Twister Falls is a prominent waterfall, formed as Eagle Creek cascades 140 feet into a narrow canyon and forms two streams that appear to "twist" around each other, hence the name "twister". The falls begin with a small sliding cascade that drops 5 feet over a rocky slope into a pool, followed by some rapids; the next tier is the twisting tier. Before this point, a small portion of the stream splits off and makes a sheer plunge of equal height down the canyon; the waters combine and form a final drop of 80 feet. The waterfall has not been named by the USGS, but has been called Twister Falls for its unusual nature. List of waterfalls on Eagle Creek and its tributaries
A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft, propelled by means of a double-bladed paddle. The word kayak originates from the Greenlandic word qajaq; the traditional kayak has one or more cockpits, each seating one paddler. The cockpit is sometimes covered by a spray deck that prevents the entry of water from waves or spray, differentiating the craft from a canoe; the spray deck makes it possible for suitably skilled kayakers to roll the kayak: that is, to capsize and right it without it filling with water or ejecting the paddler. Some modern boats vary from a traditional design but still claim the title "kayak", for instance in eliminating the cockpit by seating the paddler on top of the boat. Kayaks are being sailed, as well as propelled by means of small electric motors, by outboard gas engines; the kayak was first used by the indigenous Aleut, Inuit and Ainu hunters in subarctic regions of the world. Kayaks were developed by the Inuit, Yup'ik, Aleut, they used the boats to hunt on inland lakes and coastal waters of the Arctic Ocean, North Atlantic, Bering Sea and North Pacific oceans.
These first kayaks were constructed from stitched seal or other animal skins stretched over a wood or whalebone-skeleton frame.. Kayaks are believed to be at least 4,000 years old; the oldest existing kayaks are exhibited in the North America department of the State Museum of Ethnology in Munich, with the oldest dating from 1577. Native people made many types of boat for different purposes; the Aleut baidarka was made in double or triple cockpit designs, for hunting and transporting passengers or goods. An umiak is a large open sea canoe, ranging from 17 to 30 feet, made with wood, it is considered a kayak although it was paddled with single-bladed paddles, had more than one paddler. Native builders designed and built their boats based on their own experience and that of the generations before them, passed on through oral tradition; the word "kayak" means "man's boat" or "hunter's boat", native kayaks were a personal craft, each built by the man who used it—with assistance from his wife, who sewed the skins—and fitting his size for maximum maneuverability.
The paddler wore a tuilik, a garment, stretched over the rim of the kayak coaming, sealed with drawstrings at the coaming and hood edges. This enabled the "eskimo roll" and rescue to become the preferred methods of recovery after capsizing as few Inuit could swim. Instead of a tuilik, most traditional kayakers today use a spray deck made of waterproof synthetic material stretchy enough to fit around the cockpit rim and body of the kayaker, which can be released from the cockpit to permit easy exit. Inuit kayak builders had specific measurements for their boats; the length was three times the span of his outstretched arms. The width at the cockpit was the width of the builder's hips plus two fists; the typical depth was his fist plus the outstretched thumb. Thus typical dimensions were about 17 feet long by 20–22 inches wide by 7 inches deep; this measurement system confounded early European explorers who tried to duplicate the kayak, because each kayak was a little different. Traditional kayaks encompass three types: Baidarkas, from the Bering sea & Aleutian islands, the oldest design, whose rounded shape and numerous chines give them an Blimp-like appearance.
Most of the Aleut people in the Aleutian Islands eastward to Greenland Inuit relied on the kayak for hunting a variety of prey—primarily seals, though whales and caribou were important in some areas. Skin-on-frame kayaks are still being used for hunting by Inuit people in Greenland, because the smooth and flexible skin glides silently through the waves. In other parts of the world home builders are continuing the tradition of skin on frame kayaks with modern skins of canvas or synthetic fabric, such as sc. ballistic nylon. Contemporary traditional-style kayaks trace their origins to the native boats of Alaska, northern Canada, Southwest Greenland. Wooden kayaks and fabric kayaks on wooden frames dominated the market up until the 1950s, when fiberglass boats were first introduced in the US, inflatable rubberized fabric boats were first introduced in Europe. Rotomolded plastic kayaks first appeared in 1973, most kayaks today are made from roto-molded polyethylene resins; the development of plastic and rubberized inflatable kayaks arguably initiated the development of freestyle kayaking as we see it today, since these boats could be made smaller and more resilient than fiberglass boats.
Kayak design is a matter of trade-offs: directional stability vs maneuverability. Multihull kayaks face a different set of trade-offs; the paddler's body shap
Mount St. Helens
Mount St. Helens is an active stratovolcano located in Skamania County, Washington, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, it is 96 miles south of Seattle, Washington. Mount St. Helens takes its English name from the British diplomat Lord St Helens, a friend of explorer George Vancouver who made a survey of the area in the late 18th century; the volcano is located in the Cascade Range and is part of the Cascade Volcanic Arc, a segment of the Pacific Ring of Fire that includes over 160 active volcanoes. This volcano is well known for pyroclastic flows. Mount St. Helens is most notorious for its major 1980 eruption, the deadliest and most economically destructive volcanic event in U. S. history. Fifty-seven people were killed. A massive debris avalanche triggered by an earthquake measuring 5.1 on the Richter scale caused an eruption that reduced the elevation of the mountain's summit from 9,677 ft to 8,363 ft, leaving a 1 mile wide horseshoe-shaped crater. The debris avalanche was up to 0.7 cubic miles in volume.
The Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument was created to preserve the volcano and allow for the eruption's aftermath to be scientifically studied; as with most other volcanoes in the Cascade Range, Mount St. Helens is a large eruptive cone consisting of lava rock interlayered with ash and other deposits; the mountain includes layers of basalt and andesite through which several domes of dacite lava have erupted. The largest of the dacite domes formed the previous summit, off its northern flank sat the smaller Goat Rocks dome. Both were destroyed in the 1980 eruption. Mount St. Helens is 34 miles west in the western part of the Cascade Range; these "sister and brother" volcanic mountains are 50 miles from Mount Rainier, the highest of Cascade volcanoes. Mount Hood, the nearest major volcanic peak in Oregon, is 60 miles southeast of Mount St. Helens. Mount St. Helens is geologically young compared with the other major Cascade volcanoes, it formed only within the past 40,000 years, the pre-1980 summit cone began rising about 2,200 years ago.
The volcano is considered the most active in the Cascades within the Holocene epoch. Prior to the 1980 eruption, Mount St. Helens was the fifth-highest peak in Washington, it stood out prominently from surrounding hills because of the symmetry and extensive snow and ice cover of the pre-1980 summit cone, earning it the nickname "Fuji-san of America". The peak rose more than 5,000 feet above its base, where the lower flanks merge with adjacent ridges; the mountain is 6 miles across at its base, at an elevation of 4,400 feet on the northeastern side and 4,000 feet elsewhere. At the pre-eruption tree line, the width of the cone was 4 miles. Streams that originate on the volcano enter three main river systems: the Toutle River on the north and northwest, the Kalama River on the west, the Lewis River on the south and east; the streams are fed by abundant snow. The average annual rainfall is 140 inches, the snow pack on the mountain's upper slopes can reach 16 feet; the Lewis River is impounded by three dams for hydroelectric power generation.
The southern and eastern sides of the volcano drain into an upstream impoundment, the Swift Reservoir, directly south of the volcano's peak. Although Mount St. Helens is in Skamania County, access routes to the mountain run through Cowlitz County to the west and Lewis County to the north. State Route 504, locally known as the Spirit Lake Memorial Highway, connects with Interstate 5 at Exit 49, 34 miles to the west of the mountain; that north–south highway skirts the low-lying cities of Castle Rock and Kelso along the Cowlitz River, passes through the Vancouver, Washington–Portland, Oregon metropolitan area less than 50 miles to the southwest. The community nearest the volcano is Cougar, Washington, in the Lewis River valley 11 miles south-southwest of the peak. Gifford Pinchot National Forest surrounds Mount St. Helens. During the winter of 1980–1981, a new glacier appeared. Now named Crater Glacier, it was known as the Tulutson Glacier. Shadowed by the crater walls and fed by heavy snowfall and repeated snow avalanches, it grew rapidly.
By 2004, it covered about 0.36 square miles, was divided by the dome into a western and eastern lobe. By late summer, the glacier looks dark from rockfall from the crater walls and ash from eruptions; as of 2006, the ice had an average thickness of 300 feet and a maximum of 650 feet, nearly as deep as the much older and larger Carbon Glacier of Mount Rainier. The ice is all post-1980, making the glacier young geologically. However, the volume of the new glacier is about the same as all the pre-1980 glaciers combined. With the recent volcanic activity starting in 2004, the glacier lobes were pushed aside and upward by the growth of new volcanic domes; the surface of the glacier, once without crevasses, turned into a chaotic jumble of icefalls criss-crossed with crevasses and seracs caused by movement of the crater floor. The new domes have separated the Crater Glacier into an eastern and western lobe. Despite the volcanic activity, the termini of the glacier have still advanced, with a slight advance on the western lobe and a more considerable advance on the more sha
Celilo Falls was a tribal fishing area on the Columbia River, just east of the Cascade Mountains, on what is today the border between the U. S. states of Washington. The name refers to a series of cascades and waterfalls on the river, as well as to the native settlements and trading villages that existed there in various configurations for 15,000 years. Celilo was the oldest continuously inhabited community on the North American continent until 1957, when the falls and nearby settlements were submerged by the construction of The Dalles Dam; the main waterfall, known variously as Celilo Falls, The Chutes, Great Falls, or Columbia Falls, consisted of three sections: a cataract, called Horseshoe Falls or Tumwater Falls. These features were formed by the Columbia River's relentless push through basalt narrows on the final leg of its journey to the Pacific Ocean. More than a mile in width, the river was squeezed here into a width of only 140 feet; the seasonal flow of the Columbia changed the height of the falls over the course of a year.
At low water the drop was about 20 feet. In 1839, Modeste Demers investigated the area in some detail and described not just one fall but a great many, in different channels and with different qualities, he wrote, "The variety are surprising. They are not all deep; the falls are from 3 to 12 and 15 feet high." During the spring freshet in June and July, the falls could be submerged. The falls were among the largest in North America. Average annual flow was about 190,000 ft³/sec, during periods of high water or flood, as much as 1,240,000 ft³/sec passed over the falls. Celilo Falls itself was the first in a series of cascades and rapids known collectively as The Narrows or The Dalles, stretching for about 12 miles downstream. Over that length, the river dropped 82 feet at 63 feet at low water. Three miles below Celilo Falls was a stretch of rapids known variously as the Short Narrows, Ten Mile Rapids, the Little Dalles, or Les Petites Dalles; these rapids were 250 feet wide. Ten miles below Celilo Falls was another stretch of rapids, this one known as the Long Narrows, Five Mile Rapids, the Big Dalles, Les Grandes Dalles, or Grand Dalles.
This stretch of rapids was about 3 miles long, the river channel narrowed to 75 feet. Downstream were the Dalles Rapids, about 1.5 miles long. Here the river dropped 15 feet in a tumult much commented on by early explorers; the Long Narrows and the Dalles Rapids are sometimes grouped together under names such as Grand Dalles, Les Dalles, Big Dalles, or The Dalles. One early observer, Ross Cox, noted a three-mile "succession of boiling whirlpools." Explorer Charles Wilkes described it as "one of the most remarkable places upon the Columbia." He calculated. During the spring freshet, the river rose as much as 62 feet, radically altering the nature of the rapids. Fur trader Alexander Ross wrote, " rushes with great impetuosity. During floods, this obstruction, or ledge of rocks, is covered with water, yet the passage of the narrows is not thereby improved." For 15,000 years, native peoples gathered at Wyam to exchange goods. They built wooden platforms out over the water and caught salmon with dipnets and long spears on poles as the fish swam up through the rapids and jumped over the falls.
An estimated fifteen to twenty million salmon passed through the falls every year, making it one of the greatest fishing sites in North America. Celilo Falls and The Dalles were strategically located at the border between Chinookan and Sahaptian speaking peoples and served as the center of an extensive trading network across the Pacific Plateau. Artifacts from the original village site at Celilo suggest that trade goods came from as far away as the Great Plains, Southwestern United States, Alaska. There are numerous rock art drawings at the head of the falls; this demonstrates the site to not just be important for trading purposes. It acted as a melting pot for the cultures which traded there; when the Lewis and Clark expedition passed through the area in 1805, the explorers found a "great emporium...where all the neighboring nations assemble," and a population density unlike anything they had seen on their journey. Accordingly, historians have likened the Celilo area to the "Wall Street of the West."
The Wishram people lived on the north bank, while the Wasco lived on the south bank, with the most intense bargaining occurring at the Wishram village of Nix-luidix. Charles Wilkes reported finding three major native fishing sites on the lower Columbia — Celilo Falls, the Big Dalles, Cascades Rapids, with the Big Dalles being the largest. Alexander Ross described it as the "great rendezvous" of native traders, as "the great emporium or mart of the Columbia." Pinnipeds such as sea lions and seals followed salmon up the Columbia as far as Celilo Falls. In 1841 George Simpson wrote "these animals ascend the Columbia in great numbers in quest of the salmon; the seasonal changes in the Columbia's flow, high in summer and low in winter, affected Celilo Falls dramatically. Lewis and Clark reached Celilo Falls in the late autumn when the water was low, turning t
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of Canada, it flows northwest and south into the US state of Washington turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state of Oregon before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river is 1,243 miles long, its largest tributary is the Snake River, its drainage basin is the size of France and extends into seven US states and a Canadian province. The fourth-largest river in the United States by volume, the Columbia has the greatest flow of any North American river entering the Pacific; the Columbia and its tributaries have been central to the region's culture and economy for thousands of years. They have been used for transportation since ancient times, linking the region's many cultural groups; the river system hosts many species of anadromous fish, which migrate between freshwater habitats and the saline waters of the Pacific Ocean. These fish—especially the salmon species—provided the core subsistence for native peoples.
In the late 18th century, a private American ship became the first non-indigenous vessel to enter the river. In the following decades, fur trading companies used the Columbia as a key transportation route. Overland explorers entered the Willamette Valley through the scenic but treacherous Columbia River Gorge, pioneers began to settle the valley in increasing numbers. Steamships along the river linked facilitated trade. Since the late 19th century and private sectors have developed the river. To aid ship and barge navigation, locks have been built along the lower Columbia and its tributaries, dredging has opened and enlarged shipping channels. Since the early 20th century, dams have been built across the river for power generation, navigation and flood control; the 14 hydroelectric dams on the Columbia's main stem and many more on its tributaries produce more than 44 percent of total US hydroelectric generation. Production of nuclear power has taken place at two sites along the river. Plutonium for nuclear weapons was produced for decades at the Hanford Site, now the most contaminated nuclear site in the US.
These developments have altered river environments in the watershed through industrial pollution and barriers to fish migration. The Columbia begins its 1,243-mile journey in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench in British Columbia. Columbia Lake – 2,690 feet above sea level – and the adjoining Columbia Wetlands form the river's headwaters; the trench is a broad and long glacial valley between the Canadian Rockies and the Columbia Mountains in BC. For its first 200 miles, the Columbia flows northwest along the trench through Windermere Lake and the town of Invermere, a region known in British Columbia as the Columbia Valley northwest to Golden and into Kinbasket Lake. Rounding the northern end of the Selkirk Mountains, the river turns south through a region known as the Big Bend Country, passing through Revelstoke Lake and the Arrow Lakes. Revelstoke, the Big Bend, the Columbia Valley combined are referred to in BC parlance as the Columbia Country. Below the Arrow Lakes, the Columbia passes the cities of Castlegar, located at the Columbia's confluence with the Kootenay River, Trail, two major population centers of the West Kootenay region.
The Pend Oreille River joins the Columbia about 2 miles north of the US–Canada border. The Columbia enters eastern Washington flowing south and turning to the west at the Spokane River confluence, it marks the southern and eastern borders of the Colville Indian Reservation and the western border of the Spokane Indian Reservation. The river turns south after the Okanogan River confluence southeasterly near the confluence with the Wenatchee River in central Washington; this C‑shaped segment of the river is known as the "Big Bend". During the Missoula Floods 10,000 to 15,000 years ago, much of the floodwater took a more direct route south, forming the ancient river bed known as the Grand Coulee. After the floods, the river found its present course, the Grand Coulee was left dry; the construction of the Grand Coulee Dam in the mid-20th century impounded the river, forming Lake Roosevelt, from which water was pumped into the dry coulee, forming the reservoir of Banks Lake. The river flows past The Gorge Amphitheatre, a prominent concert venue in the Northwest through Priest Rapids Dam, through the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.
Within the reservation is Hanford Reach, the only US stretch of the river, free-flowing, unimpeded by dams and not a tidal estuary. The Snake River and Yakima River join the Columbia in the Tri‑Cities population center; the Columbia makes a sharp bend to the west at the Washington–Oregon border. The river defines that border for the final 309 miles of its journey; the Deschutes River joins the Columbia near The Dalles. Between The Dalles and Portland, the river cuts through the Cascade Range, forming the dramatic Columbia River Gorge. No other rivers except for the Klamath and Pit River breaches the Cascades—the other rivers that flow through the range originate in or near the mountains; the headwaters and upper course of the Pit River are on the Modoc Plateau. In contrast, the Columbia cuts through the range nearly a thousand miles from its source in the Rocky Mountains; the gorge is known
Basalt is a mafic extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of magnesium-rich and iron-rich lava exposed at or near the surface of a terrestrial planet or a moon. More than 90% of all volcanic rock on Earth is basalt. Basalt lava has a low viscosity, due to its low silica content, resulting in rapid lava flows that can spread over great areas before cooling and solidification. Flood basalt describes the formation in a series of lava basalt flows. By definition, basalt is an aphanitic igneous rock with 45–53% silica and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume, where at least 65% of the rock is feldspar in the form of plagioclase; this is as per definition of the International Union of Geological Sciences classification scheme. It is the most common volcanic rock type on Earth, being a key component of oceanic crust as well as the principal volcanic rock in many mid-oceanic islands, including Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Réunion and the islands of Hawaiʻi. Basalt features a fine-grained or glassy matrix interspersed with visible mineral grains.
The average density is 3.0 g/cm3. Basalt is defined by its mineral content and texture, physical descriptions without mineralogical context may be unreliable in some circumstances. Basalt is grey to black in colour, but weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic minerals into hematite and other iron oxides and hydroxides. Although characterized as "dark", basaltic rocks exhibit a wide range of shading due to regional geochemical processes. Due to weathering or high concentrations of plagioclase, some basalts can be quite light-coloured, superficially resembling andesite to untrained eyes. Basalt has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too for large mineral crystals to grow; these phenocrysts are of olivine or a calcium-rich plagioclase, which have the highest melting temperatures of the typical minerals that can crystallize from the melt. Basalt with a vesicular texture is called vesicular basalt, when the bulk of the rock is solid; this texture forms when dissolved gases come out of solution and form bubbles as the magma decompresses as it reaches the surface, yet are trapped as the erupted lava hardens before the gases can escape.
The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt, but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic groundmass are referred to as diabase or, when more coarse-grained, as gabbro. Gabbro is marketed commercially as "black granite." In the Hadean and early Proterozoic eras of Earth's history, the chemistry of erupted magmas was different from today's, due to immature crustal and asthenosphere differentiation. These ultramafic volcanic rocks, with silica contents below 45% are classified as komatiites; the word "basalt" is derived from Late Latin basaltes, a misspelling of Latin basanites "very hard stone", imported from Ancient Greek βασανίτης, from βάσανος and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica, libri XII. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg at Stolpen, believing it to be the same as the "very hard stone" described by Pliny the Elder in Naturalis Historiae.
Tholeiitic basalt is rich in silica and poor in sodium. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor, most large oceanic islands, continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. High and low titanium basalts. Basalt rocks are in some cases classified after their titanium content in High-Ti and Low-Ti varieties. High-Ti and Low-Ti basalts have been distinguished in the Paraná and Etendeka traps and the Emeishan Traps. Mid-ocean ridge basalt is a tholeiitic basalt erupted only at ocean ridges and is characteristically low in incompatible elements. E-MORB, enriched MORB N-MORB, normal MORB D-MORB, depleted MORB High-alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated, it has greater than 17% alumina and is intermediate in composition between tholeiitic basalt and alkali basalt. Alkali basalt is poor in silica and rich in sodium, it may contain feldspathoids, alkali feldspar and phlogopite. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt, erupted in back-arc basins, distinguished by its low titanium content and trace-element composition.
Ocean island basalt Lunar basalt The mineralogy of basalt is characterized by a preponderance of calcic plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene. Olivine can be a significant constituent. Accessory minerals present in minor amounts include iron oxides and iron-titanium oxides, such as magnetite and ilmenite; because of the presence of such oxide minerals, basalt can acquire strong magnetic signatures as it cools, paleomagnetic studies have made extensive use of basalt. In tholeiitic basalt and calcium-rich plagioclase are common phenocryst minerals. Olivine may be a phenocryst, when
Multnomah Falls is a waterfall located in the Columbia River Gorge, east of Troutdale, between Corbett and Dodson, United States. The waterfall is accessible from the Historic Columbia River Highway and Interstate 84. Spanning two tiers on basalt cliffs, it is the tallest waterfall in the state of Oregon at 620 ft in height; the land surrounding the falls was developed by Simon Benson in the early-twentieth century, with a pathway, viewing bridge, adjacent lodge being constructed in 1925. The Multnomah Falls Lodge and the surrounding footpaths at the falls were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. Contemporarily, the state of Oregon maintains a switchback trail that ascends to a talus slope 100 feet above the falls, descends to an observation deck that overlooks the falls' edge; the falls attract over two million visitors each year, making it the most-visited natural recreation site in the U. S. Pacific Northwest; the falls drops in two major steps, split into an upper falls of 542 feet and a lower falls of 69 feet, with a gradual 9 foot drop in elevation between the two, so the total height of the waterfall is conventionally given as 620 feet.
The two drops are due to a zone of more eroded basalt at the base of the upper falls. Multnomah Falls is the tallest waterfall in the state of Oregon, it is credited by a sign at the site of the falls, by the United States Forest Service, as the second tallest year-round waterfall in the United States. However, there has been some skepticism surrounding this distinction, as Multnomah Falls is listed as the 156th tallest waterfall in the United States by the World Waterfall Database; the World Waterfall Database disputes claims that Multnomah Falls is the fourth-tallest waterfall in the United States, claimed in such sources as the Encyclopedia of World Geography. Underground springs from Larch Mountain are the year-round source of water for the waterfall, augmented by spring runoff from the mountain's snowpack and rainwater during the other seasons; this spring is the source of Multnomah Creek. The waterfall formed around 15,000 years ago at the end of a hanging valley, was created by the Missoula Floods.
According to legend from the Multnomah tribe, the waterfall was formed after a young woman sacrificed herself to the Great Spirit to save Multnomah village from a plague by jumping from the cliff, the Multnomah peoples were saved. After her death, water began creating the waterfall; the falls were noted in the journals of explorers William Clark and Meriwether Lewis during their expedition through the Columbia River Gorge in 1805. In an October 30 journal entry, Lewis notes: passed Several places where the rocks projected into the river & have the appearance of having separated from the mountains and fallen into the river, small niches are formed in the banks below those projecting rocks, common in this part of the river, Saw 4 Cascades caused by Small Streams falling from the mountains on the Lard; the origin of the falls' naming is unclear. Beginning in 1884, the Oregon Railway and Navigation Company operated a stop at Multnomah Falls on their railway, which spanned from Portland to Pasco, Washington.
Around 1891, the bridge was reinforced, but was dismantled in 1899. On January 28, 1915, Samuel C. Lancaster recommended to the Progressive Business Men's Club of Portland that a trail be built from the base of Multnomah Falls extending to the top of Larch Mountain; the Club raised several hundred dollars to finance the trail, Portland financier Simon Benson and his son Amos S. Benson pledged an additional $3,000; the United States Forest Service appropriated a total of $1,500 and agreed to survey and build the trail in addition to the lookout on Larch Mountain. Benson financed Italian stonemasons to construct a bridge at the falls to allow visitor access; this bridge, named the Benson Footbridge, spans the lower falls at a height of 105 feet, provides an expansive view of the upper falls. On Labor Day 1915, Benson donated over 1,400 acres of land which included most of the falls as well as nearby Wahkeena Falls, to the city of Portland; the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company subsequently donated the land at the base of Multnomah Falls contingent upon their agreement that a lodge would be constructed at the site the same year.
Late that year, architect A. E. Doyle, who designed Portland's Meier & Frank Building, was commissioned by the city to design the Multnomah Falls Lodge, completed in 1925; the lodge, built in a "Cascadian" architectural style using native split fieldstone laid irregularly. The building features a steeply-pitched cedar-shingled gable roof with large chimneys. In the early through the mid-twentieth century, the lodge provided both meals and lodging to travelers. Contemporarily, it provides meals, a gift shop, an interpretive center; the lodge and footpaths were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. In contrast to other falls along the Gorge, the Multnomah Falls area is accessible via Interstate 84 east of Troutdale, is a "designated scenic area" by the state of Oregon; the falls are the most-visited natural recreation area in the Pacific Northwes