In architecture, a bay is the space between architectural elements, or a recess or compartment. Bay comes from Old French baee, meaning an hole; the spaces between posts, columns, or buttresses in the length of a building, the division in the widths being called aisles. This meaning applies to overhead vaults, in a building using a vaulted structural system. For example, the Gothic architecture period's Chartres Cathedral has a nave, "seven bays long." In timber framing a bay is the space between posts in the transverse direction of the building and aisles run longitudinally. The openings for windows in a wall. For example, in Georgian style, at Mulberry Fields, the building is described as a "5 bay by 2 bay facade," meaning a "5 windows by 2 windows" exterior. A recess in a wall, such as a bay window. A division of space such as an animal stall, sick bay, or bay platform; the space between joists or rafters, a joist bay or rafter bay. The Japanese ken and Korean kan are both bays themselves and measurements based upon their number and standard placement.
Under the Joseon, Koreans were allocated a set number of bays in their residential architecture based upon their class. Architectural elements
Lady Constance Bulwer-Lytton
Lady Constance Georgina Bulwer-Lytton known as Constance Lytton, was an influential British suffragette activist, writer and campaigner for prison reform, votes for women, birth control. She sometimes used the name Jane Warton. Although born and raised in the privileged ruling class of British society, Lytton rejected this background to join the Women's Social and Political Union, the most militant group of suffragette activists campaigning for "Votes for Women", she was subsequently imprisoned four times, including once in Walton gaol in Liverpool under the nom de guerre of Jane Warton, where she was force fed while on hunger strike. She chose the alias and disguise of Jane Warton, an'ugly London seamstress', to avoid receiving special treatment and privileges because of her family connections: she was the daughter of a viceroy and the sister of a member of the House of Lords, she wrote pamphlets on women's rights, articles in The Times newspaper, a book on her experiences and Prisoners, published in 1914.
While imprisoned in Holloway during March 1909, Lytton used a piece of broken enamel from a hairpin to carve the letter "V" into the flesh of her breast, placed over the heart. "V" for Votes for Women. Lytton remained unmarried, because her mother refused her permission to marry a man from a "lower social order", while she refused to contemplate marrying anyone else, her heart attack and early death at the age of 54 have been attributed in part to the trauma of her hunger strike and force feeding by the prison authorities. Lytton was the third of seven children of Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton and Edith Villiers, she spent some of her early years in India. Her siblings were: Edward Rowland John Bulwer-Lytton Lady Elizabeth Edith "Betty" Bulwer-Lytton. Married Gerald Balfour, 2nd Earl of Balfour, brother of the future Prime Minister Arthur Balfour. Henry Meredith Edward Bulwer-Lytton Lady Emily Bulwer-Lytton. Married the architect Edwin Lutyens. Associate and confidante of Jiddu Krishnamurti.
Victor Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Earl of Lytton, married Pamela Chichele-Plowden, an early flame of Sir Winston Churchill, who had met her while playing polo at Secunderabad. Neville Bulwer-Lytton, 3rd Earl of Lytton In the early years in India, Lytton was educated by a series of governesses and had a lonely childhood, she met Winston Churchill while living in India, where he was a rival to her brother Victor for the hand of Pamela Chichele-Plowden. She is reported to have said: "The first time you see Winston Churchill you see all his faults, the rest of your life you spend discovering his virtues. Although she matured in England surrounded by many of the great artistic and literary names of the day, she rejected the aristocratic way of life. After her father died, she retired from view to care for her mother, rejecting attempts to interest her in the outside world. Lytton remained unmarried until her death. For several years she waited in vain for her mother to change her mind, while refusing to contemplate marrying anyone else.
The reclusive phase of Lytton's life started to change in 1905 when she was left £1,000 in her great-aunt/godmother, Lady Bloomfield's estate. She donated this to the revival of Morris dancing and her family records state that "Her brother Neville suggested that she gave it to the Esperance Club, a small singing and dancing group for working class girls", where part of their remit was teaching Morris dancing; the Esperance club was founded by Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence and Mary Neal in response to distressing conditions for girls in the London dress trade. Between September 1908 and October 1909 Constance Lytton's conversion to the militant suffragette cause was complete. On 10 September 1908 she wrote to Adela Smith: I met some suffragettes down at the club in Littlehampton… They have come into personal first-hand contact with prison abuses. My hobby of prison reform has thereby taken on new vigour… I intend to interview the female inspector of Holloway prison, will take part in the Suffragette breakfast with the next batch of released Suffrage prisoners on 16 September.
I had a long talk with Mrs. Pethick-Lawrence, she talked Woman Suffrage, about which, though I sympathise with the cause, she left me unconverted as to my criticisms of some of their methods. She subsequently met other suffragettes, including Annie Kenney and Pethick-Lawrence, at the Green Lady Hostel and on a tour of Holloway prison. On 14 October 1908, she wrote to her mother: I went to the Suffragette Office to see Mrs. Lawrence and to congratulate her on the meeting of the day before, inquire the latest news, say: "You know my reservations as to some of your methods, but my sympathies are much more with you than with any of your opponents… I want to be of use if I can. Is there anything I can do to help you?" A good deal of talk ensued. She said, "Yes," I could help them. Could I see to it that Herbert Gladstone was asked to treat the Suffragettes as political offenders, which they are, not as common criminals, which they are not?. In Prison and Prisoners, she stated: "Women had tried and always in vain, every peaceable means open to them of influencing successive governments.
Processions and petitions were useless. In January 1909 I decided to become a member of the Women's Social and Political Union." Working for the WSPU she made speeche
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian. There are two lesser orders: the Tuscan, the rich variant of Corinthian called the composite order, both added by 16th-century Italian architectural writers, based on Roman practice. Of the three canonic orders, the Ionic order has the narrowest columns; the Ionic capital is characterized by the use of volutes. The Ionic columns stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform. Since Vitruvius, a female character has been ascribed to the Ionic; the major features of the Ionic order are the volutes of its capital, which have been the subject of much theoretical and practical discourse, based on a brief and obscure passage in Vitruvius. The only tools required to design these features were a straight-edge, a right angle, string and a compass. Below the volutes, the Ionic column may have a wide collar or banding separating the capital from the fluted shaft, or a swag of fruit and flowers may swing from the clefts or "neck" formed by the volutes.
The volutes lay in a single plane. This feature of the Ionic order made it more pliant and satisfactory than the Doric to critical eyes in the 4th century BC: angling the volutes on the corner columns ensured that they "read" when seen from either front or side facade; the 16th-century Renaissance architect and theorist Vincenzo Scamozzi designed a version of such a four-sided Ionic capital. The Ionic column is always more slender than the Doric. Ionic columns are most fluted. After a little early experimentation, the number of hollow flutes in the shaft settled at 24; this standardization kept the fluting in a familiar proportion to the diameter of the column at any scale when the height of the column was exaggerated. Roman fluting leaves a little of the column surface between each hollow. In some instances, the fluting has been omitted. English architect Inigo Jones introduced a note of sobriety with plain Ionic columns on his Banqueting House at Whitehall Palace and when Beaux-Arts architect John Russell Pope wanted to convey the manly stamina combined with intellect of Theodore Roosevelt, he left colossal Ionic columns unfluted on the Roosevelt memorial at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, for an unusual impression of strength and stature.
Wabash Railroad architect R. E. Mohr included 8 unfluted Ionic frontal columns on his 1928 design for the railroad's St. Louis suburban stop Delmar Station; the entablature resting on the columns has three parts: a plain architrave divided into two, or more three, with a frieze resting on it that may be richly sculptural, a cornice built up with dentils, with a corona and cyma molding to support the projecting roof. Pictorial narrative bas-relief frieze carving provides a characteristic feature of the Ionic order, in the area where the Doric order is articulated with triglyphs. Roman and Renaissance practice condensed the height of the entablature by reducing the proportions of the architrave, which made the frieze more prominent; the Ionic anta capital is the ionic version of the anta capital, the crowning portion of an anta, the front edge of a supporting wall in Greek temple architecture. The anta is crowned by a stone block designed to spread the load from superstructure it supports, called an "anta capital" when it is structural, or sometimes "pilaster capital" if it is only decorative as during the Roman period.
In order not to protrude unduly from the wall, these anta capitals display a rather flat surface, so that the capital has more or less a rectangular-shaped structure overall. The ionic anta capital, in contrast to the regular column capitals, is decorated and includes bands of alternating lotuses and flame palmettes, bands of eggs and darts and beads and reels patterns, in order to maintain continuity with the decorative frieze lining the top of the walls; this difference with the column capitals disappeared with Roman times, when anta or pilaster capitals have designs similar to those of the column capitals. The ionic anta capitals as can be seen in the Ionic-order temple of the Erechtheion, are characteristically rectangular Ionic anta capitals, with extensive bands of floral patterns in prolongation of adjoining friezes; the Ionic order originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia, the southwestern coastland and islands of Asia Minor settled by Ionian Greeks, where an Ionian dialect was spoken.
The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century BC. It was most popular in the Archaic Period in Ionia; the first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570–560 BC by the architect Rhoikos. It stood for only a decade. A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of t
Royal Victoria Park, Bath
Royal Victoria Park is located in Bath, England. It was opened in 1830 by the 11-year-old Princess Victoria seven years before her ascension to the throne and was the first park to carry her name, with an obelisk dedicated to her, it was run as part of the Victorian public park movement until 1921 when it was taken over by the Bath Corporation. The park is overlooked by the Royal Crescent and consists of 57 acres with attractions that include a skateboard ramp, tennis and putting green and 12 and 18 hole golf course, open-air concerts, a large children's play area and a 9-acre botanical garden, it has received a Green Flag award, the national standard for parks and green spaces in England and Wales and is Grade I registered by English Heritage on the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. The Botanical Gardens were formed in the north-west area of the park in 1887, it contain one of the finest collections of plants on limestone in the West country. The replica of a Roman Temple in the gardens was used at the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley in 1924.
To the north of the Botanical Gardens is the Great Dell, a sunken wooded area alongside Weston Road. It is a former stone quarry planted out in the 1840s with a collection of unusual trees, including some large North American conifers. In 2007 a programme of reconstruction and restoration was undertaken by Bath and North East Somerset Council and supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund; this included the renovation of two Medici lion statues on plinths each side of the Queen’s Gate entrance to the park, replacing the original iron armatures inside the limbs, returning them to their bronze colour, giving each a gilt ball under its front paw. Further work will add two 8 feet cast iron replicas of the original lanterns and the replacement of the decorative iron gates to the three main entrances to the park; the original gates were removed, along with all the railings around the park, as part of a Second World War national scrap metal campaign. Further works involved the reinstatement of over a mile of perimeter railings, the restoration of the bandstand, the reforming of three sets of park gates, work to the Royal Crescent Ha-ha, the extension of the Temple of Minerva to form a small interpretation centre.
These works coincided with significant works to the planting throughout the park. Royal Victoria Park and North East Somerset Council
Little Solsbury Hill is a small flat-topped hill and the site of an Iron Age hill fort. It is located above the village of Batheaston in England; the hill rises to 625 feet above the River Avon, just over 1 mile to the south, gives views of the city of Bath and the surrounding area. It is within the Cotswolds Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the hill is one of several possible locations of the Battle of Badon and shows the remains of a medieval field system. Part of the hill was quarried in the 19th century. In 1930, it was acquired by the National Trust; the hill was the inspiration of the Peter Gabriel song "Solsbury Hill", recorded in 1977. A small turf labyrinth was cut into the turf by protesters during the widening of the A46 in 1994, it is sometimes misspelled as Salisbury, or Solisbury because of confusion with Salisbury Plain, or the city of Salisbury. Salisbury and Solsbury can be difficult to distinguish in speech; the name'Solsbury' may be derived from the Celtic god Sulis, a deity worshipped at the thermal spring in nearby Bath.
A geological map by Horace B Woodward in the back of the 1888'Handbook of Bath' labels the hill as'Stilisbury Hill'. The hill is formed in layers from a variety of sedimentary rocks of Jurassic age. In common with the Cotswold plateau to the north, the summit is formed from rocks ascribed to the Chalfield Oolite Formation; the oolite together with the Fuller's Earth Formation which underlies it, forms a part of the Great Oolite Group of rocks of Bathonian age. Beneath these are, Bajocian age limestones of the Inferior Oolite Group and sandstones of the Bridport Sand Formation; the last-named unit forms a part of the Lias Group of rocks of Toarcian age. Beneath all of these is the thick Charmouth Mudstone Formation sequence rising from the edge of the valley floor alluvium. All faces of the hill are subject to large areas of landslip; the 625 feet high hill is just over 1 mile to the north of the River Avon. Hill forts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age the start of the first millennium BC.
The reason for their emergence in Britain, their purpose, has been a subject of debate. It has been argued that they could have been military sites constructed in response to invasion from continental Europe, sites built by invaders, or a military reaction to social tensions caused by an increasing population and consequent pressure on agriculture. Solsbury Hill was an Iron Age hill fort occupied between 300 BC and 100 BC, comprising a triangular area enclosed by a single univallate rampart, faced inside and out with well-built dry stone walls and infilled with rubble; the rampart was 20 feet wide and the outer face was at least 12 feet high. The top of the hill was cleared down to the bedrock substantial huts were built with wattle and daub on a timber frame. After a period of occupation, some of the huts were burnt down, the rampart was overthrown, the site was abandoned, never to be reoccupied; this event is part of the Belgic invasion of Britain in the early part of the 1st century BC. The hill is near the Fosse Way Roman Road as it descends Bannerdown hill into Batheaston on its way to Bath.
Solsbury Hill is a possible location of the Battle of Badon, fought between the Britons and the Saxons c. 496, mentioned by the chroniclers Gildas and Nennius. The hilltop shows the remains of a medieval or post medieval field system; the hill has two disused quarries, one listed on the northwest side on a 1911 map, another one listed between 1885 and 1900 as an old quarry on the west side. It was acquired by the National Trust in 1930. People protesting against the building of an A46 bypass road cut a small turf maze into the hill, during the construction of the bypass in the mid-1990s. In one day of protests, 11 people, including George Monbiot, were hospitalised as a result of beatings by the security guards; the plants and animals which live on Solsbury Hill reflect the habitat provided by grassland overlying the limestone rock beneath. Specialist plants and animals, some of which are rare species, have adapted to the calcareous grassland. Most of the landscape is unaffected by agriculture as shown by the yellow meadow ant.
Examples of plant species found include bird's foot trefoil, greater knapweed, harebells and scabious. It is one of a series of flower-rich habitats; the plants attract a range of insects including: the six-spotted burnet moth, hummingbird hawk-moth and a number of butterflies including chalkhill blues. A small population of common buzzard nest in the area. Roe deer and red fox are seen. Skylarks nest on the hill. Solsbury Hill is the inspiration for an eponymous song, released in 1977 by rock musician Peter Gabriel as his first solo single. A recording of the natural sounds on the hill forms the track "A Quiet Moment" on Gabriel's 2011 album New Blood, which precedes the orchestral version of his song; the Warlord Chronicles, a historical fiction trilogy of books, places the site of Mount Badon at Solsbury Hill. List of hill forts and ancient settlements in Somerset
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol; the city became a World Heritage site in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin name Aquae Sulis c. 60 AD when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known before then. Bath Abbey became a religious centre. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era. Georgian architecture, crafted from Bath stone, includes the Royal Crescent, Pump Room and Assembly Rooms where Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew. Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century.
Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II. The city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a major centre for tourism, with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, the Victoria Art Gallery, the Museum of East Asian Art, the Herschel Museum of Astronomy and the Holburne Museum; the city has two universities – the University of Bath and Bath Spa University – with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C.. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, following Avon's abolition in 1996, has been the principal centre of Bath and North East Somerset; the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century.
Solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down. Archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman baths' main spring may have been treated as a shrine by the Britons, was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva. Messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists; the tablets were written in Latin, cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them. For example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, a bathing complex was built up over the next 300 years. Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead.
In the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, the baths fell into disrepair and were lost as a result of rising water levels and silting. In March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig; the coins, believed to date from the 3rd century, were found about 150 m from the Roman baths. Bath may have been the site of the Battle of Badon, in which King Arthur is said to have defeated the Anglo-Saxons; the town was captured by the West Saxons in 577 after the Battle of Deorham. A monastery was founded at an early date – reputedly by Saint David although more in 675 by Osric, King of the Hwicce using the walled area as its precinct. Nennius, a 9th-century historian, mentions a "Hot Lake" in the land of the Hwicce along the River Severn, adds "It is surrounded by a wall, made of brick and stone, men may go there to bathe at any time, every man can have the kind of bath he likes.
If he wants, it will be a cold bath. Bede described hot baths in the geographical introduction to the Ecclesiastical History in terms similar to those of Nennius. King Offa of Mercia gained control of the monastery in 781 and rebuilt the church, dedicated to St. Peter. According to the Victorian churchman Edward Churton, during the Anglo-Saxon era Bath was known as Acemannesceastre, or'aching men's city', on account of the reputation these springs had for healing the sick. By the 9th century the old Roman street pattern was lost and Bath was a royal possession. King Alfred laid out the town afresh. In the Burghal Hidage, Bath is recorded as a burh and is described as having walls of 1,375 yards and was allocated 1000 men for defence. During the reign of Edward the Elder coins were minted in Bath based on a design from the Winchester mint but with'BAD' on the obverse relating to the Anglo-Saxon name for the town, Baðum, Baðan or Baðon, meaning "at the baths", this was the
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K