. They were designed in a gardenesque style by landscape architect Sir John Murray Naysmith, contain a variety of species of plants and birds. Admission is free. A variety of events take place in the gardens, such as open-air theatre performances and festival activities. There are several historic buildings in the gardens, they contain the remains of the west corner of the Roman fort of Eboracum, including the Multangular Tower and parts of the Roman walls. In the same area there is the Anglian Tower, built into the remains of a late Roman period fortress. During the Middle Ages, the tower was expanded and the Roman walls were incorporated into York's city walls. Most of the other buildings dating from the Middle Ages are associated with St Mary's Abbey, including the ruins of the abbey church, the Hospitium, the lodge and part of the surviving precinct wall.
The remains of St. Leonard's Hospital chapel and undercroft are on the east side of the gardens; the Yorkshire Philosophical Society constructed several buildings in the gardens during the 19th and early 20th century, including the Yorkshire Museum and its octagonal observatory. The museum houses four permanent collections, covering biology, geology and astronomy; the gardens, which were given to the Yorkshire Philosophical Society by the British Royal Family in 1828, occupy part of the former grounds of St. Mary's Abbey; the society acquired the land to build a museum to house its collections. The land was granted to the Yorkshire Philosophical Society under the condition that botanical gardens would be established on the site; these were created during the 1830s in a gardenesque style design by landscape architect Sir John Murray Naysmith. They contained a conservatory, a pond and a menagerie, destroyed when a bear escaped from it and had brief control of the area; the Princess Victoria visited the gardens in 1835, the year that they were first open to the public.
In 1854 the gardens were described as "one of the principal attractions of York". At this time entrance as free to members and for non-members entrance cost one shilling except on Saturday when it cost six pence. In 1960, the gardens and the Yorkshire Museum were given in trust to the City of York Council and they became a public park. Since 2002, they have been managed by the York Museums Trust, along with York Castle Museum and York Art Gallery; the gardens are maintained by the Askham Bryan College of Agriculture. York Museum Gardens cover an area of 10 acres on the north bank of the River Ouse, just outside the city walls in the centre of York. There are four entrances to the gardens: on Marygate by St Olave's Church, on Museum Street by Lendal Bridge, via a path at the side of King's Manor, from the riverside walk next to the River Ouse; the site slopes down towards the river and is made up of historical buildings and undulating lawns interspersed with plants and trees. The gardens are open to the public during daylight hours, so the opening and closing times vary throughout the year.
Admission is free but there are charges for some events. In 2010 it was estimated. Drinking alcohol and ball games are not allowed in the gardens. There are 4,500 plants and trees in the collection, some of the varieties native to England and some from other parts of the world. Planting consists of large beds containing predominantly shrubs and trees, lawns interspersed with individual trees. Species of tree include a monkey puzzle tree along with chestnut trees. There is a rockery next to the Marygate entrance, by the ruins of the abbey church, in front of the entrance to the Yorkshire Museum there is a terrace bordered with beds of white roses, the symbol of Yorkshire; the gardens are home to many species of birds. A 1970 report covering the period 1965-1969 listed the vertebrates resident in the gardens at that time: Common wood pigeon, Tawny owl, Blue tit, Eurasian Wren, European Robin, European greenfinch, Missel thrush, Song thrush and House sparrow, Common shrew, Wood mouse, Brown rat. In the early 19th century, the gardens included a menagerie.
Henry Baines' daughter, recalled 70 years that in this period the menageries contained a bead, a golden eagle, several monkeys, amongst other animals. In 1831, a bear from the menagerie got loose in the gardens and chased the Keeper of the Yorkshire Museum, John Phillips, Reverent Harcourt into an outbuilding; the bear was subsequently sent to London Zoo. Until 2006 a family of peacocks had been in residence for at least 70 years. In 2012 the gardens was one of the release sites for a new population of the endangered Tansy beetle and, as of 2015, is one of the best places to see them in the wild. There is a geological oddity close to the main gates, consisting of a large boulder of pink granite, discovered during construction of the city's railway station. Since this type of stone is not local it was determined as having been transported there from Shap in Cumbria by glacial action during the last ice age. In 2015, to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the publication of the geological map of Britain
An anchorite or anchoret is someone who, for religious reasons, withdraws from secular society so as to be able to lead an intensely prayer-oriented, ascetic, or Eucharist-focused life. Whilst anchorites are considered to be a type of religious hermit, unlike hermits they were required to take a vow of stability of place, opting instead for permanent enclosure in cells attached to churches. Unlike hermits, anchorites were subject to a religious rite of consecration that resembled the funeral rite, following which they would be considered dead to the world, a type of living saint. Anchorites had a certain autonomy, as they did not answer to any ecclesiastical authority other than the bishop; the anchoritic life is one of the earliest forms of Christian monasticism. In the Catholic Church today, it is one of the "Other Forms of Consecrated Life" and governed by the same norms as the consecrated eremitic life. In England, the earliest recorded anchorites existed in the 11th century, their highest number—around 200 anchorites—were recorded in the 13th century.
From the 12th to the 16th centuries, female anchorites outnumbered their male counterparts, sometimes by as many as four to one, dropping to two to one. The sex of a high number of anchorites, however, is not recorded for these periods; the anchoritic life became widespread during the high Middle Ages. Examples of the dwellings of anchorites and anchoresses survive, a large number of which are in England, they tended to be a simple cell, built against one of the walls of the local village church. In Germanic-speaking areas, from at least the 10th century, it was customary for the bishop to say The Office of the Dead as the anchorite entered his cell, to signify the anchorite's death to the world and rebirth to a spiritual life of solitary communion with God and the angels. Sometimes, if the anchorite were walled up inside the cell, the bishop would put his seal upon the wall to stamp it with his authority; some anchorites, however moved between their cell and the adjoining church. Most anchoritic strongholds were small no more than 3.7 to 4.6 m square, with three windows.
Viewing the altar, hearing Mass, receiving the Eucharist was possible through one small, shuttered window in the common wall facing the sanctuary, called a "hagioscope" or "squint". Anchorites provided spiritual advice and counsel to visitors through this window, gaining a reputation for wisdom. Another small window allowed access to those. A third window facing the street but covered with translucent cloth, allowed light into the cell. Anchorites committed to a life of uncompromising enclosure; those who attempted to escape were returned by force and their souls damned to Hell. Some were burned in their cells, which they refused to leave when pirates or looters were pillaging their towns, they ate frugal meals, spending their days both in contemplative prayer and interceding on behalf of others. Their bodily waste was managed by means of a chamber pot; some anchorholds attached gardens. Servants tended to their basic needs, removing waste. Julian of Norwich, for example, is known to have had several maidservants, among them Sara and Alice.
Aelred of Rievaulx, who wrote De Institutione—the "Rule" for anchoresses—suggested having two maids: an older, sober woman and a younger one. In addition to being the physical location wherein the anchorite could embark on the journey towards union with God, the anchorhold provided a spiritual and geographic focus for people from the wider society who came to ask for advice and spiritual guidance. Although set apart from the community at large by stone walls and specific spiritual precepts, the anchorite lay at the centre of the community; the anchorhold has been called a communal'womb' from which would emerge an idealized sense of a community's own reborn potential, both as Christians and as human subjects. An idea of their daily routine can be gleaned from an anchoritic rule; the most known today is the early 13th century text known as Ancrene Wisse. Another, less known, example is the rule known as De Institutione Inclusarum written in the 12th century, around 1160–62, by Aelred of Rievaulx for his sister.
It is estimated that the daily set devotions detailed in Ancrene Wisse would take some four hours, on top of which anchoresses would listen to services in the church and engage in their own private prayers and devotional reading. Richard Rolle, an English hermit and mystic, wrote one of the most influential guide books regarding the life of an anchoress, his book, The Form of Living, was addressed to a young anchoress named Margaret Kirkby, responsible for preserving his texts. Her connection to the town of Hampole has been associated with Rolle. Rolle’s book is based on the principles of mysticism and divided into twelve chapters: Chapter One: Rolle discusses the three weaknesses of humans: "lack of spiritual vigor, putting bodily desires into practice exchanging a permanent good for a transitory pleasure." Chapter Two: Rolle tells Mary that while her body may be sacrificing, her heart and soul will feel the ultimate pleasure of religious devotion. Chapter Three: Public display of piety does not promise holiness, but people who "follow Jesus Christ in voluntary poverty, in humility, in love and
Reinforced concrete is a composite material in which concrete's low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is though not steel reinforcing bars and is embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may be permanently stressed, so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning. For a strong and durable construction the reinforcement needs to have the following properties at least: High relative strength High toleration of tensile strain Good bond to the concrete, irrespective of pH, similar factors Thermal compatibility, not causing unacceptable stresses in response to changing temperatures.
Durability in the concrete environment, irrespective of corrosion or sustained stress for example. François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete as a technique for constructing building structures. In 1853, Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four-story house at 72 rue Charles Michels in the suburbs of Paris. Coignet's descriptions of reinforcing concrete suggests that he did not do it for means of adding strength to the concrete but for keeping walls in monolithic construction from overturning. In 1854, English builder William B. Wilkinson reinforced the concrete roof and floors in the two-storey house he was constructing, his positioning of the reinforcement demonstrated that, unlike his predecessors, he had knowledge of tensile stresses. Joseph Monier was a French gardener of the nineteenth century, a pioneer in the development of structural and reinforced concrete when dissatified with existing materials available for making durable flowerpots, he was granted a patent for reinforced flowerpots by means of mixing a wire mesh to a mortar shell.
In 1877, Monier was granted another patent for a more advanced technique of reinforcing concrete columns and girders with iron rods placed in a grid pattern. Though Monier undoubtedly knew reinforcing concrete would improve its inner cohesion, it is less known if he knew how much reinforcing improved concrete's tensile strength. Before 1877 the use of concrete construction, though dating back to the Roman Empire, having been reintroduced in the early 1800s, was not yet a proven scientific technology. American New Yorker Thaddeus Hyatt published a report titled An Account of Some Experiments with Portland-Cement-Concrete Combined with Iron as a Building Material, with Reference to Economy of Metal in Construction and for Security against Fire in the Making of Roofs and Walking Surfaces where he reported his experiments on the behavior of reinforced concrete, his work played a major role in the evolution of concrete construction as a proven and studied science. Without Hyatt's work, more dangerous trial and error methods would have been depended on for the advancement in the technology.
Ernest L. Ransome was an English-born engineer and early innovator of the reinforced concrete techniques in the end of the 19th century. With the knowledge of reinforced concrete developed during the previous 50 years, Ransome innovated nearly all styles and techniques of the previous known inventors of reinforced concrete. Ransome's key innovation was to twist the reinforcing steel bar improving bonding with the concrete. Gaining increasing fame from his concrete constructed buildings, Ransome was able to build two of the first reinforced concrete bridges in North America. One of the first concrete buildings constructed in the United States, was a private home, designed by William Ward in 1871; the home was designed to be fireproof for his wife. G. A. Wayss was a pioneer of the iron and steel concrete construction. In 1879, Wayss bought the German rights to Monier's patents and in 1884, he started the first commercial use for reinforced concrete in his firm Wayss & Freytag. Up until the 1890s, Wayss and his firm contributed to the advancement of Monier's system of reinforcing and established it as a well-developed scientific technology.
One of the first skyscrapers made with reinforced concrete was the 16-story Ingalls Building in Cincinnati, constructed in 1904. The first reinforced concrete building in Southern California was the Laughlin Annex in Downtown Los Angeles, constructed in 1905. In 1906, 16 building permits were issued for reinforced concrete buildings in the City of Los Angeles, including the Temple Auditorium and 8-story Hayward Hotel. On April 18, 1906 a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck San Francisco. The strong ground shaking and subsequent fire killed thousands; the use of reinforced concrete after the earthquake was promoted within the U. S. construction industry due to its non-combustibility and perceived superior seismic performance relative to masonry. In 1906, a partial collapse of the Bixby Hotel in Long Beach killed 10 workers during construction when shoring was removed prematurely; this event spurred a scrutiny of concrete erection practices and building inspections. The structure was constructed of reinforced concrete frames with hollow clay tile ribbed flooring and hollow clay