Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems. It uses methods of theoretical chemistry, incorporated into efficient computer programs, to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids, it is necessary because, apart from recent results concerning the hydrogen molecular ion, the quantum many-body problem cannot be solved analytically, much less in closed form. While computational results complement the information obtained by chemical experiments, it can in some cases predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena, it is used in the design of new drugs and materials. Examples of such properties are structure and relative energies, electronic charge density distributions and higher multipole moments, vibrational frequencies, reactivity, or other spectroscopic quantities, cross sections for collision with other particles; the methods used cover both dynamic situations. In all cases, the computer time and other resources increase with the size of the system being studied.
That system can be a group of molecules, or a solid. Computational chemistry methods range from approximate to accurate. Ab initio methods are based on quantum mechanics and basic physical constants. Other methods are called empirical or semi-empirical because they use additional empirical parameters. Both ab initio and semi-empirical approaches involve approximations; these range from simplified forms of the first-principles equations that are easier or faster to solve, to approximations limiting the size of the system, to fundamental approximations to the underlying equations that are required to achieve any solution to them at all. For example, most ab initio calculations make the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, which simplifies the underlying Schrödinger equation by assuming that the nuclei remain in place during the calculation. In principle, ab initio methods converge to the exact solution of the underlying equations as the number of approximations is reduced. In practice, however, it is impossible to eliminate all approximations, residual error remains.
The goal of computational chemistry is to minimize this residual error while keeping the calculations tractable. In some cases, the details of electronic structure are less important than the long-time phase space behavior of molecules; this is the case in conformational studies of protein-ligand binding thermodynamics. Classical approximations to the potential energy surface are used, as they are computationally less intensive than electronic calculations, to enable longer simulations of molecular dynamics. Furthermore, cheminformatics uses more empirical methods like machine learning based on physicochemical properties. One typical problem in cheminformatics is to predict the binding affinity of drug molecules to a given target. Building on the founding discoveries and theories in the history of quantum mechanics, the first theoretical calculations in chemistry were those of Walter Heitler and Fritz London in 1927; the books that were influential in the early development of computational quantum chemistry include Linus Pauling and E. Bright Wilson's 1935 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics – with Applications to Chemistry, Eyring and Kimball's 1944 Quantum Chemistry, Heitler's 1945 Elementary Wave Mechanics – with Applications to Quantum Chemistry, Coulson's 1952 textbook Valence, each of which served as primary references for chemists in the decades to follow.
With the development of efficient computer technology in the 1940s, the solutions of elaborate wave equations for complex atomic systems began to be a realizable objective. In the early 1950s, the first semi-empirical atomic orbital calculations were performed. Theoretical chemists became extensive users of the early digital computers. One major advance came with the 1951 paper in Reviews of Modern Physics by Clemens C. J. Roothaan in 1951 on the "LCAO MO" approach, for many years the second-most cited paper in that journal. A detailed account of such use in the United Kingdom is given by Smith and Sutcliffe; the first ab initio Hartree–Fock method calculations on diatomic molecules were performed in 1956 at MIT, using a basis set of Slater orbitals. For diatomic molecules, a systematic study using a minimum basis set and the first calculation with a larger basis set were published by Ransil and Nesbet in 1960; the first polyatomic calculations using Gaussian orbitals were performed in the late 1950s.
The first configuration interaction calculations were performed in Cambridge on the EDSAC computer in the 1950s using Gaussian orbitals by Boys and coworkers. By 1971, when a bibliography of ab initio calculations was published, the largest molecules included were naphthalene and azulene. Abstracts of many earlier developments in ab initio theory have been published by Schaefer. In 1964, Hückel method calculations of molecules, ranging in complexity from butadiene and benzene to ovalene, were generated on computers at Berkeley and Oxford; these empirical methods were replaced in the 1960s by semi-empirical methods such as CNDO. In the early 1970s, efficient ab initio computer programs such as ATMOL, Gaussian
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. A sub-discipline of both biology and chemistry, biochemistry can be divided in three fields. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has through these three disciplines become successful at explaining living processes. All areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed by biochemical methodology and research. Biochemistry focuses on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells, which in turn relates to the study and understanding of tissues and organism structure and function. Biochemistry is related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.
The chemistry of the cell depends on the reactions of smaller molecules and ions. These can be inorganic, for example water and metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids, which are used to synthesize proteins; the mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism. The findings of biochemistry are applied in medicine and agriculture. In medicine, biochemists investigate the cures of diseases. In nutrition, they study how to maintain health wellness and study the effects of nutritional deficiencies. In agriculture, biochemists investigate soil and fertilizers, try to discover ways to improve crop cultivation, crop storage and pest control. At its broadest definition, biochemistry can be seen as a study of the components and composition of living things and how they come together to become life, in this sense the history of biochemistry may therefore go back as far as the ancient Greeks. However, biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning sometime in the 19th century, or a little earlier, depending on which aspect of biochemistry is being focused on.
Some argued that the beginning of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme, diastase, in 1833 by Anselme Payen, while others considered Eduard Buchner's first demonstration of a complex biochemical process alcoholic fermentation in cell-free extracts in 1897 to be the birth of biochemistry. Some might point as its beginning to the influential 1842 work by Justus von Liebig, Animal chemistry, or, Organic chemistry in its applications to physiology and pathology, which presented a chemical theory of metabolism, or earlier to the 18th century studies on fermentation and respiration by Antoine Lavoisier. Many other pioneers in the field who helped to uncover the layers of complexity of biochemistry have been proclaimed founders of modern biochemistry, for example Emil Fischer for his work on the chemistry of proteins, F. Gowland Hopkins on enzymes and the dynamic nature of biochemistry; the term "biochemistry" itself is derived from a combination of chemistry. In 1877, Felix Hoppe-Seyler used the term as a synonym for physiological chemistry in the foreword to the first issue of Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie where he argued for the setting up of institutes dedicated to this field of study.
The German chemist Carl Neuberg however is cited to have coined the word in 1903, while some credited it to Franz Hofmeister. It was once believed that life and its materials had some essential property or substance distinct from any found in non-living matter, it was thought that only living beings could produce the molecules of life. In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler published a paper on the synthesis of urea, proving that organic compounds can be created artificially. Since biochemistry has advanced since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations; these techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, led to an understanding of biochemistry on a molecular level. Philip Randle is well known for his discovery in diabetes research is the glucose-fatty acid cycle in 1963.
He confirmed. High fat oxidation was responsible for the insulin resistance. Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene, its role in the transfer of information in the cell; this part of biochemistry is called molecular biology. In the 1950s, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins were instrumental in solving DNA structure and suggesting its relationship with genetic transfer of information. In 1958, George Beadle and Edward Tatum received the Nobel Prize for work in fungi showing that one gene produces one enzyme. In 1988, Colin Pitchfork was the first person convicted of murder with DNA evidence, which led to the growth of forensic science. More Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello received the 2006 Nobel Prize for discovering the role of RNA interference, in the silencing of gene expression. Around two dozen of the 92
St. Edward's University
St. Edward's University is a private, Roman Catholic university in the Holy Cross tradition. Located in Austin, with a network of partner universities around the world, St. Edward's offers undergraduate and graduate programs. St. Edward's University was founded by the Reverend Edward Sorin, CSC, Superior General of the Congregation of Holy Cross, who founded the University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana. Father Sorin established the institution on farmland south of Austin in 1877 and named it St. Edward's Academy in honor of his patron saint, Edward the Confessor and King; the high school section separated to become St. Edward's High School but closed during the 1970s, it is affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross. In 1885, the president, Rev. P. J. Franciscus, strengthened the prestige of the academy by securing a charter, changing its name to St. Edward's College, assembling a faculty and increasing enrollment. Subsequently, St. Edward's began to grow, the first school newspaper, the organization of baseball and football teams, approval to erect an administration building all followed.
Architect Nicholas J. Clayton of Galveston, Texas was commissioned to design the college's Main Building; the structure was built four stories tall in the Gothic Revival style and was constructed with local white limestone. In 1903, a fire destroyed the majority of Main Building. In 1922, Main Building sustained damage from a tornado that caused significant damage all over the campus. Main Building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. In 1925, St. Edward's received its university charter. Most of the personnel at the time were Holy Cross brothers. Women arrived at St. Edward's in 1966 as students for a coordinate institution. By 1970, Maryhill was absorbed and St. Edward's became co-educational. By 1971, the university carried master's degrees in business administration. Added were the College Assistance Migrant Program, or CAMP. In 1984, Patricia Hayes became the second layperson to lead St. Edward's University. In 1990, enrollment reached 3,000 for the first time; this decade ushered in civic initiatives and capital improvements.
In 1999, George E. Martin became the 23rd president of St. Edward's University. St. Edward's endowment, as of 2015, stood at more than $92,400,000. In Fall 1999, George E. Martin, PhD, became the institution's 23rd president, who oversaw a period of expansion for the university. During this time, undergraduate enrollment doubled. Local and global partnerships were formed to expand opportunities for students. A campus master plan guided the development of $150 million in new and renovated facilities while a 10-year fundraising initiative launched in 2007 drew more than $84 million in support of the university's mission. International recruitment and curricula grew, the number of educational partnerships with international universities tripled. Fundraising during this time added $64 million to the university and the endowment for scholarships and student support grew to just over $95 million. From 2015 to 2017, the university focused its efforts on preparing students for the demands of accelerating technological and cultural changes.
More partnerships within the Austin business community and with other colleges were developed to expand avenues for real-world learning and degree programs. The Campaign for St. Edward's University ended in 2017, topping $100 million in donations and raising the endowment to $110 million; the conclusion of the 1999 campus master plan achieved more than $300 million in campus and technology improvements. Trustee Hall, a 33,000-square-foot academic facility, opened in fall 2002. Basil Moreau The John Brooks Williams Natural Sciences Center–North facility that opened in fall 2006, was the first of a two-building science complex and houses the biology and chemistry programs in the School of Natural Sciences; the John Brooks Williams Natural Sciences Center–South opened in fall 2013. It houses the computer science and physics programs, features 13 classrooms, advanced computer and math labs, a 126-seat auditorium. A 756-car parking garage opened in 2007. Major renovations of existing campus buildings include Fleck Hall and Doyle Hall.
A new residential village opened in 2009. A renovated campus library the Scarborough-Phillips Library, opened in fall 2013 as The Munday Library; the library features global digital classrooms for video conferencing, revamped reading and meeting spaces, an expanded digital collection, writing and media centers. The library renovation was funded in 2011 by a $13 million donation from Pat Munday; the Mundays donated $20 million for university scholarships in 2013. Both donations were school records. Nearly 5,000 students attend St. Edward's, with undergraduates coming from 44 states and 51 countries. Nearly 55% of incoming freshmen rank in the top 25% of their high school class; the acceptance rate for freshmen applicants is 62%. More than 1,300 students live on campus in two apartment communities. Students at St. Edward's University are involved in more than 125 campus organizations, including student government, service organizations, academic honor societies, cultural clubs and intramural sports.
28 languages and 40 faith traditions are represented on campus. Hilltop Views is the student newspaper published by the School of Humanities at the University; the print edition is available Wednes
Richard Stuart Linklater is an American filmmaker. Linklater is known for his realistic and natural humanist films, which revolve around suburban culture and the effects of the passage of time, his films include the observational comedy film Slacker. In 2002, he began filming a passion project that took over twelve years to complete; the film was released in 2014 to widespread critical acclaim. In 2015, Linklater was included on the annual Time 100 list of the 100 most influential people in the world. Many of his films are noted for their loosely structured narrative. Linklater was born in Houston, the son of Diane Margaret, who taught at Sam Houston State University, Charles W. Linklater, III, he attended Huntsville High School in Huntsville, during grades 9–11, where he played football for Joe Clements as a backup quarterback for the #1 ranked team in the state. For his senior year, he moved to Bellaire High School in Bellaire, Texas because he was a better at baseball than football and Bellaire had a better baseball coach.
As a teen, Linklater won a Scholastic Writing Award. Linklater studied at Sam Houston State University, until dropping out to work on an off-shore oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico, he read novels on the rig and, upon returning to land, developed a love of film through repeated visits to a repertory theater in Houston. At this point, Linklater realized, he used his savings to buy a Super-8 camera, a projector, editing equipment, moved to Austin, Texas. He enrolled in Austin Community College in the fall of 1984 to study film. Linklater founded the Austin Film Society in 1985 together with his frequent collaborator Lee Daniel. One of the mentors for the Film Society was former New York City critic for the SoHo Weekly News George Morris, who had relocated to Austin and taught film there. For several years, Linklater made many short films that were exercises and experiments in film techniques, he completed his first feature, It's Impossible to Learn to Plow by Reading Books, a Super-8 feature that took a year to shoot and another year to edit.
The film is significant in the sense. The film has his trademark style of minimal camera movements and lack of narrative, while it examines the theme of traveling with no real particular direction in mind; these idiosyncrasies would be explored in greater detail in future projects. Linklater created Detour Filmproduction, subsequently made Slacker for only $23,000, it went on to gross more than $1.25 million. The film is an aimless day in the life of the city of Austin, Texas showcasing its more eccentric characters. While gaining a cult following in the independent film world, he made his third film and Confused, based on his years at Huntsville High School and the people he encountered there; the film garnered critical praise and grossed $8 million in the United States while becoming a hit on VHS. This film was responsible for the breakout of fellow Texas native Matthew McConaughey. In 1995, Linklater won the Silver Bear for Best Director for the film Before Sunrise at the 45th Berlin International Film Festival.
His next feature, subUrbia, had mixed reviews critically, did poorly at the box office. In 1998, he took on his first Hollywood feature, The Newton Boys, which received mixed reviews while tanking at the box office. With the rotoscope films Waking Life and A Scanner Darkly, his mainstream comedies, School of Rock and the remake of Bad News Bears, he gained wider recognition. In 2003, he wrote and directed a pilot for HBO with Rodney Rothman called $5.15/hr, about several minimum wage restaurant workers. The pilot deals with themes examined in Fast Food Nation; the British television network Channel 4 produced a documentary about Linklater, in which the filmmaker discussed the personal and philosophical ideas behind his films. St Richard of Austin was presented by Ben Lewis and directed by Irshad Ashraf and broadcast on Channel 4 in December 2004 in the UK. Linklater was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay for his film Before Sunset. Waking Life and A Scanner Darkly both used rotoscoping animation techniques.
Working with Bob Sabiston and Sabiston's program Rotoshop to create this effect, Linklater shot and edited both movies as live-action features employed a team of artists to "trace over" individual frames. The result is a distinctive "semi-real" quality, praised by such critics as Roger Ebert as being original and well-suited to the aims of the film. Fast Food Nation is an adaptation of the best selling book that examines the local and global influence of the United States fast food industry; the film was entered into the 2006 Cannes Film Festival before being released in North America on November 17, 2006 and in Europe on March 23, 2007. The film received mixed reviews. Linklater fared better with the critics with A Scanner Darkly, Me and Orson Welles, Bernie, he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay for Before Midnight, the third film in the Before... tril
Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 4th-most populous city in Texas, it is the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States. As of the U. S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2017 estimate, Austin had a population of 950,715 up from 790,491 at the 2010 census; the city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,115,827 as of July 1, 2017. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, Lake Walter E. Long. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. In 1839, the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo."
Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state; the city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin. After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development, by the 1990s it emerged as a center for technology and business. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin including, 3M, Amazon.com, Apple Inc. Cisco, eBay, General Motors, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, PayPal, Texas Instruments, Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in Round Rock. Residents of Austin are known as Austinites, they include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers, a vibrant LGBT community. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World," a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.
The city adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the 1990s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird," which refers to the desire to protect small and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations. In the late 19th century, Austin was known as the "City of the Violet Crown," because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Today, many Austin businesses use the term "Violet Crown" in their name. Austin is known as a "clean-air city" for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars. U. S. News & World Report named Austin the #1 place to live in the U. S. for 2017 and 2018. In 2016, Forbes ranked Austin #1 on its "Cities of the Future" list in 2017 placed the city at that same position on its list for the "Next Biggest Boom Town in the U. S." In 2017, Forbes awarded the South River City neighborhood of Austin its #2 ranking for "Best Cities and Neighborhoods for Millennials."
WalletHub named Austin the #6 best place in the country to live for 2017. The FBI ranked Austin as the #2 safest major city in the U. S. for 2012. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least 9200 BC; the area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9200 BC, based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area; the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, though few permanent settlements were created for some time. In 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin; the mission was in this area for only about seven months, was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.
Early in the 19th century, Spanish forts were established in what are now San Marcos. Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans. In 1835 -- 1836, Texans won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River. In 1839, the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills and pleasant surroundings. Waterloo was selected, "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name.
The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River. Edwin Wall
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System; the University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. A Public Ivy, it is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $615 million for the 2016–2017 school year; the university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Primetime Emmy Award, the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.
As of October 2018, 11 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the school as alumni, faculty members or researchers. Student athletes are members of the Big 12 Conference, its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships, thirteen NCAA Division I National Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996; the first mention of a public university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish public education in the arts and sciences, no action was taken by the Mexican government. After Texas obtained its independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Congress adopted the Constitution of the Republic, under Section 5 of its General Provisions, stated "It shall be the duty of Congress, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide, by law, a general system of education."On April 18, 1838, "An Act to Establish the University of Texas" was referred to a special committee of the Texas Congress, but was not reported back for further action.
On January 26, 1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land—approximately 288,000 acres —towards the establishment of a publicly funded university. In addition, 40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated "College Hill." In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States. The state's Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11, 1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B. 102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the state's first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the university's endowment. On January 31, 1860, the state legislature, wanting to avoid raising taxes, passed an act authorizing the money set aside for the University of Texas to be used for frontier defense in west Texas to protect settlers from Indian attacks. Texas's secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas's endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants and nothing substantive had been done to organize the university's operations. This effort to establish a University was again mandated by Article 7, Section 10 of the Texas Constitution of 1876 which directed the legislature to "establish and provide for the maintenance and direction of a university of the first class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, styled "The University of Texas."Additionally, Article 7, Section 11 of the 1876 Constitution established the Permanent University Fund, a sovereign wealth fund managed by the Board of Regents of the University of Texas and dedicated for the maintenance of the university. Because some state legislators perceived an extravagance in the construction of academic buildings of other universities, Article 7, Section 14 of the Constitution expressly prohibited the legislature from using the state's general revenue to fund construction of university buildings.
Funds for constructing university buildings had to come from the university's endowment or from private gifts to the university, but the university's operating expenses could come from the state's general revenues. The 1876 Constitution revoked the endowment of the railroad lands of the Act of 1858, but dedicated 1,000,000 acres of land, along with other property appropriated for the university, to the Permanent University Fund; this was to the detriment of the university as the lands the Constitution of 1876 granted the university represented less than 5% of the value of the lands granted to the university under the Act of 1858. The more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general educat