Metlako Falls is a waterfall on Eagle Creek in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area in Hood River County, United States. It is the furthest downstream of the major waterfalls on Eagle Creek. Like upstream Punch Bowl Falls, Metlako is in the form of a punchbowl; the falls is 101 feet tall. It is the upstream limit for salmon spawning in Eagle Creek; the waterfall was discovered and named by a committee of the Mazamas in 1915 after Metlako, the Indian goddess of salmon because it is the upstream limit for salmon spawning in Eagle Creek. List of waterfalls on Eagle Creek and its tributaries http://www.waterfallsnorthwest.com/waterfall.php?num=1561&p=0 http://www.waterfallswest.com/or_metlako.html
Pacific Crest Trail
The Pacific Crest Trail designated as the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail is a long-distance hiking and equestrian trail aligned with the highest portion of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges, which lie 100 to 150 miles east of the U. S. Pacific coast; the trail's southern terminus is on the U. S. border with Mexico, just south of Campo and its northern terminus on the Canada–US border on the edge of Manning Park in British Columbia. S. is in the states of California and Washington. The Pacific Crest Trail is 2,653 mi long and ranges in elevation from just above sea level at the Oregon–Washington border to 13,153 feet at Forester Pass in the Sierra Nevada; the route passes through 7 national parks. Its midpoint is near Chester, where the Sierra and Cascade mountain ranges meet, it was designated a National Scenic Trail in 1968, although it was not completed until 1993. The PCT was conceived by Clinton Churchill Clarke in 1932, it received official status under the National Trails System Act of 1968.
It is the westernmost and second longest component of the Triple Crown of Hiking and is part of the 6,875-mile Great Western Loop. The route is through National Forest and protected wilderness; the trail covers scenic and pristine mountainous terrain with few roads. It passes through the Laguna, Santa Rosa, San Jacinto, San Bernardino, San Gabriel, Tehachapi, Sierra Nevada, Klamath ranges in California, the Cascade Range in California and Washington. A parallel route for bicycles, the Pacific Crest Bicycle Trail is a 2,500-mile route designed parallel to the PCT on roads; the PCT and PCBT cross in about 27 places along their routes. The Pacific Crest Trail was first proposed by Clinton C. Clarke, as a trail running from Mexico to Canada along the crest of the mountains in California and Washington; the original proposal was to link the John Muir Trail, the Tahoe-Yosemite Trail, the Skyline Trail and the Cascade Crest Trail. The Pacific Crest Trail System Conference was formed by Clarke to both plan the trail and to lobby the federal government to protect the trail.
The conference was founded by Clarke, the Boy Scouts, the YMCA, Ansel Adams. From 1935 through 1938, YMCA groups explored the 2,000 miles of potential trail and planned a route, followed by the modern PCT route. In 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson defined the PCT and the Appalachian Trail with the National Trails System Act; the PCT was constructed through cooperation between the federal government and volunteers organized by the Pacific Crest Trail Association. In 1993, the PCT was declared finished; the Trust for Public Land has purchased and conserved more than 3,000 acres along the Pacific Crest Trail in Washington. Consolidation of this land has allowed for better recreational access as well as greater ease to manage conservation lands. Thru hiking is a term used in referring to hikers who complete long-distance trails from end to end in a single trip; the Pacific Crest Trail, Appalachian Trail, Continental Divide Trail were the first three long-distance trails in the U. S.. Thru-hiking all of these three trails is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking.
Thru-hiking is a long commitment taking between four and six months, that requires thorough preparation and dedication. The Pacific Crest Trail Association estimates that it takes most hikers between six and eight months to plan their trip. While most hikers travel from the Southern Terminus at the Mexico–US border northward to Manning Park, British Columbia, some hikers prefer a southbound route. In a normal weather year, northbound hikes are most practical due to snow and temperature considerations. Additionally, some hiker services may be better timed for northbound hikers. If snowpack in the Sierra Nevada is high in early June and low in the Northern Cascades, some hikers may choose to'flip-flop.' Flip-flopping can take many forms but describes a process whereby a hiker begins at one end of the trail and at some point, like reaching the Sierra,'flips' to the end of the trail at the Canada–US border and hikes southbound to complete the trail. However, it is not possible to enter the United States from Canada by using the Pacific Crest Trail.
Hikers have to determine their resupply points. Resupply points are towns or post offices where hikers replenish food and other supplies such as cooking fuel. Hikers can ship packages to themselves at the U. S. Post Offices along the trail, resupply at general and grocery stores along the trail, or any combination of the two; the final major logistical step is to create an approximate schedule for completion. Thru hikers have to make sure they complete enough miles every day to reach the opposite end of the trail before weather conditions make sections impassable. For northbound thru-hikers, deep snow pack in the Sierra Nevada can prevent an early start; the timing is a balance between not getting to the Sierra too soon nor the Northern Cascades too late. Most hikers cover about 20 miles per day. In order to reduce their hiking time and thereby increase their chances of completing the trail, many hikers try to reduce their pack weight. Since the creation of the Pacific Crest Trail there has been a large movement by hikers to get away from large heavy packs with a lot of gear.
There are three general classifications for hikers: Traditional and Ultralight. Over the past few years the number of traditional hikers
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
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Hood River County, Oregon
Hood River County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,346; the county seat is Hood River. The county was established in 1908 and is named for the Hood River, a tributary of the Columbia River. Hood River County comprises OR Micropolitan Statistical Area; the Hood River Valley is a top producer of apples and cherries and is known for its famous Fruit Loop driving tour that stops at family farms and fruit stands. Situated between Mount Hood and the Columbia River in the middle of the Columbia River Gorge, Hood River County is a popular destination for outdoor enthusiasts, such as windsurfers, mountain-bikers, hikers and many more; the first permanent settlers in present-day Hood River County filed a donation land claim in 1854. The first school was built in 1863 and a road from The Dalles was completed in 1867. By 1880 there were 17 families living in the valley. By the latter part of the nineteenth century farmers of Japanese, Finnish and French ethnicity had settled in the valley.
At the turn of the twentieth century, the people of the Hood River region in the northwest portion of Wasco County expressed a desire for political separation from the parent county. The passage of a statewide initiative established Hood River as the thirty-fourth county of the state, it was made official by a governor's proclamation on June 23, 1908. The Columbia River Highway was completed in 1922 from Portland to The Dalles, improving access between both those cities as well as to Hood River. In response to controversy surrounding county approval of locating a destination resort at Cooper Spur ski area on Mount Hood, on November 5, 2003 62% of the voters approved a measure requiring voter approval on residential developments of 25 units or more on land zoned for forest use. Opponents would end up in court. Hood River County is 533 square miles, of which 522 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water, it is the second-smallest county in Oregon by area. Elevation ranges from 60 feet above sea level at Cascade Locks in the northwest to 11,235 feet at the summit of Mt. Hood, the highest point in Oregon.
The County lies in a transition zone in the Columbia River Gorge between the temperate rain forest of the Cascade range and dry desert of eastern Oregon. Precipitation varies by longitude and elevation. Annual precipitation averages over 76 inches in Cascade Locks, but is less than 31 inches in the City of Hood River. At the highest reaches of the County on Mt. Hood precipitation can be up to 150 inches annually; the Gorge can have a moderating effect on air temperatures in the County near the Columbia River when maritime air moves in from the west. Major easterly flows, can cause extreme cold conditions as cold air moves west through the Gorge. Winds are from the west in the summer, resulting in strong and consistent winds on the Columbia River at Hood River County, making Hood River a world-renowned wind surfing location. Winter winds can blow from either the east or the west and can be of sufficient force to result in widespread damage. Hood River County contains the entirety of the 217,337 acres Hood River watershed, which covers nearly two-thirds of the county.
This watershed includes four main sub-basins: the West Fork Hood River, the Middle Fork Hood River, the East Fork Hood River, the Hood River Mainstem. Sixty percent, or 209,385 acres, of the County is federal land managed by the Mt. Hood National Forest. Another 31,000 acres, or 8.8 percent, is forestland managed by Hood River County. The State of Oregon owns 3,894 acres within the County. Weyerhaeuser Company became a major private landowner in 2013 after purchasing Longview Timber LLC, including its forest holdings in Hood River County. 25,817 acres, over seven percent of the County, is managed as private farmland. As of 2012 there were 554 farms, with a medium farm size of 19 acres. Multnomah County - west Clackamas County - southwest Wasco County - southeast Klickitat County, Washington - northeast Skamania County, Washington - north Badger Creek Wilderness Mark O. Hatfield Wilderness Mount Hood Wilderness Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area At the time of the census 11.8 percent of a total of 9,271 housing units were vacant.
Of the 8,173 occupied housing units, 62.9 percent were owner-occupied. Median household income was $51,307 and median income for a family was $57,644; as of the 2010 census 2,235 persons, or 10.1 percent of the population, lived in poverty. Of the 20,258 people in the population that are five years and older, 25.6 percent speak Spanish or Spanish Creole, 69 percent of this group speak English less than "very well." As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 22,346 people, 8,173 households, 5,659 families residing in the county. The population density was 42.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,271 housing units at an average density of 17.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 83.1% white, 1.4% Asian, 0.8% American Indian, 0.5% black or African American, 0.2% Pacific islander, 10.9% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 29.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.7% were German, 10.6% were English, 9.8% were Irish, 3.8% were American.
Of the 8,173 households, 35.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.8% were non-families, 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was
Columbia River Gorge
The Columbia River Gorge is a canyon of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Up to 4,000 feet deep, the canyon stretches for over 80 miles as the river winds westward through the Cascade Range forming the boundary between the State of Washington to the north and Oregon to the south. Extending from the confluence of the Columbia with the Deschutes River in the east down to the eastern reaches of the Portland metropolitan area, the water gap furnishes the only navigable route through the Cascades and the only water connection between the Columbia River Plateau and the Pacific Ocean, it is thus the route of Washington State Route 14, Interstate 84, U. S. Route 30, railroad tracks on both sides; the gorge holds federally protected status as a National Scenic Area called the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area and is managed by the Columbia River Gorge Commission and the US Forest Service. The gorge is a popular recreational destination; the Columbia River, Klamath River in Northern California, Pit River in Northern California, Fraser River in Southern British Columbia are the only four rivers connecting the east-side watersheds of the Cascade Mountain Range to the Pacific Ocean.
Each river has created a gorge through the Cascade Mountain Range. The Columbia River Gorge marks the state line between Washington; the wide range of elevation and precipitation makes the Columbia River Gorge an diverse and dynamic place. Ranging from 4,000 feet to sea level, transitioning from 100 inches of precipitation to only 10 inches in 80 miles, the Gorge creates a diverse collection of ecosystems from the temperate rain forest on the western end—with an average annual precipitation of 75 to 100 inches —to the eastern grasslands with average annual precipitation between 10 and 15 inches, to a transitional dry woodland between Hood River and The Dalles. Isolated micro-habitats have allowed for many species of endemic plants and animals to prosper, including at least 13 endemic wildflowers; the Gorge transitions between temperate rainforest to dry grasslands in only 80 miles, hosting a dramatic change in scenery while driving down Interstate 84. In the western, temperate rainforest areas, forests are marked by bigleaf maples, Douglas fir, Western hemlock, all covered in epiphytes.
In the transition zone, vegetation turns to Oregon white oak, Ponderosa pine, cottonwood. At the eastern end, the forests make way for expansive grasslands, with occasional pockets of lodgepole and Ponderosa pine. Atmospheric pressure differentials east and west of the Cascades create a wind tunnel effect in the deep cut of the gorge, generating 35 mph winds that make it a popular windsurfing and kitesurfing location, it creates the right conditions for snow and ice storms during the winter months which draws cold east winds at the mouth of the gorge on the west end. The Gorge is a popular destination for hiking, sight-seeing and watersports; the area is known for its high concentration of waterfalls, with over 90 on the Oregon side of the Gorge alone. Many are along the Historic Columbia River Highway, including the notable 620-foot -high Multnomah Falls. Trails and day use sites are maintained by the Forest Service and many Oregon and Washington state parks; the Columbia River Gorge began forming as far back as the Miocene, continued to take shape through the Pleistocene.
During this period the Cascades Range was forming, which moved the Columbia River's delta about 100 miles north to its current location. Although the river eroded the land over this period of time, the most drastic changes took place at the end of the last Ice Age when the Missoula Floods cut the steep, dramatic walls that exist today, flooding the river as high up as Crown Point; this quick erosion left many layers of volcanic rock exposed. The gorge has supported human habitation for over 13,000 years. Evidence of the Folsom and Marmes people, who crossed the Bering land bridge from Asia, were found in archaeological digs. Excavations near Celilo Falls, a few miles east of The Dalles, show humans have occupied this salmon-fishing site for more than 10,000 years; the gorge has provided a transportation corridor for thousands of years. Native Americans would travel through the Gorge to trade at Celilo Falls, both along the river and over Lolo Pass on the north side of Mount Hood. In 1805, the route was used by the Clark Expedition to reach the Pacific.
Early European and American settlers subsequently established steamboat lines and railroads through the gorge. Today, the BNSF Railway runs freights along the Washington side of the river, while its rival, the Union Pacific Railroad, runs freights along the Oregon shore; until 1997, Amtrak's Pioneer used the Union Pacific tracks. The Portland segment of the Empire Builder uses the BNSF tracks; the Columbia River Highway, built in the early 20th century, was the first major paved highway in the Pacific Northwest. Shipping was simplified after Bonneville Dam and The Dalles Dam submerged the gorge's major rapids such as Celilo Falls, a major salmon fishing site for local Native Americans until the site's submergence in 1957. In November 1986, Congress made it the second U. S. National Scenic Area and established the Columbia River Gorge Commission as part of an interstate compact; the experimental designation came in lieu of being recognized as a national park, which would require the existing industries in towns along the river to relocate.
Bonneville Lock and Dam consists of several run-of-the-river dam structures that together complete a span of the Columbia River between the U. S. states of Oregon and Washington at River Mile 146.1. The dam is located 40 miles east of Oregon, in the Columbia River Gorge; the primary functions of Bonneville Lock and Dam are electrical power generation and river navigation. The dam is managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. At the time of its construction in the 1930s it was the largest water impoundment project of its type in the nation, able to withstand flooding on an unprecedented scale. Electrical power generated at Bonneville is distributed by the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville Lock and Dam is named for Army Capt. Benjamin Bonneville, an early explorer credited with charting much of the Oregon Trail; the Bonneville Dam Historic District was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 1987. In 1896, prior to this damming of the river, the Cascade Locks and Canal were constructed, allowing ships to pass the Cascades Rapids, located several miles upstream of Bonneville.
Prior to the New Deal, development of the Columbia River with flood control, hydroelectricity and irrigation was deemed as important. In 1929, the US Army Corps of Engineers published the 308 Report that recommended 10 dams on the river but no action was taken until the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration and the New Deal. During this period America was in the Great Depression, the dam's construction provided jobs and other economic benefits to the Pacific Northwest. Inexpensive hydroelectricity gave rise to a strong aluminum industry in the area. With funding from the Public Works Administration in 1934, two of the larger projects were started, the Grand Coulee Dam and the Bonneville Dam. 3,000 workers in non-stop eight-hour shifts, from the relief or welfare rolls, were paid 50-cents an hour for the work on the dam and raising local roads for the reservoir. To create the Bonneville Dam and Lock, The Army Corps of Engineers first built one of the largest scale models in history of the proposed dam, the section of river it was to be located on, its various components to aid in the study of the construction.
First a new lock and a powerhouse was constructed which were on the south side of Bradford Island, a spillway on the north side. Cofferdams were built to block half of the river and clear a construction site where the foundation could be reached; these projects, part of the Bonneville Dam were completed in 1937. Both the cascades and the old lock structure were submerged by the Bonneville Reservoir known as Lake Bonneville, the reservoir that formed behind the dam; the original navigation lock at Bonneville opened in 1938 and was, at that time, the highest single-lift lock in the world. Although the dam began to produce hydroelectricity in 1937, commercial electricity began its transfer from the dam in 1938. A second powerhouse was started in 1974 and completed in 1981; the second powerhouse was built by widening the river channel on the Washington side, creating Cascades Island between the new powerhouse and the original spillway. The combined rated capacity electrical output of the two power houses at Bonneville is now 1.2 gigawatts.
Despite its world record size in 1938, Bonneville Lock became the smallest of eight locks including seven built subsequently at different locations upstream on the Columbia and Snake rivers. This new structure was built on the Oregon shore, opening to ship and barge traffic in 1993; the old lock is no longer used. Owner: U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District Location: On Columbia River about 40 miles upstream from Portland, Oregon First Powerhouse – Constructed in 1933–37. Spillway – Constructed 1933–37. Bonneville Lock – Constructed from 1987 to 1993 at a cost of $341 million. 30 minutes. Replaced earlier smaller lock built 1938. Lake Bonneville – 77 km long reservoir on the Columbia River created by Bonneville Dam, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1987. Both powerhouses - output capacity: 1.2 GW The Bonneville Dam blocked the migration of white sturgeon to their upstream spawning areas. Sturgeon still spawn in the area below the dam and the lower Columbia River supports a healthy sturgeon population.
Small depressed populations of white sturgeon persist in the various reservoirs upstream. To cope with fish migration problems, the dam features fish ladders to help native salmon and steelhead get past the dam on their journey upstream to spawn; the large concentrations of fish swimming upstream serve as a tourist attraction during the spawning season. California sea lions are attracted to the large number of fish, are seen around the base of the dam during the spawning season. By 2006, the growing number of crafty sea lions and their impact on the salmon population had become worrisome to the Army Corps of Engineers and environmentalists. Pinnipeds such as sea lions and seals have hunted salmon in the Columbia River as far as The Dalles and Celilo Falls, 60 miles farther upstream from Bonneville, as remarke
Oregon Portage Railroad
The Oregon Portage Railroad was the first railroad in the U. S. state of Oregon. It ran for 4.5 miles, with an accompanying 7 miles of telegraph line, was extended to a length of 15 miles. The railroad was located on the south bank of the Cascades canal of the Columbia River, it ran from Tanner Creek to the Cascade Locks, which were under construction in the years of the railroad's operation. Although the Oregon Portage was the first railroad in Oregon, it was not the first along the Columbia River. Francis A. Chenoweth operated a rail line on the river's north bank in present-day Washington in 1851. In 1861, John W. Brazee of the Oregon Portage Company started to build a 5 ft broad gauge railroad out of a mule-and-wagon road, constructed by Col. Joseph S. Ruckle and Harrison Olmstead in 1856 but had been out of service since around 1858. Brazee's conversion of the road cost $50,000 USD, the line opened on 20 May 1861, still relying on mule power. After one more year, the portage company acquired the Oregon Pony, which became the first locomotive in the Pacific Northwest, debuting for the railroad on 10 May 1862.
The Oregon Portage Railroad was operated by the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, which sold the railroad for $155,000 around the year 1880 as part of the company's sale to the Oregon Railway and Navigation Company. Restoration of the railroad in 1891, including a conversion to the 3 ft narrow gauge, was a result of demands from steamboat captains and delays in the construction of the Cascades Locks and Canal. Steamboat captains had voiced concerns because they needed to transport goods and passengers past the Cascades Rapids and were disappointed with the quality of the Cascades Railroad. Once the locks were completed in 1896, demand for the Oregon Portage Railroad decreased. Henry Villard Steamboats of the Columbia River: Railway completion forces steamboats off routes