Paella is a Valencian rice dish that has ancient roots but its modern form originated in the mid-19th century in the area around Albufera lagoon on the east coast of Spain adjacent to the city of Valencia. Many non-Spaniards view paella as Spain's national dish, but most Spaniards consider it to be a regional Valencian dish. Valencians, in turn, regard paella as one of their identifying symbols. Types of paella include Valencian paella, vegetable paella, seafood paella, mixed paella, among many others. Valencian paella is believed to be the original recipe and consists of white rice, green beans, garrofó, sometimes snails, seasoning such as saffron and rosemary. Artichoke hearts and stems are used as seasonal ingredients. Seafood paella omits beans and green vegetables. Mixed paella is a free-style combination of meat from land animals, seafood and sometimes beans. Most paella chefs use bomba rice due to it being less to overcook, but Valencians tend to use a stickier variety known as Senia. All types of paellas use olive oil.
Paella is a Valencian word which derives from the Old French word paelle for pan, which in turn comes from the Latin word patella for pan. The word paella is related to paila used in many Latin American countries. Paila in the Spanish language of Latin America refers to a variety of cookware resembling metal and clay pans, which are used for both cooking and serving; the Latin root patella from which paella derives is akin to the modern French poêle, the Italian padella and the Old Spanish padilla. Valencians use the word paella for all pans in the Valencian language, including the specialized shallow pan used for cooking paellas. However, in most other parts of Spain and throughout Hispanic America where the Spanish language is spoken, the term paellera is more used for the specialised pan while paella is reserved for the rice dish prepared in it, although both terms are deemed correct for the pan, as stated by the Royal Spanish Academy, the body responsible for regulating the Spanish language in Spain.
Paelleras are traditionally round and made of polished steel with two handles. Some claim that the word paella comes from the Arabic بَقيَّة, pronounced baqiyyah, meaning "leftovers"; this claim is based on the 8th-century custom in which Moorish kings' servants would take home the rice and vegetables their employers left at the end of the meal. However, this etymology is impossible because paella didn't appear until six centuries after Moorish Valencia was conquered by Jaume I. Moors in Muslim Spain began rice cultivation around the 10th century. Valencians made casseroles of rice and spices for family gatherings and religious feasts, thus establishing the custom of eating rice in Spain; this led to rice becoming a staple by the 15th century. Afterwards, it became customary for cooks to combine rice with vegetables and dry cod, providing an acceptable meal for Lent. Along Spain's eastern coast, rice was predominantly eaten with fish. Spanish food historian Lourdes March notes that the dish "symbolizes the union and heritage of two important cultures, the Roman, which gives us the utensil and the Arab which brought us the basic food of humanity for centuries."
On special occasions, 18th century Valencians used calderos to cook rice in the open air of their orchards near lake Albufera. Water vole meat was one of the main ingredients of early paellas, along with butter beans. Novelist Vicente Blasco Ibáñez described the Valencian custom of eating water voles in Cañas y Barro, a realistic novel about life among the fishermen and peasants near lake Albufera. Living standards rose with the sociological changes of the late 19th century in Spain, giving rise to gatherings and outings in the countryside; this led to a change in paella's ingredients, as well, using instead rabbit, chicken and sometimes snails. This dish became so popular that in 1840, a local Spanish newspaper first used the word paella to refer to the recipe rather than the pan; the most used, complete ingredient list of this era was: short-grain white rice, rabbit, duck, butter beans, great northern beans, runner beans, tomatoes, fresh rosemary, sweet paprika, garlic, olive oil, water. Poorer Valencians, sometimes used nothing more than snails for meat.
Valencians insist. On the Mediterranean coast, Valencians used seafood instead of meat and beans to make paella. Valencians regard this recipe as authentic, as well. In this recipe, the seafood is served in the shell. A variant on this is paella del senyoret. However, Spaniards living outside of Valencia combined seafood with meat from land animals and mixed paella was born; this paella is sometimes called preparación barroca due to the variety of ingredients and its final presentation. During the 20th century, paella's popularity spread past Spain's borders; as other cultures set out to make paella, the dish invariably acquired regional influences. Paella recipes went from being simple to including a wide variety of seafood, sausage and many different seasonings. However, the most globally popular recipe is seafood paella. Throughout non-Va
Busturialdea named Busturialde - Urdaibai is a comarca of the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, Spain. It is the heir of "Busturia", one of the original merindades that used to compose the province of Biscay, which should not be confused with Busturia, a municipality located in this region. Busturialdea has two capital cities, it is one of the seven comarcas. Busturia used to be one of the merindades of Biscay and included a larger territory than the current one of Busturialdea, as it reached the province of Gipuzkoa. Busturialdea was the core of Biscay: the capitals of the province and Gernika, were located in it. Busturialdea and its lush estuary was important in prehistory. Significative is its site of Santimamiñe cave, that yielded a full sequence of human habitation from Neanderthals to the Iron Age, beautiful Magdalenian cave paintings. Bermeo Gernika-Lumo Busturialdea is located at the north of the province of Biscay, limiting with the comarcas of Lea-Artibai on the east and Greater Bilbao on the west and Durangaldea on the south.
The Bay of Biscay limits at north. The comarca is located along the Urdaibai estuary, named Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1984
Barakaldo is a municipality located in the Biscay province in the Basque Country. Located on the Left Bank of the Estuary of Bilbao, the city is part of Greater Bilbao with a population as of the 2011 census at 100,061. Barakaldo has an industrial river-port heritage and has undergone significant redevelopment with new commercial and residential areas replacing the once active industrial zones; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica original entry on the town stated: "Pop.: 15,013. Few Spanish towns have developed more than Baracaldo, which nearly doubled its population between 1880 and 1900. During this period many immigrant labourers settled here; the low flat country round Baracaldo is covered with maize, pod fruit and vines". Iron mining formed a large part of Barakaldo's industry; the steel industry, led by Altos Hornos de Vizcaya, had an important presence during the 20th century, until the industrial recession hit the region's economy in the 1980s. In recent decades, the industrial zones surrounding Barakaldo have become less prominent, which can be owed to the shuttering of large companies such as Babcock & Wilcox.
Although several factories remain, areas that were once industrial have been redeveloped into residential properties such as malls and parks. A large exhibition centre; the Bilbao Exhibition Centre has been built on the outskirts of the town. Barakaldo is connected to the rest of the Greater Bilbao metropolitan area by Line 2 of the Metro Bilbao. Four stations are in the city: Gurutzeta/Cruces, Ansio and Bagatza); the Cercanías Bilbao train line has two stations in Barakaldo. BizkaiBus company provides a bus service, with connections to the rest of Biscay. Locally, an urban bus system named. A tram line has been proposed to connect local districts; the main motorway is the A-8 motorway, which goes between Bilbao. It serves as the rest of Spain. A boat ferry service connects Barakaldo to the other side of the Estuary of Bilbao in Erandio. Barakaldo is located 15 kilometres from Bilbao Airport. Population peaked in the 1990s to over 100,300; the decline of local industry decreased the population, in 2002, 95,000 people lived in Barakaldo.
However, a recent increase has sent the population to 100,502 residents. Tourists visit sites in Barakaldo such as the Botanic Garden, the Bilbao Exhibition Centre, the medieval Bridge of Castrexana, some of the city's street sculptures. In July, the town celebrates "Las Fiestas del Carmen," which includes open-air concerts and large fairs. Barakaldo is represented by the Barakaldo Club de Fútbol in Spain's Segunda División B, they play home games at the Estadio Nuevo Lasesarre. A second team, SD Retuerto Sport, plays in Tercera División. Local league teams include Gurutzeta KFT, UD Burtzeña, Pauldarrak FKT, Zuazo C. F. and S. C. D. Dosa-Salesianos. Handball has played a part in Barakaldo's tradition. Now, two teams are present in competitions: Club Balonmano Zuazo Femenino, playing in División de Honor Femenina de Balonmano, Club Balonmano Barakaldo who plays in the Liga ASOBAL. Bizkaia Arena is an indoor arena with a capacity of 18,640, it hosted some games of the 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup. Asier del Horno, footballer Carlos Sobera, actor David López, cyclist Iñaki Lafuente, footballer Javier Clemente, football manager Javier González Gómez, footballer Javier Otxoa, cyclist Josep Lluís Núñez, president of FC Barcelona between 1978 and 2000 Unai Expósito, footballer Antonio Iturmendi Bañales, politician Barakaldo D.
F. A Mägo de Oz concert DVD filmed in Barakaldo Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Baracaldo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. P. 379. Www.i-barakaldo.com La comunidad virtual de Barakaldo Official website BARAKALDO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Bilbao is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015; the Bilbao metropolitan area has 1 million inhabitants, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain. Bilbao is the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region. Bilbao is situated in the north-central part of Spain, some 16 kilometres south of the Bay of Biscay, where the economic social development is located, where the estuary of Bilbao is formed, its main urban core is surrounded by two small mountain ranges with an average elevation of 400 metres. Its climate is shaped by the Bay of Biscay low-pressure systems and mild air, moderating summer temperatures by Iberian standards, with low sunshine and high rainfall; the annual temperature range is low for its latitude. After its foundation in the early 14th century by Diego López V de Haro, head of the powerful Haro family, Bilbao was a commercial hub of the Basque Country that enjoyed significant importance in Green Spain.
This was due to its port activity based on the export of iron extracted from the Biscayan quarries. Throughout the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, Bilbao experienced heavy industrialisation, making it the centre of the second-most industrialised region of Spain, behind Barcelona. At the same time an extraordinary population explosion prompted the annexation of several adjacent municipalities. Nowadays, Bilbao is a vigorous service city, experiencing an ongoing social and aesthetic revitalisation process, started by the iconic Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, continued by infrastructure investments, such as the airport terminal, the rapid transit system, the tram line, the Azkuna Zentroa, the under development Abandoibarra and Zorrozaurre renewal projects. Bilbao is home to football club Athletic Club de Bilbao, a significant symbol for Basque nationalism due to its promotion of only Basque players and one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football history. On 19 May 2010, the city of Bilbao was recognised with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, awarded by the city state of Singapore, in collaboration with the Swedish Nobel Academy.
Considered the Nobel Prize for urbanism, it was handed out on 29 June 2010. On 7 January 2013, its mayor, Iñaki Azkuna, received the 2012 World Mayor Prize awarded every two years by the British foundation The City Mayors Foundation, in recognition of the urban transformation experienced by the Biscayan capital since the 1990s. On 8 November 2017, Bilbao was chosen the Best European City 2018 at The Urbanism Awards 2018, awarded by the international organisation The Academy of Urbanism; the official name of the town is Bilbao, as known in most languages of the world. Euskaltzaindia, the official regulatory institution of the Basque language, has agreed that between the two possible names existing in Basque and Bilbo, the historical name is Bilbo, while Bilbao is the official name. Although the term Bilbo does not appear in old documents, in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor by William Shakespeare, there is a reference to swords made of Biscayan iron which he calls "bilboes", suggesting that it is a word used since at least the sixteenth century.
There is no consensus among historians about the origin of the name. Accepted accounts state that prior to the 12th century the independent rulers of the territory, named Senores de Zubialdea, were known as Senores de Bilbao la Vieja; the symbols of their patrimony are the church used in the shield of Bilbao to this day. One possible origin was suggested by the engineer Evaristo de Churruca, he said. For Bilbao this would be the result of the union of the Basque words for river and cove: Bil-Ibaia-Bao; the historian José Tussel Gómez argues that it is just a natural evolution of the Spanish words bello vado, beautiful river crossing. On the other hand, according to the writer Esteban Calle Iturrino, the name derives from the two settlements that existed on both banks of the estuary, rather than from the estuary itself; the first, where the present Casco Viejo is located, would be called billa, which means stacking in Basque, after the configuration of the buildings. The second, on the left bank, where now Bilbao La Vieja is located, would be called vaho, Spanish for mist or steam.
From the union of these two derives the name Bilbao, written as Bilvao and Biluao, as documented in its municipal charter. An -ao ending is present in nearby Sestao and Ugao, that could be explained from Basque aho, "mouth"; the demonym is "bilbaíno, -a", although the popular pronunciation bilbaino/a is frequent. In euskera it is bilbotar, sometimes used in Spanish within the Basque Country; the village is affectionately known by its inhabitants as «the botxo», that is, «the hole», since it is surrounded by mountains. The nickname "botxero" is derived from this nickname. Another nickname that Bilbao receives is that of "chimbos", which comes from birds that were hunted in large numbers in these places during the XIX century; the titles, the flag and the coat of arms are Bilbao's traditional symbols and belong to its historic patrimony, being used in formal acts, for the identification and decoration of specific places or for the validation of documents. TitlesBilbao holds the historic category of borough, with the titles of "Very noble and loyal and unbeaten" ("Mu
Ignatius of Loyola
Saint Ignatius of Loyola was a Spanish Basque Catholic priest and theologian, who co-founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus and became its first Superior General at Paris in 1541. The Jesuit order served the Pope as missionaries, they were bound by a vow of special obedience to the sovereign pontiff in regard to the missions, they therefore emerged as an important force during the time of the Counter-Reformation. Ignatius is remembered as a talented spiritual director, he recorded his method in a celebrated treatise called the Spiritual Exercises, a simple set of meditations and other mental exercises, first published in 1548. Ignatius was beatified in 1609, canonized, receiving the title of Saint on 12 March 1622, his feast day is celebrated on 31 July. He is the patron saint of the Basque provinces of Gipuzkoa and Biscay as well as the Society of Jesus, was declared patron saint of all spiritual retreats by Pope Pius XI in 1922. Ignatius is a foremost patron saint of soldiers.
Íñigo López de Loyola was born in the municipality of Azpeitia at the castle of Loyola in today's Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Spain. He was baptized Íñigo, after St. Enecus Abbot of Oña, a Basque medieval, affectionate name meaning "My little one", it is not clear when he began using the Latin name "Ignatius" instead of his baptismal name "Íñigo". It seems he did not intend to change his name, but rather adopted a name which he believed was a simple variant of his own, for use in France and Italy where it was better understood.Íñigo was the youngest of thirteen children. His mother died soon after his birth, he was brought up by María de Garín, the local blacksmith's wife. Íñigo adopted the surname "de Loyola" in reference to the Basque village of Loyola where he was born. As a boy Íñigo became a page in the service of a relative, Juan Velázquez de Cuéllar, treasurer of the kingdom of Castile; as a young man Íñigo had a great love for military exercises as well as a tremendous desire for fame. He framed his life around the stories of El Cid, the knights of Camelot, the Song of Roland.
He joined the army at seventeen, according to one biographer, he strutted about "with his cape slinging open to reveal his tight-fitting hose and boots. According to another he was "a fancy dresser, an expert dancer, a womanizer, sensitive to insult, a rough punkish swordsman who used his privileged status to escape prosecution for violent crimes committed with his priest brother at carnival time." Upon encountering a Moor who denied the divinity of Jesus, he challenged him to a duel to the death, ran him through with his sword. He dueled many other men as well. In 1509, at the age of 18, Íñigo took up arms for 2nd Duke of Nájera, his diplomacy and leadership qualities earned him the title "servant of the court", which made him useful to the Duke. Under the Duke's leadership, Íñigo participated in many battles without injury, but at the Battle of Pamplona in 1521 he was gravely injured when a French-Navarrese expedition force stormed the fortress of Pamplona on 20 May 1521. A cannonball hit him in the legs, fracturing the left in multiple places.
Íñigo was returned to his father's castle in Loyola, where, in an era that knew nothing of anesthetics, he underwent several surgical operations to repair his legs, having the bones set and rebroken. In the end these operations left one leg shorter than the other: Íñigo would limp for the rest of his life, his military career was over. While recovering from surgery, Íñigo underwent a spiritual conversion which led to his experiencing a call to religious life. Hospitals in those days were run by religious orders, the reading material available to bedridden patients tended to be selected from scripture or devotional literature; this is how Íñigo came to read a series of religious texts on the life of Jesus and on the lives of the saints, since the "romances of chivalry" he loved to read were not available to him in the castle. The religious work which most struck him was the De Vita Christi of Ludolph of Saxony; this book would influence his whole life, inspiring him to devote himself to God and follow the example of Francis of Assisi and other great monks.
It inspired his method of meditation, since Ludolph proposes that the reader place himself mentally at the scene of the Gospel story, visualising the crib at the Nativity, etc. This type of meditation, known as Simple Contemplation, was the basis for the method that St. Ignatius would promote in his Spiritual Exercises. Aside from dreaming about imitating the saints in his readings, Íñigo was still wandering off in his mind about what "he would do in service to his king and in honor of the royal lady he was in love with". Cautiously he came to realize the after-effect of both kinds of his dreams, he experienced a desolation and dissatisfaction when the romantic heroism dream was over, the saintly dream ended with much joy and peace. It was the first time. After he had recovered sufficiently to walk again, Íñigo resolved to begin a pilgrimage to the Holy Land to "kiss the earth where our Lord had walked", to do stricter penances, he thought that his plan was confirmed by a vision of the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus he experienced one night, which resulted in much consolation to him.
In March 1522, he visited the Benedictine monastery of Santa Maria de Montserrat. There, he examined his past sins, gave his fine clothes to the poor he met, wore a "garment o
Basque rural sports
Basque rural sports, known as Deportes Rurales in Spanish or Herri Kirolak in Basque, is the term used for a number of sports competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyles of the Basque people. The term force basque is used in French. All regional Basque rural sports have their origin in the two main historical occupations, the or baserritarra and arrantzalea, with a larger percentage hailing from the rural background; the sociological changes in the Basque Country have led many of these becoming technically obsolete in the 19th and 20th century. Few continue to exist as rural or marine activities connected to everyday life and have become rare but many have managed to transform themselves into popular sports instead, some of which have become popular. Winners receive a Basque beret as a trophy, hence the Basque word for "champion" - txapeldun "one who has a beret". Betting, both by the competitors and the audience, is common and popular at such sporting events in the north of Spain. In 2006 the Basque Government identified 18 particular rural sports, called H18K, in its Strategic Plan for promotion.
These 18 categories are: Literally "axe test", this rural sport more known as aizkolaritza, from the Basque word for a wood-cutter. This is a popular sport today but its origins are to be found in the rural wood cutting and charcoal burning communities of earlier periods. In this competition, the wood cutter has to chop through a number of tree trunks arranged on the ground in rows as as possible while standing on the log to beat his competitors; this sport is seen in summer at local festivities and open-air dances, held in towns all over the country. This sport translates as Human-animal tests and is a collective term for a number of sports in which humans and animals are involved in dragging heavy weights. There are four main categories: Giza probak where people attempt to drag a heavy weight a large rock, across a certain distance Zaldi probak - same as giza probak but with horses Idi probak - same as giza probak but with oxen Asto probak - same as giza probak but with donkeysThese take place on specially built trial grounds.
The aim is to cover as many circuits as possible. The idi probak are by far the most popular in this category; the lifting of stones is one of the most known Basque rural sport outside the Basque Country thanks to the prowess of Iñaki Perurena, a harrijasotzaile from Leitza, in Navarre, the first on record to lift stone over 300 kg. There are two stone-lifters competing in each event, taking turns in one or several attempts, to perform the greatest possible number of lifts. A lift is considered complete; the four types of stone most used are rectangular, cylindrical and square and were established at the beginning of the 20th century. The stones are traditionally made of granite, their weight ranging from 100 kg to 212 kg. Together with aizkolaritza, stone lifting is another example a performed rural sport at local festivities all over the Basque Country; the hole drilling competition involves having to grind holes into a rock. Teams of three compete against each other, they take turns in using a long metal pole to punch and drill a hole into a large rock upon which they are standing, pouring water onto the working area while the third person gets to rest.
This tradition goes back to the quarrying activities around the Basque Country, in particular in Biscay. In Spanish it is called barrenadores "drillers" and barrenatzaileak in Basque as well; the lifting of anvils requires competitors to lift an iron anvil or ingude weighing 18 kg 30 cm above the height of their own head as many times as possible in a set time period. The anvil has the shape of an obtuse triangle with a stump at one point or an elongated T and is traditionally used in shoeing horses. Champions manage some 80 lifts in 2 minutes. In Spanish this is called alzamiento de yunque and in French lever d'enclume. Hay bale lifting, this sport involves raising a hay-bale with the aid of a pulley; the competition is about lifting the bale as as possible within a given period of time, most 2 minutes. The bale weighs 30 kg in the women's competition; the most difficult part is to get the bale to the required height for the first time. Once, achieved, the competitors allow the bale to drop in free fall, grabbing the rope and jumping up at the appropriate moment to use their own body weight to lift the bale again when coming down.
A lot of skill is needed to avoid rope burn. The visual appearance is not dissimilar to swinging on a church bell rope. In Spanish this is called levantamiento de fardo and in French lever de paille. Hay bale tossing is related to lasto altxatzea. Here the hay-bales have to be thrown over a bar set a certain height with the help of a pitchfork. For men the height is 7m, for women 5m and the bale has to hit a bell for the toss to be valid; this sport is similar to the Scottish sheaf toss. In Spanish this is called lanzamiento de fardo. In cob gathering competitions called buskail biltzea, cobs are placed at 1.25m distances in a line, 25 in a line at the most. The game can be played to 50, 75 or 100 cobs in which case they are placed in sets of 2, 3 or 4; the competitors have to collect these in order and place them into a basket at one end of the row of cobs. It is called recogida de mazorcas in Spanish an