Lutsen Mountains is a ski area in the north central United States. It is home with a maximum vertical drop of 825 feet. Average snowfall accumulation is around 10 feet each season. During the summer, the area serves as a hiking destination and getaway resort with nearby access to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness and Lake Superior. Lutsen is one of the northernmost ski areas in the United States outside of Alaska and Washington State, it is located in the Sawtooth Mountains, which are hills that are part of the Superior Highlands on the north shore of Lake Superior. Lutsen receives natural snow, at times lake effect snow from the lake at its foot, has snowmaking equipment. Lutsen Mountains Resort is the largest ski resort in the Midwest having the most vertical drop in the Midwest; the ski season extends from November into mid-April, longer than most other resorts in the Upper Midwest. The ski area consists of four hills, named Eagle, Ullr and Moose Mountains; the ski resort's "Eagle Mountain" should not be confused with Eagle Mountain, the highest point in Minnesota, in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area.
The base sits at the feet of Ullr Mountains. Eagle Mountain consists of 21 primary runs, 4 side-country runs, two chairlifts, it is open from 9:00 AM-4:00 PM during the season. The run difficulty breakdown is 3 double black diamonds, 10 black diamonds, 9 blue, 3 green; the base and gondola are accessible from multiple runs. Two junior race courses, 1 mogul, 2 terrain park runs sit on the mountain. Ullr Mountain consists of 8 short runs, one chairlift, one surface lift; the run difficulty breakdown is 5 blue, 3 green. The base and gondola are accessible from all runs. Mystery Mountain is accessible from the bottom of Mystery Mountains. There is one chairlift that provides access to 10 runs, one of which consists of a terrain park featuring banked turns and rollers; the run difficulty breakdown is 8 blue. Moose Mountain is the largest of the four mountains and provides views of Lake Superior from the Southeast facing slope, it features 52 runs, including 9 double black diamond, 13 black diamond, 30 blue, 1 terrain park, 1 mogul run.
The mountain can be accessed from the resort base via Gondola or the Moose Access run from Eagle Mountain. Two chair lifts can be found at the bases of the two east-facing slopes; the Summit Chalet can be found at the top of the mountain right off of the Gondola. Three double black diamond runs drop off of the Northwest slope. In 1989, Lutsen Mountains installed a German-made PHB Hall gondola to provide access between the base area and Moose Mountain; the gondola is the first, the only, gondola in a mid-American ski resort. Lutsen is known as a family-friendly resort, being named as a Top 20 Family Ski Resort for two years in a row. Lutsen mountains is host to two resorts, the Caribou Highlands, Eagle Ridge Resorts, which offer a wide variety of rooms and townhomes. Many of them feature ski-in/ski-out access to the mountains. In May 2013, it was announced that Lutsen is installing a six-place high speed detachable lift on Moose Mountain to replace the current Caribou double chair; the existing Caribou double lift will be stored and re-installed on the backside of Moose Mountain to service expert terrain.
In summer 2014, Lutsen installed a new pipeline to carry water for snowmaking from Lake Superior to the resort's pumping facility. This alleviates the need to pull water from a designated trout stream. Within the next ten to fifteen years, Lutsen has put forward plans to expand its pedestrian village & skier services, as well as add additional skier services and base facilities on Eagle and Moose Mountains. Current plans outline a 150-acre expansion doubling the current skiing acreage, with five or more new chairlifts and several dozen new ski runs; this expansion plan would mark the first attempt by a private ski resort in Minnesota to expand on to public lands, namely the Superior National Forest and is there for locally controversial. In December 2014, it was announced that Lutsen would begin its expansion and modernization efforts by purchasing and installing a $7 million Doppelmayr 8-passenger high-speed gondola to bring skiers between Eagle and Moose Mountains, replacing the current PHB Hall Skycruiser model, installed as a used lift in the late 1980s.
Cindy Nelson, silver medalist at 1982 World Championships, 1976 Olympic bronze medalist Lutsen Mountain website Lutsen Mountain Ski Area Information on SnowGuide.org
Moose Mountain (Minnesota)
Moose Mountain is a peak in the Sawtooth Mountains of northeastern Minnesota in the United States. Its elevation is 1689 feet above sea level. Located close to Lake Superior and reaching 1087 feet above its waters, it is part of the Lutsen Mountains ski resort
Highpointing is the sport of ascending to the point with the highest elevation within a given area. Examples include: climbing the highest point of each U. S. state. While highpointing takes its adherents to the apex of dangerous and spectacular mountains, it leads people to climb much less notable hilltops in pursuit of their goal. An example of this can be found in those who climb the highest point of each U. S. state. This requires ascents not only of Denali and Mt. Rainier, two of North America’s most impressive peaks, but to the tops of such states as Delaware and Rhode Island, where most people would contend there are no actual mountains to climb; the heterogeneous nature of these summits is considered part of the appeal, as the travel and cultural experiences en route to the climbs are valued as as the climbs themselves. This sport is practiced all around the world; the most prominent groups of "highpointers" in the U. S. attempt to either climb to the highest point of each state in the U.
S. or to the highest point in each county within a specific U. S. state. These activities are called "state" and "county" highpointing, respectively. Other notable highpointing pursuits include climbing the Seven Summits, ascending to the highest mountain in each country in Europe, reaching the top of each state or province in one’s home country. Highpointing is different than peakbagging. Peakbaggers climb every peak above a certain height in a specific region, whereas highpointers would climb just one summit in each region of a larger geographical area; the goal of many highpointers is to ascend to every highpoint on their list. Starting in the early 1900s, a few pioneers of highpointing began visiting the highest geographic point in each of the 50 states of the United States. In the early days, this endeavor involved dispute and original research, as the tools to map every square inch of the country were just beginning to find widespread use - and this was part of the charm; the first person to climb each U.
S. state highpoint was A. H. Marshall, who completed the task in July, 1936. Marshall's 48th highpoint to complete the task was Indiana's modest Hoosier Hill. Only four individuals are known to have completed all 48 states before the addition of Alaska and Hawaii in 1959; the first person to climb to the top of all 50 states was Vin Hoeman in 1966. Since about 250 people have climbed to the top of each U. S. state. Mt. Everest, by comparison, has seen over 5,000 ascents by more than 3,000 individuals. In 1986, Jack Longacre placed an ad in Outside magazine which led the next year to the formation of the Highpointers Club, devoted to climbs of U. S. state highpoints. Participation in county highpointing in the U. S. varies among states, with few states being climbed by more than a few dozen individuals. See County Highpointers Club for more information; the Seven Summits were first completed in 1985 by Dick Bass. At least 350 people have climbed all seven since then. There is some dispute over what constitutes Australia's summit: some people climb Mount Kosciuszko, the highest point on the Australian mainland.
Click the Seven Summits link for more information. The first person to climb all of Europe's highpoints was Ginge Fullen in 1999. There were a few revisions of the high points in Europe e.g. Kosovo - Morgan Batt is the first to summit the revised list 2017. Mr. Fullen appears to be the first person to climb the highpoint of every nation in Africa. Since a few dozen people have completed the European highpoints. European highpoint climbers have their task complicated by 1) various definitions of what constitutes the European continent 2) emergence of new nations 3) debate over whether to count the highest points on the mainland of a nation, or the highpoints of islands belonging to it. Climbs to the tops of each state/province in Canada and other countries have been recorded. To date, no person is known to have reached the highest point in every country in the world. Rules for this pursuit are few, ascents are defined by the individuals themselves. Highpointing has no formal governing body; the organizational body for state highpointing in the U.
S. is The Highpointers Club. However, many Highpoint Guides and Books hold to these general principles: Any route to the top - walking, driving an automobile, etc. - is considered a valid means of attaining the high point. Each individual must decide. Many will prefer reaching the high point under their own locomotion, or to climb a certain amount of vertical feet en route, but the means of ascent is a personal choice; the goal is to attain the highest "natural point." In other words, regardless of what man-made structures have been placed on top, the goal is to stand atop the highest "natural point." If the natural high point is covered with a structure and that structure is accessible on a limited basis, entering the structure and standing over the presumed high point is the goal. If the structure is and permanently inaccessible—e.g. A military base or private telecommunications tower - the goal is to reach the highest accessible natural point; some highpoints are open on certain dates only
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
Leaf Hills Moraines
The Leaf Hills Moraines, sometimes called the Leaf Mountains, are a range of hills in west-central Minnesota. The land does not exhibit many characteristics of mountains, but rises to a height of 100 feet to 300 feet above the surrounding farmland reaching higher than 350 feet; the name of this range of hills is translated from the Ojibwe Gaaskibag-wajiwan, interpreted by Gilfillan as “Rustling Leaf Mountains.” The name is shared by Leaf Mountain Township, the two Leaf Lakes, the Leaf River, all named for the hills. In turn, the hills in Ojibwe are named after the highest hill of this hill range; the hills are described by Upham as "running southeast from Fergus Falls to the south line of the county and thence east and northeast to East Leaf Lake, a distance of 50 miles." Through their full extent in Otter Tail County, the hills have steeply sloped sides covered by prairies and deciduous forests maple and oak. The hills are formed by the convergence of the eighth and ninth marginal moraines formed by the Wadena and Des Moines lobes of the Wisconsonian glaciation.
This moraine forms an arc about ten to 200 miles long. It is composed of a huge volume of morainic drift up to 350 feet thick, overlain with thin sandy soil as well as rocks and boulders; the hills' outline is not regular, but erratic, in many places the range is broken by rivers and Minnesota’s famous lakes. Only a few of the many high points of the range have received names. Prominent among them are Inspiration Peak. Paleoindians lived in the area at least 6,000 years ago, longer, as earlier remains have been found in the general vicinity. Artifacts from both the Prairie and Woodland cultures have been found. In more recent times, the region was held by the Dakota until they were displaced by the Ojibwa in the eighteenth century. In the eighteenth century, the area became a source of pelts for the fur trade. In the 1840s, the mountains were pierced by the Woods Trail and skirted by the East Plains Trail, two of the Red River Trails between Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota; these trails opened up the area to settlement in the last half of the nineteenth century.
Due to their steepness and the abundance of fieldstone and boulders, the hills were found by pioneers to be unsuitable for plowing but well suited for raising and grazing livestock. Part of the region has been preserved in Maplewood State Park. Terminal moraine List of glacial moraines
The Canadian Shield called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien, is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent. Composed of igneous rock resulting from its long volcanic history, the area is covered by a thin layer of soil. With a deep, joined bedrock region in eastern and central Canada, it stretches north from the Great Lakes to the Arctic Ocean, covering over half of Canada. Human population is sparse, industrial development is minimal, while mining is prevalent; the Canadian Shield is a physiographic division, consisting of five smaller physiographic provinces: the Laurentian Upland, Kazan Region, Davis and James. The shield extends into the United States as the Superior Upland; the Canadian Shield is U-shaped and is a subsection of the Laurentia craton signifying the area of greatest glacial impact creating the thin soils. The Canadian Shield is more than 3.96 billion years old.
The Canadian Shield once had jagged peaks, higher than any of today's mountains, but millions of years of erosion have changed these mountains to rolling hills. The Canadian Shield is a collage of Archean plates and accreted juvenile arc terranes and sedimentary basins of the Proterozoic Eon that were progressively amalgamated during the interval 2.45 to 1.24 Ga, with the most substantial growth period occurring during the Trans-Hudson orogeny, between ca. 1.90 to 1.80 Ga. The Canadian Shield was the first part of North America to be permanently elevated above sea level and has remained wholly untouched by successive encroachments of the sea upon the continent, it is the Earth's greatest area of exposed Archean rock. The metamorphic base rocks are from the Precambrian and have been uplifted and eroded. Today it consists of an area of low relief 300 to 610 m above sea level with a few monadnocks and low mountain ranges eroded from the plateau during the Cenozoic Era. During the Pleistocene Epoch, continental ice sheets depressed the land surface creating Hudson Bay, scooped out thousands of lake basins, carried away much of the region's soil.
When the Greenland section is included, the Shield is circular, bounded on the northeast by the northeast edge of Greenland, with Hudson Bay in the middle. It covers much of Greenland, most of Quebec north of the St. Lawrence River, much of Ontario including northern sections of the Ontario Peninsula, the Adirondack Mountains of New York, the northernmost part of Lower Michigan and all of Upper Michigan, northern Wisconsin, northeastern Minnesota, the central/northern portions of Manitoba away from Hudson Bay, northern Saskatchewan, a small portion of northeastern Alberta, the mainland northern Canadian territories to the east of a line extended north from the Saskatchewan/Alberta border. In total, the exposed area of the Shield covers 8,000,000 km2; the true extent of the Shield is greater still and stretches from the Western Cordillera in the west to the Appalachians in the east and as far south as Texas, but these regions are overlaid with much younger rocks and sediment. The Canadian Shield is with regions dating from 2.5 to 4.2 billion years.
The multitude of rivers and lakes in the entire region is caused by the watersheds of the area being so young and in a state of sorting themselves out with the added effect of post-glacial rebound. The Shield was an area of large tall mountains with much volcanic activity, but over hundreds of millions of years, the area has been eroded to its current topographic appearance of low relief, it has some of the oldest volcanoes on the planet. It has over 150 volcanic belts; each belt grew by the coalescence of accumulations erupted from numerous vents, making the tally of volcanoes reach the hundreds. Many of Canada's major ore deposits are associated with Precambrian volcanoes; the Sturgeon Lake Caldera in Kenora District, Ontario, is one of the world's best preserved mineralized Neoarchean caldera complexes, 2.7 billion years old. The Canadian Shield contains the Mackenzie dike swarm, the largest dike swarm known on Earth. Mountains float on the denser mantle much like an iceberg at sea; as mountains erode, their roots are eroded in turn.
The rocks that now form the surface of the Shield were once far below the Earth's surface. The high pressures and temperatures at those depths provided ideal conditions for mineralization. Although these mountains are now eroded, many large mountains still exist in Canada's far north called the Arctic Cordillera; this is a vast dissected mountain range, stretching from northernmost Ellesmere Island to the northernmost tip of Labrador. The range's highest peak is Nunavut's Barbeau Peak at 2,616 metres above sea level. Precambrian rock is the major component of the bedrock; the North American craton is the bedrock forming the heart of the North American continent and the Canadian Shield is the largest exposed part of the craton's bedrock. The Canadian Shield is part of an ancient continent called Arctica, formed about 2.5 billion years ago during the Neoarchean era. It was s