The River Forth is a major river, 47 km long, whose drainage basin covers much of Stirlingshire in Scotland's Central Belt. The Gaelic name is Abhainn Dubh, meaning "black river", in the upper reach above Stirling. Below the tidal reach, its name is Uisge For; the Forth rises in a mountainous area 30 km west of Stirling. Ben Lomond's eastern slopes drain into the Duchray Water which meets with Avondhu River coming from Loch Ard; the confluence of these two streams is the nominal start of the River Forth. From there it flows eastward, through Aberfoyle, joining with the Kelty Water, about 5 km further downstream; the flat expanse of the Carse of Stirling follows including Flanders Moss. It is joined by the River Teith just west of the M9, the next tributary being the Allan Water just east of that motorway. From there it meanders into the ancient port of Stirling. At Stirling the river widens, becomes tidal, it is here that the last ford of the river exists. From Stirling, the Forth flows east accepting the Bannock Burn from the south before passing the town of Fallin.
Two towns of Clackmannanshire are passed: firstly Cambus followed by Alloa. Upon reaching Airth on the south shore and Kincardine on the north, the river begins to widen and becomes the Firth of Forth; the banks have many settlements including Aberfoyle, Stirling, Cambus, Alloa, South Alloa, Dunmore and Kincardine. Beyond this the brackish water is considered the Firth of Forth. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Stirling harbour was a busy port, with goods coming into Scotland and being exported to Europe. Links with the Hansa towns were strong, Stirling had a close relationship with Bruges in Belgium and Veere in the Netherlands. After 1707 much of the trade shifted to the port of Glasgow, as trade with America became the new focus. During the First and Second World Wars, Stirling harbour thrived again as a gateway for supplies of tea to Scotland. Trade returned after the wars but the few agricultural merchants based at Stirling found such shipping uncompetitive due to high shore dues levied by the harbour’s owners.
Today Stirling's harbour is not used but there are plans to redevelop it. Upstream of Stirling, the river is crossed in numerous places. After its confluence with the Teith and Allan, the river is sufficiently wide that a significant bridge is required. A bridge has existed at Stirling since at least the 13th century, until the opening of the road crossing at Kincardine in 1936, Stirling remained the easternmost road crossing; the Alloa Swing Bridge, a railway bridge between Alloa on the north shore and Throsk on the south opened in 1885 and was closed in 1970. Only the metal piers remain; the Clackmannanshire Bridge just upstream of the Kincardine Bridge opened on 19 November 2008. Much further downstream joining North Queensferry and South Queensferry is the famous Forth Bridge opened in 1890, the Forth Road Bridge which opened in 1964. In 2011 construction began on the Queensferry Crossing, to the west of the Forth Road Bridge, which opened on 4 September 2017. Two islands known as inches form part of the meandering estuarine waters downstream from Stirling.
Tullibody Inch near Cambus and Alloa Inch near Alloa are both small and uninhabited. River Forth, a silent black and white short film - includes scenes of animals being herded through the streets. Britain's Lost Routes with Griff Rhys Jones Episode 3 shows the difficulties cattle drovers might have encountered at Frew, shows aerial shots and taking cows across the Auld Brig. Sruth gu Sal - a look at the Forth river Episode 1 -25 mins 400 kV Forth Crossing List of rivers of Scotland Rivers and Fisheries Trusts of Scotland Forth, the name of one of the sea areas of the British Shipping Forecast. Scottish Parliament: Forth Crossing Bill Committee Report, March 2010 River Forth Crossing: House of Commons debates 18 May 2009 British Waterways: River Forth Gazetteer for Scotland: River Forth SCRAN image: Steam dredger, River forth, late 19th Century Stirling Council: River Forth Forth Ports PLC Scottish Environment Protection Agency: River level data for River Forth Forth Estuary Forum, a Scottish Charity Forth District Salmon Fishery Board River Forth Fisheries Trust Forth Bridges Visitor Centre Trust FYCA Alloa Swing Bridge RIVER FORTH FORTH - POWERHOUSE FOR INDUSTRY
Bernicia was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern Scotland and North East England. The Anglian territory of Bernicia was equivalent to the modern English counties of Northumberland and Durham, the Scottish counties of Berwickshire and East Lothian, stretching from the Forth to the Tees. In the early 7th century, it merged with its southern neighbour, Deira, to form the kingdom of Northumbria and its borders subsequently expanded considerably. Bernicia occurs in Old Welsh poetry as Bryneich or Brynaich and in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, as Berneich or Birneich; this was most the name of the native Brittonic kingdom, whose name was adopted by the Anglian settlers who rendered it in Old English as Bernice or Beornice. The counter hypothesis suggesting these names represent a Brythonic adaption of an earlier English form is considered less probable. Local linguistic evidence suggests continued political activity in the area before the arrival of the Angles.
Important Anglian centres in Bernicia bear names of British origin, or are known by British names elsewhere: Bamburgh is called Din Guaire in the Historia Brittonum. Analysis of a potential derivation has not produced a consensus; the most cited etymology gives the meaning as "Land of the Mountain Passes" or "Land of the Gaps". An earlier derivation from the tribal name of the Brigantes has been dismissed as linguistically unsound. In 1997 John T. Koch suggested the conflation of a probable primary form *Bernech with the native form *Brïγent for the old civitas Brigantum as a result of Anglian expansion in that territory during the 7th century; the Brythonic kingdom of the area was formed from what had once been the southern lands of the Votadini as part of the division of a supposed'great northern realm' of Coel Hen in c. AD 420; this northern realm is referred to by Welsh scholars as Yr Hen Ogledd or "The Old North". The kingdom may have been ruled from the site that became the English Bamburgh, which features in Welsh sources as Din Guardi.
Near this high-status residence lay the island of Lindisfarne, which became the seat of the Bernician bishops. It is unknown when the Angles conquered the whole region, but around 604 is likely. There are several Old Welsh pedigrees of princely "Men of the North" that may represent the kings of the British kingdom in the area, which may have been called Bryneich. John Morris surmised that the line of a certain Morcant Bulc referred to these monarchs, chiefly because he identified this man as the murderer of Urien Rheged who was, at the time, besieging Lindisfarne; some of the Angles of Bernicia may have been employed as mercenaries along Hadrian's Wall during the late Roman period. Others are thought to have migrated north from Deira in the early 6th century; the first Anglian king in the historical record is Ida, said to have obtained the throne and the kingdom about 547. His sons spent many years fighting a united force from the surrounding Brythonic kingdoms until their alliance collapsed into civil war.
Ida's grandson, Æthelfrith, united Deira with his own kingdom by force around the year 604. He ruled the two kingdoms until he was defeated and killed by Rædwald of East Anglia around the year 616. Edwin became king; the early part of Edwin's reign was spent finishing off the remaining resistance coming from the Brythonic exiles of the old British kingdom, operating out of Gododdin. After he had defeated the remaining Brythonic population of the area, he was drawn towards a similar subjugation of Elmet, which drew him into direct conflict with Wales proper. Following the disastrous Battle of Hatfield Chase on 12 October 633, in which Edwin was defeated and killed by Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia, Northumbria was divided back into Bernicia and Deira. Bernicia was briefly ruled by Eanfrith, son of Æthelfrith, but after about a year he went to Cadwallon to sue for peace and was killed. Eanfrith's brother Oswald raised an army and defeated Cadwallon at the Battle of Heavenfield in 634.
After this victory, Oswald appears to have been recognised by both Bernicians and Deirans as king of a properly united Northumbria. The kings of Bernicia were thereafter supreme in that kingdom, although Deira had its own sub-kings at times during the reigns of Oswiu and his son Ecgfrith. Ida son of Eoppa Glappa Ida's brother Adda son of Ida Æthelric son of Ida Theodric son of Ida Frithuwald Adda's son Hussa Adda's son Æthelfrith, son of Æthelric Under Deiran rule 616–633) Eanfrith of Bernicia son of Æthelfrith Under Oswald son of Æthelfrith, Bernicia was united with Deira to form Northumbria from 634 onward until the Viking invasion of the 9th Century. Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum. Jackson, Kenneth H.. Language and History in Early Britain. Edinburgh University Press. Jackson, Kenneth H.. The Gododdin: The Oldest Scottish poem. Edinburgh: Edinburg
Aldfrith of Northumbria
Aldfrith was king of Northumbria from 685 until his death. He is described by early writers such as Bede and Stephen of Ripon as a man of great learning; some of his works and some letters written to him survive. His reign was peaceful, marred only by disputes with Bishop Wilfrid, a major figure in the early Northumbrian church. Aldfrith was born on an uncertain date to an Irish princess named Fín. Oswiu became King of Northumbria. Aldfrith became a scholar. However, in 685, when Ecgfrith was killed at the battle of Nechtansmere, Aldfrith was recalled to Northumbria from the Hebridean island of Iona, became king. In his early-8th-century account of Aldfrith's reign, Bede states that he "ably restored the shattered fortunes of the kingdom, though within smaller boundaries", his reign saw the creation of works of Hiberno-Saxon art such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Codex Amiatinus, is seen as the start of Northumbria's golden age. By the year 600, most of what is now England had been conquered by invaders from the continent, including Angles and Jutes.
Bernicia and Deira, the two Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the north of England, were first united under a single ruler in about 605 when Æthelfrith, king of Bernicia, extended his rule over Deira. Over the course of the 7th century, the two kingdoms were sometimes ruled by a single king, sometimes separately; the combined kingdom became known as the kingdom of Northumbria: it stretched from the River Humber in the south to the River Forth in the north. In 616, Æthelfrith was succeeded by Edwin of a Deiran. Edwin banished Æthelfrith's sons, including both Oswiu of Northumbria. Both spent their exile in Dál Riata, a kingdom spanning parts of northeastern Ireland and western Scotland. Oswiu was a child when he came to Dál Riata, grew up in an Irish milieu, he became a fluent speaker of Old Irish, may have married a princess of the Uí Néill dynasty Fín the daughter of Colmán Rímid. Aldfrith was a child of this marriage, he was thus a cousin or nephew of the noted scholar Cenn Fáelad mac Aillila, a nephew of Bishop Finan of Lindisfarne.
Irish law made Fín's kin, the Cenél nEógain of the northern Uí Néill, responsible for his upbringing. The relationship between Aldfrith's father and mother was not considered a lawful marriage by Northumbrian churchmen of his day, he is described as the son of a concubine in early sources. Oswald and Oswiu returned to Northumbria after Edwin's death in 633, between them they ruled for much of the middle of the 7th century; the 8th-century monk and chronicler Bede lists both Oswald and Oswiu as having held imperium, or overlordship, over the other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Oswiu's overlordship was ended in 658 by the rise of Wulfhere of Mercia, but his reign continued until his death in 670, when Ecgfrith, one of his sons by his second wife, Eanflæd, succeeded him. Ecgfrith was unable to recover Oswiu's position in Mercia and the southern kingdoms, was defeated by Wulfhere's brother Æthelred in a battle on the River Trent in 679. Ecgfrith sent an army under his general, Berht, to Ireland in 684 where he ravaged the plain of Brega, destroying churches and taking hostages.
The raid may have been intended to discourage support for any claim Aldfrith might have to the throne, though other motives are possible. Ecgfrith's two marriages—the first to the saintly virgin Æthelthryth, the second to Eormenburh—produced no children, he had two full brothers: Alhfrith, not mentioned after 664, Ælfwine, killed at the battle on the Trent in 679. Hence the succession in Northumbria was unclear for some years before Ecgfrith's death. Bede's Life of Cuthbert recounts a conversation between Cuthbert and Abbess Ælfflæd of Whitby, daughter of Oswiu, in which Cuthbert foresaw Ecgfrith's death; when Ælfflæd asked about his successor, she was told she would love him as a brother: "But," said she, "I beseech you to tell me where he may be found." He answered, "You behold this spacious sea, how it aboundeth in islands. It is easy for God out of some of these to provide a person to reign over England." She therefore understood him to speak of, said to be the son of her father, was on account of his love of literature, exiled to the Scottish islands.
Cuthbert considered a saint, was a second cousin of Aldfrith, which may have been the reason for his proposal as monarch. Ecgfrith was killed during a campaign against his cousin, the King of the Picts Bridei map Beli, at a battle known as Nechtansmere to the Northumbrians, in Pictish territory north of the Firth of Forth. Bede recounts that Queen Eormenburh and Cuthbert were visiting Carlisle that day, that Cuthbert had a premonition of the defeat. Ecgfrith's death threatened to break the hold of the descendants of Æthelfrith on Northumbria, but the scholar Aldfrith became king and the thrones of Bernicia and Deira remained united. Although rival claimants of royal descent must have existed, there is no recorded resistance to Aldfrith's accession, it has been suggested that Aldfrith's ascent was eased by support from Dál Riata, the Uí Néill, the Picts, all of whom might have preferred the mature, known quantity of Aldfrith to an unknown an
Eadberht of Northumbria
Eadberht was king of Northumbria from 737 or 738 to 758. He was the brother of Archbishop of York, his reign is seen as a return to the imperial ambitions of seventh-century Northumbria and may represent a period of economic prosperity. He faced internal opposition from rival dynasties and at least two actual or potential rivals were killed during his reign. In 758 he became a monk at York. Eadberht became ruler of Northumbria following the second abdication of his cousin Ceolwulf, who entered the monastery at Lindisfarne. Unlike Ceolwulf's first abdication, which involved force, his second, in favour of Eadberht, may have been voluntary. Eadberht son of Eata was a descendant of Ida of Bernicia through either Eadric; the genealogy gives Eadberht's father Eata the cognomen Glin Mawr. Eadberht appears to have faced opposition from rival families throughout his reign. Eardwine the son of King Eadwulf, grandfather of the future king Eardwulf, was killed in 740. In 750 Offa, son of King Aldfrith was taken from the sanctuary of Lindisfarne and put to death after a siege, while Bishop Cynewulf of Lindisfarne, who had supported Offa, was dethroned and detained in York.
The importance of religious foundations in Northumbrian political struggles and family feuds is apparent. Eardwine's family is associated with Ripon and Ceolwulf with Lindisfarne, Hexham appears to have supported kings and noblemen opposed by the Lindisfarne community. Eadberht, however, as brother of the Archbishop of York, enjoyed the support of the greatest Northumbrian prelate. Eadberht's reign saw major reforms to the Northumbrian coinage, some coins name King Eadberht and Archbishop Ecgberht. Kirby concludes that "the indications are that Eadberht was bringing new prosperity to his kingdom." A letter sent by Pope Paul I to Eadberht and Ecgberht, ordering them to return lands taken from Abbot Fothred, given to his brother Moll, presumed to be the same person as the king Æthelwald Moll, suggests that Eadberht's reign saw attempts at reclaiming some of the vast lands, gifted to the church in earlier reigns. Kirby suggests that "a revival of seventh-century northern imperial ambitions had evidently occurred among the Northumbrians at the court of Eadberht".
The first record of Eadberht's efforts to recreate this dominion appear in 740, the year of Earnwine's death. A war between the Picts and the Northumbrians is reported, during which Æthelbald, King of Mercia, took advantage of the absence of Eadberht to ravage his lands The reason for the war is unclear, but Woolf suggests that it was related to the killing of Earnwine. Earnwine's father had been an exile in the north after his defeat in the civil war of 705–706, it may be that the Pictish king Óengus, or Æthelbald, or both, had tried to place him on the Northumbrian throne. In 750, Eadberht conquered the plain of Kyle and in 756, he campaigned alongside King Óengus against the Britons of Alt Clut; the campaign is reported as follows: In the year of the Lord's incarnation 756, king Eadberht in the eighteenth year of his reign, Unust, king of Picts led armies to the town of Dumbarton. And hence the Britons accepted terms there, on the first day of the month of August, but on the tenth day of the same month perished the whole army which he led from Ouania to Niwanbirig.
That Ouania is Govan is now reasonably certain. Although there are many Newburghs, it is Newburgh-on-Tyne near Hexham, the preferred location. An alternative interpretation of the events of 756 has been advanced: it identifies Newanbirig with Newborough by Lichfield in the kingdom of Mercia. A defeat here for Eadberht and Óengus by Æthelbald's Mercians would correspond with the claim in the Saint Andrews foundation legends that a king named Óengus son of Fergus founded the church there as a thanksgiving to Saint Andrew for saving him after a defeat in Mercia. Eadberht abdicated in 758, his death there in 768 is recorded in Symeon of Durham's chronicle. Symeon's History of the Church of Durham records that Eadberht was buried in the porch of the cathedral, alongside his brother Ecgberht, who had died in 766, his son Oswulf was murdered within the year. However, his daughter Osgifu's husband Alhred became king, Eadberht's descendants, such as Oswulf's son Ælfwald and Osgifu's son Osred contested for the Northumbrian throne until the end of the century.
Eadberht's last known descendant is Osgifu's son Saint Alhmund, murdered in 800 on the orders of King Eardwulf, reputed a martyr. Eadberht 11 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
Eanred of Northumbria
Eanred was king of Northumbria in the early ninth century. Little is known for certain about Eanred; the only reference made by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to the Northumbrians in this period is the statement that in 829 Egbert of Wessex "led an army against the Northumbrians as far as Dore, where they met him, offered terms of obedience and subjection, on the acceptance of which they returned home", thereby, at least temporarily, extending Egbert's hegemony to the entirety of Anglo-Saxon Britain. Roger of Wendover states that Eanred reigned from 810 until 840, the twelfth-century History of the Church of Durham records a reign of 33 years, a discovered coin of Eanred has been dated to c. 850 on stylistic grounds. Given the turbulence of Northumbrian history in this period, a reign of this length suggests a figure of some significance. Within a generation of Eanred's death, Anglian monarchy in Northumbria had collapsed. Eanred was the son of King Eardwulf, deposed by an otherwise unknown Ælfwald in 806.
According to the History of the Church of Durham, Ælfwald ruled for two years before Eanred succeeded. However Frankish sources claim that, after being expelled from England, Eardwulf was received by Charlemagne and the pope, that their envoys escorted him back to Northumbria and secured his restoration to power; therefore the precise nature of the succession of Eanred is unclear. All sources agree that Eanred was succeeded by his son, Æthelred. Eanred's reign sees the appearance of the styca, a new style of small coin which replaced the earlier sceat; these stycas were of low silver content coins being brass. Produced in York, large numbers have survived and several moneyers are named on the surviving coins, suggesting that they were minted in significant quantities. Higham estimates that hundreds of thousands of stycas were in circulation; the distribution of the coin finds suggests that their principal use was in external trade and that, apart from for the payment of taxes, coins were little used by the great majority of Northumbrians in daily life.
Higham, N. J; the Kingdom of Northumbria AD 350-1100. ISBN 0-86299-730-5 Kirby, D. P; the Earliest English Kings. ISBN 0-04-445691-3 Rollason, David. "Eardwulf, king of Northumbria". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-10-03. Eanred 8 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England The Fitzwilliam Museum's Corpus of Early Medieval Coin Finds website
Edwin of Northumbria
Edwin known as Eadwine or Æduinus, was the King of Deira and Bernicia – which became known as Northumbria – from about 616 until his death. He converted to Christianity and was baptised in 627. Edwin seems to have had two siblings, his sister Acha was married to king of neighbouring Bernicia. An otherwise unknown sibling fathered Hereric, who in turn fathered Abbess Hilda of Whitby and Hereswith, wife to Æthelric, the brother of king Anna of East Anglia; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reported. The exact identity of Æthelric is uncertain, he may have been a brother of Ælle, an elder brother of Edwin, an otherwise unknown Deiran noble, or the father of Æthelfrith. Æthelfrith himself appears to have been king of "Northumbria"—both Deira and Bernicia—by no than 604. During the reign of Æthelfrith, Edwin was an exile; the location of his early exile as a child is not known, but late traditions, reported by Reginald of Durham and Geoffrey of Monmouth, place Edwin in the kingdom of Gwynedd, fostered by king Cadfan ap Iago, so allowing biblical parallels to be drawn from the struggle between Edwin and his supposed foster-brother Cadwallon.
By the 610s he was in Mercia under the protection of king Cearl, whose daughter Cwenburg he married. By around 616, Edwin was in East Anglia under the protection of king Raedwald. Bede reports that Æthelfrith tried to have Raedwald murder his unwanted rival, that Raedwald intended to do so until his wife persuaded him otherwise with Divine prompting. Æthelfrith faced Raedwald in battle by the River Idle in 616, Æthelfrith was defeated. Raedwald's son Raegenhere may have been killed at this battle, but the exact date or manner of Raedwald's death are not known, he died between the years 616–627, the efficacy of Edwin’s kingship ostensibly depended on his fealty to Raedwald. Edwin was installed as king of Northumbria confirming Raedwald as bretwalda: Æthelfrith's sons went into exile in Irish Dál Riata and Pictland; that Edwin was able to take power not only in his native Deira but in Bernicia may have been due to his support from Raedwald, to whom he may have remained subject during the early part of his reign.
Edwin's reign marks an interruption of the otherwise consistent domination of Northumbria by the Bernicians and has been seen as "contrary to the prevailing tendency". With the death of Æthelfrith, of the powerful Æthelberht of Kent the same year and his client Edwin were well placed to dominate England, indeed Raedwald did so until his death a decade later. Edwin expelled Ceretic from the minor British kingdom of Elmet in either 616 or 626. Elmet had been subject to Mercia and to Edwin; the larger kingdom of Lindsey appears to have been taken over c. 625, after the death of king Raedwald. Edwin and Eadbald of Kent were allies at this time, Edwin arranged to marry Eadbald's sister Æthelburg. Bede notes that Eadbald would agree to marry his sister to Edwin only if he converted to Christianity; the marriage of Eadbald's Merovingian mother Bertha had resulted in the conversion of Kent and Æthelburg's would do the same in Northumbria. Edwin's expansion to the west may have begun early in his reign.
There is firm evidence of a war waged in the early 620s between Edwin and Fiachnae mac Báetáin of the Dál nAraidi, king of the Ulaid in Ireland. A lost poem is known to have existed recounting Fiachnae's campaigns against the Saxons, the Irish annals report the siege, or the storming, of Bamburgh in Bernicia in 623–624; this should be placed in the context of Edwin's designs on the Isle of Man, a target of Ulaid ambitions. Fiachnae's death in 626, at the hands of his namesake, Fiachnae mac Demmáin of the Dál Fiatach, the second Fiachnae's death a year in battle against the Dál Riata eased the way for Edwin's conquests in the Irish sea province; the routine of kingship in Edwin's time involved regular annual, wars with neighbours to obtain tribute and slaves. By Edwin's death, it is that these annual wars, unreported in the main, had extended the Northumbrian kingdoms from the Humber and the Mersey north to the Southern Uplands and the Cheviots; the royal household moved from one royal vill to the next, consuming the food renders given in tribute and the produce of the royal estates, dispensing justice, ensuring that royal authority remained visible throughout the land.
The royal sites in Edwin's time included Yeavering in Bernicia, where traces of a timber amphitheatre have been found. This "Roman" feature makes Bede's claim that Edwin was preceded by a standard-bearer carrying a "tufa" appear to be more than antiquarian curiosity, although whether the model for this practice was Roman or Frankish is unknown. Other royal sites included Campodunum in Elmet, Sancton in Deira, Goodmanham, the site where the pagan high priest Coifi destroyed the idols according to Bede. Edwin's realm included the former Roman cities of York and Carlisle, both appear to have been of some importance in the 7th century, although it is not clear whether urban life continued in this period; the account of Edwin's conversion offered by Bede turns on two events. The first, during Edwin's exile, tells; the second, following his marriage to Æthelburg, was the attempted assassination at York, at Easter 626, by an agent of Cwichelm of Wessex. Edwin's decision to allow the baptism of his daughter Eanfled and his su