Forest Range, South Australia
Forest Range is a small town in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia. Forest Range was settled by timber sawyers, cutting stringybark trees for charcoal. In 1854 there was a minor gold rush with a larger gold rush in the 1880s. Gold-seekers took over 6000 ounces of gold. Timber-cutting gave way to vegetable farming as land was cleared. Forest Range comprised the whole district including Lenswood, until 1917 when Lenswood was proclaimed. Land clearing formed the major industries, but this soon gave way to farming. Farming in those times was mixed, with fruit and vegetables farmed for local or Adelaide use. In the 20th century farming became more specialised and apples and cherries became the main industries; the Forest Range Fruitgrowers' Co-Operative Society was one of the main sites of apple packing and storage until it was absorbed by the nearby Lenswood Cold Store in the 1950s. Forest Range had a number of businesses and community buildings, but over time, these have all disappeared; these included hotels, timber sawing mills and churches.
The Forest Range Hall and the Forest Range Post Office remain the last community buildings, however there are numerous orchard sheds and private cold stores. There is a community park on Lobethal Road, near The Ford. There are two war memorials on Central Recreation Ground commemorating each world war; the Forest Range Oval The Central Recreation Park
Lobethal is a town in the Adelaide Hills area of South Australia. It is located in the Adelaide Hills Council local government area, is nestled on the banks of a creek between the hills and up the sides of the valley, it was once the centre of the Adelaide Hills wool processing industry, which continued until around 1950. The mill buildings are now used by a number of cottage handcraft businesses. At the 2006 census, Lobethal had a population of 1,836; the town is famed during the Christmas season for its display of Christmas lights and decorations, which have attracted visitors from around the state since the 1950s. Lobethal is German for "valley of praise". On the day of the division of the land, according to Reverend I. Ey's account,'it received the name Lobethal, taken from the II Book of Chronicles, chapter 20, verse 26, according to Luther's translation, means Lobethal or'Valley of praise'. Due to the Great War in Europe, in 1917 the South Australian state government changed many German place names.
The name Lobethal was changed to Tweedvale. Lobethal was re-instated as the town's name with the enactment of the South Australia Nomenclature Act of 1935 on 12 December 1935. Lobethal was settled in 1842 by Prussian immigrants, who came out with Pastor Gotthard Fritzsche aboard the sailing vessel Skjold, who went to Hahndorf but were alerted to good land in the upper Onkaparinga. German Lutheran settlers provided compatriot, Johann Friedrich Krummnow, who had arrived in South Australia three years earlier and was a naturalised English citizen, with funds for land purchases to establish the community. Krummnow wanted it based on his own principles of fervent prayer; the Lobethal settlers rejected Krummnow's vision and disputed his right to the land titles. Many of their traditions remain to this day, although the town is not as overtly Germanic as Hahndorf or Tanunda. In 1845, St John's Lutheran Church was built. A new church has been built alongside; the town, as with many German towns in South Australia, was built in typical Silesian Hufendorf style, with the cottages arranged in a line along the main street, each family having a long, narrow strip of land stretching from the main street back to the village common, where all families could allow their animals to graze.
The advantages of this layout were that everyone had access to both fresh water and the main road, a even distribution of fertile and infertile land. While the town developed out of recognition, elements of the hufendorf layout remain. In 1850, F. W. Kleinschmidt set up a brewery, it closed after about two decades when Kleinschmidt turned his attention to hop-growing - which subsequently became a focus for Lobethal's agriculture. The brewery itself was turned into the Lobethal Tweed Factory, which became the Onkaparinga Woollen Company and operated until 1992. A cricket bat factory utilising locally grown willow operated from 1894 until 1950. Lobethal is located between Gumeracha and Woodside along the north-south road, east of Adelaide via Magill and Norton Summit. At the ABS 2001 census, Lobethal had a population of 1,653 people living in 707 dwellings, making it the largest town in the northern Adelaide Hills region. There are over 450 Lutherans in Lobethal. Lobethal contains two primary schools and a Country Fire Service station.
The Lutheran Church complex and the Archives and Historical Museum nearby, which contains a great deal of information about the lives of the German settlers, are tourist attractions. Fairyland Village and Fauna Park tries to provide a visual interpretation of some of Grimm's fairy tales, complete with native animals and light lunches. Lobethal Bierhaus is a regional beer brewery, with German style influences; the town is famous around Adelaide for its display of Christmas lights along its main streets in December each year. The tradition is the largest Christmas display in South Australia. In 2003 parts of Lobethal were transformed by the production of the movie The Honourable Wally Norman. Lobethal formed one third of the town used in the movie; the area is serviced by Adelaide public transport. Buses run from Lobethal to the Adelaide CBD via the South Eastern Freeway and Onkaparinga Valley Road. There are buses from Lobethal to Verdun Junction and Mount Barker. A coach is operated from Tea Tree Plaza Interchange to Gumeracha and Mount Pleasant by Affordable Coachlines.
Lobethal was the host town for the 1939 Australian Grand Prix, Australia's premier motor race of that year. The race, won by Alan Tomlinson driving an MG TA, was staged on the Lobethal Circuit which comprised public roads in and around the town; the circuit was used for four race meetings from 1937 through to 1948. The Lights of Lobethal - Web site of the Lights of Lobethal Committee Tourist Information on Lobethal
Castambul is a small locality near Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the Adelaide Hills Council local government area. Castambul was named Sixth Creek, but was renamed Castambul by Price Maurice after the Kastamonu region in the Black Sea area of Turkey. In the 1850s, Australia's first payable gold mine was located in the area; the area was home to Price Maurice, who moved to Castambul in 1856 and bred Angora goats for wool. Angora goats were introduced from Turkey to South Australia by John Haigh, who bred them near Port Lincoln. After purchasing Haigh's flock, Maurice was impressed with their potential and soon sent to Turkey for additional animals, his enterprises in South Australia were successful but he returned to Britain with his family in 1862 for health reasons. Kastambul Post Office opened on an unknown date and closed at the end of 1971. Today little exists of the old settlement. In 1966, work started on the Kangaroo Creek Reservoir, a dam of the River Torrens, in 1969, it was completed at a cost of $5.3 million.
Apart from supplying water to eastern Adelaide, it serves a flood protection role and holds 19,160 megalitres. Castambul is located east of Montacute on the road out of Adelaide via Athelstone. Castambul has a CSR calcite quarry and tea gardens, both located on Gorge Road, the former Victoria Goldmine on Batchelor Road is a heritage-listed site; the area is not serviced by Adelaide public transport
Charleston, South Australia
Charleston is a small town in the Adelaide Hills of South Australia. It is situated on the Onkaparinga Valley Road between Woodside and Mount Torrens, on the main route from the Adelaide Hills to the Barossa Valley, 3 km south-east of Lobethal. Charleston is close to the source of the River Onkaparinga; the town was laid out in 1857 by Charles Dunn, a brother of the prominent miller John Dunn, in a subdivision of section 5197, Hundred of Onkaparinga, may have been named "Charlestown", but the current spelling has always been more common in newspaper reports Most of the local businesses are on the Onkaparinga Valley Road, while the largest number of houses are on Newman Road. Charleston is served by a community postal agency called the Bookpost, a bookshop, internet cafe and General Store. Next to The Bookpost is the Charleston Hotel which received national attention as one of the main props in a car advertisement, based on Slim Dusty's famous song "Answer to a Pub With No Beer". Charleston was served by the Mount Pleasant railway line from 1918 to 1953.
It is on the Onkaparinga Valley Road and the Amy Gillett Bikeway on the former railway route
Basket Range is a small town in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia. It is located on an north-south ridge that runs from Deep Creek in the north to Greenhill Road in the south; the area is encircled by hills, giving the town the appearance of nestling within a large basket, hence "Basket Range". It has been suggested that the name may derive from the practice of German farmers who, travelling from Lobethal to Adelaide along the old Bullock Track which passed through the area, would carry their produce in large wicker baskets, it has been suggested that a Mr Basket was in charge of issuing timber-cutting licences in the early days. The town's main industries include apple and cherry orchards, there are numerous cottages available for bed and breakfast accommodation. Basket Range Primary School was established in 1885, the Basket Range CFS was founded in 1969. Basket Range Post Office opened on 1 April 1892. Basket Range is home to one of the oldest cricket clubs in the region. Basket Range Cricket Club was formed in 1892 and their oval overlooks the wide sweeping hills views of the area
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Birdwood, South Australia
Birdwood is a town near Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the local government areas of the Adelaide Hills Council and the Mid Murray Council. Birdwood was named Blumberg, by Prussian settlers originating from the area around Zullichau; the original name's origins are uncertain, but it is that it derives from Groß Blumberg, a village on the Oder River in the settler's area of origin. The German town name was anglicised to "Birdwood" during World War I, along with many others in the region in 1917; the new name honoured Sir William Birdwood, the Australian Imperial Force general who led the ANZACs at Gallipoli. Around the same time, the government closed the German-language school; the first Europeans to explore the district were Dr. George Imlay and John Hill in January 1838. In 1839-40 the South Australian Company claimed several Special Surveys in the district which were subdivided to allow for closer settlement. Migrants who had temporarily settled at Lobethal began looking for land of their own in 1848.
Pastor Fritzsch recommended this spot beside the Torrens. Birdwood grew with homes on land leased from a church some distance away; the town prospered by the 1850s, the area was producing enough grain to justify the construction of the Blumberg Flour Mill. In 1865, during the local gold rush, the Blumberg Inn was built. Birdwood sits on a crossroads between the Adelaide-Mannum Road, the road leading north towards Williamstown and the Barossa Valley, the road leading south towards Lobethal and the South Eastern Freeway. Birdwood has a government-operated primary and high school, small supermarket, a few delicatessens and antique shops and a petrol station. A number of churches have formed part of the history of the town, including the Roman Catholic Church near the sports grounds, the nearby Lutheran church and cemetery, just beyond the town limits. Birdwood is home to the National Motor Museum, is the endpoint of the annual Bay to Birdwood run, in which vintage motor vehicles are driven by their owners from Glenelg past the city and through the hills to finish at the museum where a festival is held.
The museum was started by Jack Kaines and Len Vigar in 1964, was purchased by the South Australian Government in 1976, holding a large and important collection of cars and commercial vehicles. Just north of Birdwood is the Cromer Conservation Park, proclaimed in 1976, with an open-forest formation of long-leafed box with Pink Gum and an open woodland formation of Red Gum, which forms an important habitat for honeyeaters. Mining for yellow ochre occurred in the park during the 1800s. There are no formal walking trails or visitor facilities, it is home to Birdwood High School which has over 700 students and Birdwood Primary school with about 200 students. The area is not serviced by Adelaide Metro public transport. A coach is operated from Tea Tree Plaza Interchange to Gumeracha and Mount Pleasant by LinkSA. Birdwood has a lot of through traffic, a traffic calming device was installed at the Adelaide end of town to discourage speeding. A significant number of road accidents occur on the Adelaide-Mannum Road, the sites of these are marked with red and black posts.
Birdwood once had a train station on the Mount Pleasant railway line at 44.13 miles from Adelaide. The line came via Balhannah and was not a direct route; the line was closed during one of the rail reformations as it was not a profitable line due to the more direct Adelaide–Mannum Road. The track is now long gone but the earthworks can still be seen along the edges of the Birdwood flat to Mount Torrens and towards Mount Pleasant. Still standing is an old stone railway bridge near Mount Torrens; the line closed in 1953