Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Pitchshifter are a British band from Nottingham, formed in 1989. The band was started by lead guitarist and programmer Johnny A. Carter, bassist and vocalist Mark Clayden; the band was known for the early industrial metal sound with downtuned guitars and the use of drum machines and being cited as one of the originators of the genre along with Godflesh. With albums the music became more melodic and punk-influenced, the band gained attention with their 1998 release www.pitchshifter.com for its fusion of electronic music such as drum'n bass with metal and rock, compared with other electronic groups like The Prodigy. Albeit the band has found little mainstream success, the band managed to gain a platinum with the release of the Mortal Kombat: Annihilation soundtrack and their 2000 release Deviant peaking at 39 in Billboard 200. Since its formation, the band has released three EPs and eight music videos; the band has played in various festivals around the world including Ozzfest, Phoenix Festival and Damnation Festival.
The band was formed in 1989 by guitarist and programmer Johnny Carter and bassist Mark Clayden joined by Stu Toolin, Jon "JS" Clayden. During this time, the band played with local bands and soon gained attention of the Peaceville Records. During this time, JS went to live in France to sell paintings, they have cited major influences as Black Sabbath, Judas Priest, Nine Inch Nails, Led Zeppelin, The Cure, The Doors, The Sex Pistols, The Ramones, Ministry. During 1990, the band started recording their début album, with the main vocalist being Mark Clayden instead of JS, who contributed with backing vocals; the band went on a small tour with bands like Napalm Death. The band joined the British label Earache Records where they released their EP Submit. Stuart Toolin left the band, the band hired Matt Godfrey to fill his place for some shows. Matt left the band and they hired drummer D. J. Walters, now being a four-piece band; the band released their second album, Desensitized. The band played at the Phoenix Festival in Long Marston, UK in 1995.
The band's manager, armed with a tractor, arranged for an enormous crop circle replica of the band's famous "eye" symbol to appear in the adjoining field to the festival site during the night prior to their performance there. The crowd's enthusiasm for the band when they performed was so high that they rushed the stage, making Pitchshifter's performance the first in the history of the festival to be stopped early; the band released the remix album, The Remix War, which had appearances from other groups like Biohazard, Therapy? and Gunshot. The band started working on the third album, Infotainment? and played at the Dynamo Open Air. The band left Earache and joined Geffen Records. During this time, the band changed the spelling of their name from'Pitch Shifter' to'Pitchshifter', recruited former The Prodigy live guitarist Jim Davies, with the band returning to their five-piece form; the band released their single "Genius", included in Test Drive 5 and the Mortal Kombat: Annihilation soundtrack, which helped the band to gain platinum recognition.
In 1998, the band released their fourth album www.pitchshifter.com, their best selling album, selling around 60,000 copies in the U. S; the band played in Ozzfest 1998 and Livid in support of their album. During 1999, they again at Dynamo. A few songs were featured in Twisted Metal 3. In 2000, founder Johnny Carter and drummer D. J. Walters left the band, the band hired guitarist Matt Grundy and drummer Jason Bowld; the band release fifth album Deviant, which had appearances of drummer John Stanier and Jello Biafra. The band played in that year's Ozzfest. During 2001, Matt left the band the group, which hired Dan Rayner in 2002; the cover used a picture of one of Gee Vaucher's Paintings, who did artwork for Carcass. The painting shows a cross between the Pope John Paul II and Queen Elizabeth II. Due to outrage over the use of a caricature of the Pope, the album was banned in Poland; the band changed it. Around 2002, the band joined Sanctuary and released their sixth album PSI; the band went to a few more shows until their last show in 2003 when the band went on an "indefinite hiatus".
During this time, Jim Davies returned to The Prodigy, while Dan went to work on Drawbacks, with his brother Tim Rayner, who joined Pitchshifter as well. Jon formed the alternative rock group Doheny with former The Cult guitarist Billy Morrison. Mark left The Blueprint and with Jason, they formed This Is Menace, a supergroup featuring members from various other bands including Carcass, Napalm Death, Send More Paramedics, Funeral for a Friend and earthtone9. Doheny broke up and JS went to form his own label, PSI Records, in 2003 released the compilation album Bootlegged, Distorted and Uploaded and the DVD P. S. I.entology. In 2005, This Is Menace released their début album No End in Sight through PSI Records. During this time as well, Jon worked as a teacher at the Los Angeles Recording School teaching Music Business Communications and was a featured guest for a U. S. Pigface tour where he performed vocals for songs including Pigface's "Insect/Suspect" and Pitchshifter's classic "Genius." During late 2006, there were rumours that band was going to return, which were confirmed and the band announced the "Back From the Dead" tour, supported by various bands including Funeral for a Friend.
Davies did not return to the band to pursue a solo career, was replaced by Tim Rayner. The band r
Mark Andrew "Barney" Greenway is a British extreme metal vocalist, the lead vocalist of Napalm Death, was a member of Extreme Noise Terror, Benediction. Greenway has stated his nickname, he stated. From this behaviour, he would be called "Rubble", which changed to "Barney Rubble" and just "Barney". Greenway was the vocalist of death metal band Benediction from 1989 until he joined Napalm Death the following year, replacing the band's previous vocalist Lee Dorrian, who founded doom metal band Cathedral. Prior to joining Napalm Death, Greenway had worked as an engineer within the motor industry in Birmingham. Greenway's first album with Napalm Death, Harmony Corruption represented a shift in the band's musical style, incorporating a more death metal-oriented sound; the albums that followed this, including Utopia Banished, Emptiness and Diatribes saw the band delve further into the aforementioned style whilst incorporating elements of groove metal. Greenway and Napalm Death parted ways in 1996, with bassist Shane Embury referring to the long unrest, present between Greenway and the remainder of the band.
Greenway joined Extreme Noise Terror to record vocals on their album Damage 381, with Extreme Noise Terror's vocalist Phil Vane joining Napalm Death to record vocals on their album Inside the Torn Apart. Vane and Napalm Death however were incompatible according to Embury, after discussions between Greenway and the band, Greenway returned to record the vocals for the above album. Greenway has remained with Napalm Death since 1997 and have since released a number of critically acclaimed albums. Greenway is a progressive metal fan, he joined Dream Theater on stage at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club and performed vocals on Metallica's "Damage, Inc." live. He has reviewed progressive metal bands and albums for the British rock magazine Kerrang! Though he no longer does so, he has stated his admiration for bands such as Motörhead and Throbbing Gristle, stating that the former's album, Ace of Spades, is his all-time favourite album. Greenway is a voracious reader. Greenway is a supporter of Aston Villa F. C..
He is a supporter of many animal rights organisations including PETA and has been a vegetarian since he was 14, vegan since 2012. Barney is recognisable for his strong Birmingham accent which has never waned and which he proudly maintains, for his distinctive gruff vocal style that many feel has become synonymous with Napalm Death. Greenway is an atheist; the Dreams You Dread Confess All Goodness Subconscious Terror Dark Is the Season Damage 381 Cerebral Fix – Death Erotica – backing vocals on "Never Again" Leng Tch'e – Hypomanic – Guest vocals on "Totalitarian" The Haunted – Revolver – cameo appearance on "No Compromise" music video Cephalic Carnage – Anomalies – backing vocals Ginger – A Break in the Weather – backing vocals on "The Dying Art of the Chorus" Dream Theater – International Fan Club Christmas CD – vocals on cover of Metallica's "Damage Inc." Withered – Foile Circulare – backing vocals on "... The Faded Breath" and "Clamor Beneath" This Is Menace – The Scene Is Dead – vocals on "Beg for Silence" Born From Pain – War – vocals on "Behind Enemy Lines" Kill II This – Deviate – backing vocals on "The Flood" Extortion – Loose Screws – Guest Vocals on "Grind to a Halt" Volbeat – Beyond Hell/Above Heaven – Guest vocals on "Evelyn" Short Sharp Shock – Problems to the Answer – Guest vocals on "The Kill Floor, ROAR, Here Comes the Neighbourhood" Liquorbox – Gotta Get Gone – Guest vocals on "Busted Up And Broken Down" Mothercare – Breathing Instructions – Guest vocals on "Copy/Paste" Buzzard Dust - Buzzard Dust - Guest vocals on “Blue Blood” Barney Greenway on IMDb
Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s. It has been defined as a "cluster of metal subgenres characterized by sonic and visual transgression"; the term refers to a more abrasive, underground, non-commercialized style associated with the speed metal, thrash metal, black metal, death metal and doom metal genres. Hardcore punk has been considered an integral part of the development of extreme metal, in the case of song structure and speed, in every case other than doom metal. Extreme metal acts set themselves apart from traditional heavy metal acts, such as Iron Maiden, Judas Priest and Motörhead, by incorporating more abrasive musical characteristics such as higher tempos, increased aggression and a harsher extremity. In the majority of the world, extreme metal does not receive much radio-play or achieve high chart positions. Extreme metal's sonic excess is characterized by high levels of distortion, less focus on guitar solos and melody, emphasis on technical control, fast tempos.
Its thematic transgression can be found in more overt and/or serious references to Satanism and the darker aspects of human existence that are considered out of bounds or distasteful, such as death and war." "Visual transgression... medieval weaponry bloody/horrific artwork."According to ethnographer Keith Kahn-Harris, the defining characteristics of extreme metal can all be regarded as transgressive: the "extreme" traits noted above are all intended to violate or transgress given cultural, social or aesthetic boundaries. Kahn-Harris states that extreme metal can be "close to being... formless noise", at least to the uninitiated listener. He states that with extreme metal lyrics, they "offer no possibility of hope or redemption" and lyrics reference apocalyptic themes. Extreme metal lyrics describe Christianity as weak or submissive, many songs express misanthropic views such as "kill every thing". A small number of extreme metal bands and song lyrics make reference to far-right politics; the British band Venom are one of the first bands to venture into extreme metal territory, due to their ideological shift into themes of evil, the devil and hell.
Their first two albums, Welcome to Hell and Black Metal, are considered a major influence on thrash metal and extreme metal in general. This early work by Venom, in combination with bands like Discharge, The Exploited and Amebix as well as American hardcore punk brought integral elements into the budding extreme metal landscape at the time. In 1983, Metallica would release their debut album Kill'Em All, which fused elements of the new wave of British heavy metal with hardcore punk and the style of Motörhead, becoming the first thrash metal album, would be certified triple platinum. A few months Slayer would release their own thrash metal album Show No Mercy, influenced by the sounds of Venom, Judas Priest, Iron Maiden, Mercyful Fate; when extreme metal band Hellhammer first began making music, it was panned by critics, leading to the members forming Celtic Frost in its place, which proved influential on the progression of the genre. During this period, the line between extreme metal genres were blurred, as thrash metal bands such Slayer, Sodom and Kreator were integral to the first wave black metal scene.
The front cover of the Sarcófago's 1987 debut album, I. N. R. I. is regarded as a great influence on black metal's corpse paint style make-up. That record is considered one of the first wave black metal albums that helped shape the genre, their second album, The Laws of Scourge, was one of the first technical death metal records to be released. Black metal Death metal Doom metal Speed metal Thrash metal Subgenres of black metal Ambient black metal Folk black metal Industrial black metal Post-black metalBlackgaze Psychedelic black metal Symphonic black metal Subgenres of death metal Brutal death metal Industrial death metal Melodic death metal Slam death metal Symphonic death metal Technical death metal Subgenres of doom metal Epic doom Traditional doom Black-doomDepressive suicidal black metal Blackened death-doom Blackened death metalMelodic black-death War metal Blackened thrash metal Death-doomFuneral doom Deathrash Crossover thrash Crust punkBlackened crust GrindcoreBlackened grindcore Deathgrind Electrogrind Goregrind Noisegrind Pornogrind MetalcoreDeathcore Electronicore Mathcore Melodic metalcore Nu metalcore Progressive metalcore Sludge metal Black'n' roll Death'n' roll Gothic-doom Progressive doom Stoner metal Drone metal Pagan metal Viking metal Genres influenced by extreme metal but not considered extreme themselves: Avant-garde metal Funk metal, influenced by thrash metal Gothic metal, influenced by death-doom and doom metal Groove metal, influenced by thrash metal and death metal Neoclassical metal and power metal, influenced by speed metal and thrash metal Post-metal, influenced by doom metal and black metal Crocker, Chris.
Metallica: The Frayed Ends of Metal. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-08635-0
Carcass are an English extreme metal band from Liverpool, formed in 1985. The band have gone through several line-up changes, leaving guitarist Bill Steer and bassist and vocalist Jeff Walker as the only constant members, they broke up in 1996, but reformed in 2007 without one of its original members, drummer Ken Owen, due to health reasons. To date, the band have released six studio albums, two compilation albums, four EPs, two demo albums, one video album, six music videos. Carcass are regarded as pioneers of the goregrind genre, their early work was tagged as "splatter death metal", "hardgore" on account of their morbid lyrics and gruesome album covers. They became one of the pioneers of melodic death metal with their 1993 album Heartwork; the band's lyrics focus on animal rights issues. Walker and Steer are both vegetarians. Steer used to be vegan and Walker was a hunt saboteur. Carcass was first formed as a school band by Ken Owen that soon after disbanded. Steer joined the D-beat band Disattack with drummer Middie, Paul on bass and Pek on vocals.
After releasing a four track demo entitled A Bomb Drops... in 1986, the bass player left the band and was replaced by Jeff Walker guitarist and vocalist of the Electro Hippies. Vocalist Andrew Pek changed his name to Sanjiv after a visit to India. At about the same time, Bill Steer joined Napalm Death and recorded the second side of what became Napalm Death's first album, Scum. Walker designed the cover art for Scum. Disattack changed its name to Carcass as the group changed musical direction; this saw Ken Owen join the band. In April 1987, they recorded the Flesh Ripping Sonic Torment demo, the only Carcass recording featuring vocalist Sanjiv, who left shortly after. Walker and Owen shared vocal duties for the debut album, done in only four days. Despite the primitive production values of Carcass's debut Reek of Putrefaction, with which the band was displeased, it became a favourite of Radio 1 DJ John Peel. Due to his interest, they were asked to participate in their first Peel Session in 1989, where they debuted new material for their second album.
The Peel Session was released as an EP with the band members adopting pseudonyms: K. Grumegargler, J. Offalmangler, W. G. Thorax Embalmer; that year and Walker appeared as members of Lister's fictional band Smeg and the Heads in an episode of Red Dwarf. Symphonies of Sickness, the second album, which contained a much improved production quality, featured more death metal structures and longer songs with more slow passages; the second half of the tour in support of Symphonies of Sickness saw the addition of second lead guitarist Michael Amott, whose previous work included Carnage. Amott was to become a permanent member, playing on the second Peel Session and contributing material towards their third album. Necroticism – Descanting the Insalubrious showed more intricate composition, further improved production and guitar solos. Despite the addition of Amott to the ranks, Steer still handled all rhythm guitar duties, with Amott only contributing leads and one riff. Carcass again supported the album with heavy touring, were part of the Earache'Gods of Grind' tour with Cathedral and Confessor in both Europe and the United States.
The Tools of the Trade EP was released in 1992 to coincide with the "Gods of Grind" tour. The band's fourth album, was released in late 1993, it was considered a radical change by many fans, which eliminated Steer's deeper vocals and the clinically gory lyrics. Again, Steer handled all rhythm guitar duties. Song structures, whilst still containing musically complex parts, were simpler, in some cases using the verse/chorus/verse formula. After the release of Heartwork, Carcass signed a worldwide deal with Columbia Records, who hoped for commercial success suggesting that Jeff Walker learn how to sing. Michael Amott left the band right after Heartwork was recorded, was for a while replaced by Mike Hickey, replaced by Carlo Regadas. During the summer of 1994, Walker remixed the track "Inside Out" for a Die Krupps remix album, although the version stayed true to the original with the exception of Owen's drum samples from Heartwork replacing the Die Krupps original, additional mixing from Walker and Colin Richardson at Parr Street studios.
Carcass now set about writing songs for their major label debut. During the December 1994 UK tour Carcass showcased two songs from their current writing sessions – "Edge of Darkness" and "Firmhand", both showing a more straight forward song writing approach than on previous efforts. Around this time, "Edge of Darkness" was recorded for the BBC Radio 1 Rock Show sessions – a session which could be found on compilation albums. By late 1994, 17 songs were ready and the band set about using their $200,000 advance to record the album, again with Colin Richardson, at Rockfield studios in Monmouth, South Wales in early 1995. During the 6-week recording schedule the record label began to withdraw support, stating that Carcass were not ready to record, needed to write more songs; this advice was ignored, as was the suggestion to have Terry Date remix the album, the band continued. At the time, Jeff Walker stated in an interview with the UK's Metal Hammer Magazine that the album was taking more of a classic rock approach, with drums and twin guitars à la Thin Lizzy, in comparison to earlier "multi-layered guitar" productions.
This has since been put down to Bill Steer's unwillingness to perform the time c