Colorado State University
Colorado State University is a public research university in Fort Collins, Colorado. The university is the state's land grant university and the flagship university of the Colorado State University System; the current enrollment is 33,877 students, including resident and non-resident instruction students. The university has 2,000 faculty in eight colleges and 55 academic departments. Bachelor's degrees are offered with master's degrees in 55 fields. Colorado State confers doctoral degrees in 40 fields of study, in addition to a professional degree in veterinary medicine. In fiscal year 2012, CSU spent $375.9 million on research and development, ranking 60th in the nation overall and 34th when excluding medical school spending. CSU graduates include Pulitzer Prize winners, astronauts, CEOs, two former governors of Colorado. Arising from the Morrill Act, the act to create the university was signed by the Colorado Territory governor Edward M. McCook in 1870. While a board of 12 trustees was formed to "purchase and manage property, erect buildings, establish basic rules for governing the institutions and employ buildings," the near complete lack of funding by the territorial legislature for this mission hampered progress.
The first 30-acre parcel of land for the campus was deeded in 1871 by Robert Dazell. In 1872, the Larimer County Land Improvement Company contributed a second 80-acre parcel; the first $1000 to erect buildings was allocated by the territorial legislature in 1874. The funds were not and trustees were required to find a matching amount, which they obtained from local citizens and businesses. Among the institutions which donated matching funds was the local Grange, involved in the early establishment of the university; as part of this effort, in the spring of 1874 Grange No. 6 held a picnic and planting event at the corner of College Avenue and West Laurel Street, plowed and seeded 20 acres of wheat on a nearby field. Within several months, the university's first building, a 16-foot -by-24-foot red brick building nicknamed the "Claim Shanty" was finished, providing the first tangible presence of the institution in Fort Collins. After Colorado achieved statehood in 1876, the territorial law establishing the college was required to be reauthorized.
In 1877, the state legislature created the eight-member State Board of Agriculture to govern the school. Early in the 21st century, the governing board was renamed the Board of Governors of the Colorado State University System; the legislature authorized a railroad right-of-way across the campus and a mill levy to raise money for construction of the campus' first main building, Old Main, completed in December 1878. Despite wall cracks and other structural problems suffered during its first year, the building was opened in time for the welcoming of the first five students on September 1, 1879 by university president Elijah Evan Edwards. Enrollment grew to 25 by 1880. During the first term at Colorado Agricultural College in fall 1879, the school functioned more as a college-prep school than a college because of the lack of trained students; the first course offerings were arithmetic, English, U. S. history, natural philosophy and farm economy. Students labored on the college farm and attended daily chapel services.
The spring term provided the first true college-level instruction. Despite his accomplishments, Edwards resigned in spring 1882 because of conflicts with the State Board of Agriculture, a young faculty member, with students; the board's next appointee as president was Charles Ingersoll, a graduate and former faculty member at Michigan State Agricultural College, who began his nine years of service at CAC with just two full-time faculty members and 67 students, 24 of whom were women. Agricultural research would grow under Ingersoll; the Hatch Act of 1887 provided federal funds to establish and maintain experiment stations at land-grant colleges. Ainsworth Blount, CAC's first professor of practical agriculture and manager of the College Farm, had become known as a "one man experiment station", the Hatch Act expanded his original station to five Colorado locations; the curriculum expanded as well, introducing coursework in engineering, animal science, liberal arts. New faculty members brought expertise in botany, horticulture and irrigation engineering.
CAC made its first attempts at animal science during 1883–84, when it hired veterinary surgeon George Faville. Faville conducted free weekly clinics for student instruction and treatment of local citizen's diseased or injured animals. Veterinary science at the college languished for many years following Faville's departure in 1886. President Ingersoll believed. Despite the reluctance of the institution's governing board, CAC began opening the door to liberal arts in 1885, by Ingersoll's last year at CAC the college had instituted a "Ladies Course" that offered junior and senior women classes in drawing and typewriting, foreign languages, landscape gardening and psychology. Ingersoll's belief in liberal yet practical education conflicted with the narrower focus of the State Board of Agriculture, a final clash in April 1891 led to his resignation. In 1884, CAC would celebrate the commencement of its first three graduates. One of the early notable professors was Louis George Carpenter, happy to be called "Professor Carp."
He was a college Professor and the Dean of Engineering & Physics at Colorado State University known as the Colorado Agricultural College. He was
James Black (prohibitionist)
James Black was an American temperance movement activist and a founder of the Prohibition Party. In 1872 Black was the first nominee of the Prohibition Party for President of the United States. James Black was born September 23, 1823 in Lewisburg, the son of John Black and Jane Egbert Black. In 1836 the family moved to the city of Lancaster, which would remain his hometown for the rest of his life. In addition to his home in the city of Lancaster, Black had a residence in Fulton Township, Pennsylvania; as a boy Black worked for a time in a sawmill before entering the Lewisburg Academy in 1841. In 1844, Black began the study of law, passing into the Pennsylvania state bar in 1846 and setting up a legal practice in Lancaster. Black married Eliza Murray in 1845. Black was a member of the Republican Party but was deeply committed to anti-alcohol activism, having joined the Washingtonian movement while still a youth. Black was involved in establishing the Good Templars, a temperance organization. In addition, he co-founded the National Temperance Society and Publishing House with Neal Dow, another pioneering temperance leader.
In its first 60 years, the publishing house printed over one billion pages. It published three monthly periodicals with a combined circulation of about 600,000, it published over 2,000 books and pamphlets plus textbooks, flyers and other temperance materials. In 1869, Black and some of his friends founded the Prohibition Party. Three years he was selected to run as the party’s first presidential candidate. However, he won only 5,607 popular votes. One reason for the low vote he received was that the powerful Anti-Saloon League, under the direction of Wayne Wheeler, would not support third party candidates; the same was true of the influential Women's Christian Temperance Union. Black died of pneumonia at his home in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, on December 16, 1893, he was 70 years old at the time of his death. Is There a Necessity for a Prohibition Party? New York: National Temperance Society and Publication House, 1876. Brief History of Prohibition and of the Prohibition Reform Party. New York: National Committee of the Prohibition Reform Party, 1880.
Hon. James Black's Cleveland address. Address delivered at the opening of the National Prohibition Reform Party Convention, held in Cleveland, Wednesday, June, 17th, 1880. New York: Prohibition Reform Party, 1880. History of the National Prohibition Party. New York: National Temperance Society and Publication House, 1893. "Obituary," The New York Times, 17 December 1893, 2. James G. Wilson, et al. Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography. NY: Appleton & Co. 1887-1889. "James Black," OurCampaigns biography, www.ourcampaigns.com/ Lawrence Kestenbaum, "James Black," The Political Graveyard, www.politicalgraveyard.com/
1872 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1872 was the 22nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1872. Despite a split in the Republican Party, incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant defeated Liberal Republican nominee Horace Greeley; the election is notable for being the only presidential election in which a major party nominee died during the election process. Grant was unanimously re-nominated at the 1872 Republican National Convention, but his intra-party opponents organized the Liberal Republican Party and held their own convention; the 1872 Liberal Republican convention nominated Greeley, a New York newspaper publisher, wrote a platform calling for civil service reform and an end to Reconstruction. Democratic Party leaders believed that their only hope of defeating Grant was to unite around Greeley, the 1872 Democratic National Convention nominated the Liberal Republican ticket. Despite the union between the Liberal Republicans and Democrats, Greeley proved to be an ineffective campaigner and Grant remained popular.
Grant decisively won re-election, carrying 31 of the 37 states, including several Southern states that would not again vote Republican until the 20th century. Grant would be the last incumbent to win a second term until William McKinley's victory in the 1900 presidential election, his popular vote margin of 11.8% was the largest margin between 1852 and 1904. On November 29, 1872, after the popular vote was counted, but before the Electoral College cast its votes, Greeley died; as a result, electors committed to Greeley voted for four different candidates for president and eight different candidates for vice president. It was the last instance until the 2016 presidential election in which more than one presidential elector voted for a candidate to whom they were not pledged. At the 1872 Republican National Convention the Republicans nominated President Ulysses S. Grant for re-election, but nominated Senator Henry Wilson from Massachusetts for vice-president instead of the incumbent Schuyler Colfax, implicated in the Credit Mobilier scandal.
Others, who had grown weary of the corruption of the Grant administration, bolted to form the Liberal Republican Party. In the hope of defeating Grant, the Democratic party endorsed the nominees of the Liberal Republican Party. An influential group of dissident Republicans split from the party to form the Liberal Republican Party in 1870. At the party's only national convention, held in Cincinnati in 1872, New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley was nominated for president on the sixth ballot, defeating Charles Francis Adams. Missouri Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown was nominated for vice-president on the second ballot; the 1872 Democratic National Convention met in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 9–10. Because of its strong desire to defeat Ulysses S. Grant, the Democratic Party nominated the Liberal Republicans' Greeley/Brown ticket and adopted their platform. Greeley received 686 of the 732 delegate votes cast, while Brown received 713. Accepting the Liberal platform meant the Democrats had accepted the New Departure strategy, which rejected the anti-Reconstruction platform of 1868.
They realized. They realized they would only split the anti-Grant vote if they nominated a candidate other than Greeley. However, Greeley's long reputation as the most aggressive antagonist of the Democratic party, its principles, its leadership, its activists cooled Democrats' enthusiasm for the nominee; some Democrats were worried that backing Greeley would bring the party to extinction, much like the moribund Whig Party had been doomed by endorsing the Know Nothing candidacy of Millard Fillmore in 1856, though others felt that the Democrats were in a much stronger position on a regional level than the Whigs had been at the time of their demise, predicted that the Liberal Republicans would not be viable in the long-term due to their lack of distinctive positions compared to the main Republican Party. A sizable minority led by James A. Bayard sought to act independently of the Liberal Republican ticket, but the bulk of the party agreed to endorse Greeley's candidacy; the convention, which lasted only six hours stretched over two days, is the shortest major political party convention in history.
The Liberal Republican Party fused with the Democratic Party in all states except for Louisiana and Texas. In states where Republicans were stronger, the Liberal Republicans fielded a majority of the joint slate of candidates for lower offices. In many states, such as Ohio, each party nominated half of a joint slate of candidates. Reluctant Democratic leaders like Thomas F. Bayard came to support Greeley. Presidential Candidates: The Labor Reform Party had only been organized in 1870, with its first National Convention meeting held in St. Louis, Missouri, on February 22, 1872. There was a fair amount of discussion as to whether the party should nominate anyone for the presidency at that time, or if they should wait at least for the Liberal Republicans to nominate their own ticket first; every motion to that effect lost, a number of ballots were taken that resulted in the nomination of David Davis, the frontrunner for the Liberal Republican nomination at that time. Joel Parker, the Governor of New Jersey, was nominated for vice-president.
While Davis did not decline the nomination of the Labor Reform party, he decided to hinge his campaign in large part on the success of attaining the Liberal Republican nomination, so that he might at least have their resources behind him. After their convention, in which he failed to attain th
Denver International Airport
Denver International Airport, locally referred to as DIA, is an international airport in the western United States serving metropolitan Denver, Colorado, as well as the greater Front Range Urban Corridor. At 33,531 acres, it is the largest airport in North America by total land area and the second largest in the world. Runway 16R/34L, with a length of 16,000 feet, is the longest public use runway in North America and the seventh longest in the world. With over 35,000 employees, the airport is the largest employer in Colorado. Opened in 1995, Denver International has non-stop service to 205 destinations throughout North America, Latin America and Asia. S. to exceed 200 destinations. It has the second-largest domestic network, with 185 U. S. destinations. As of 2018, DIA is the 20th busiest airport in the world, fifth busiest in the U. S. and the largest in the Interior-Western United States. The airport is a major hub for Frontier Airlines, United Airlines, is a main operating base for Southwest Airlines.
These three airlines' combined operations made up about 85% of the total passenger traffic at DIA as of December 2018. Denver has traditionally been home to one of the busier airports in the nation because of its location. Many airlines including United Airlines, Western Airlines, the old Frontier Airlines and People Express were hubbed at the old Stapleton International Airport, there was a significant Southwest Airlines operation. In addition, Stapleton had transatlantic charter services from Martinair and Monarch Airlines among others at the time of closure, followed by Korean Air and LTU International once DIA opened. At times, Stapleton was a hub for four airlines; the main reasons that justified the construction of the new DIA included the fact that gate space was limited at Stapleton. From 1980 to 1983, the Denver Regional Council of Governments investigated six areas for a new metro area airport that were north and east of Denver. In September 1989, under the leadership of Denver Mayor Federico Peña, federal officials authorized the outlay of the first $60 million for the construction of DIA.
Two years Mayor Wellington Webb inherited the megaproject, scheduled to open on October 29, 1993. Delays caused by poor planning and repeated design changes due to changing requirements from United Airlines caused Mayor Webb to push opening day back, first to December 1993 to March 1994. By September 1993, delays due to a millwright strike and other events meant opening day was pushed back again, to May 15, 1994. In April 1994, the city invited reporters to observe the first test of the new automated baggage system. Reporters were treated to scenes of clothing and other personal effects scattered beneath the system's tracks, while the actuators that moved luggage from belt to belt would toss the luggage right off the system instead; the mayor cancelled the planned May 15 opening. The baggage system continued to be a maintenance hassle and was terminated in September 2005, with traditional baggage handlers manually handling cargo and passenger luggage. On September 25, 1994, the airport hosted a fly-in that drew several hundred general aviation aircraft, providing pilots with a unique opportunity to operate in and out of the new airport, to wander around on foot looking at the ground-side facilities—including the baggage system, still under testing.
FAA controllers took advantage of the event to test procedures, to check for holes in radio coverage as planes taxied around and among the buildings. DIA replaced Stapleton on February 28, 1995, 16 months behind schedule and at a cost of $4.8 billion, nearly $2 billion over budget. The construction employed 11,000 workers. United Airlines Flight 1062 to Kansas City International Airport was the first to depart and United Flight 1474 from Colorado Springs Airport was the first to arrive. After the airport's runways were completed but before it opened, the airport used the codes. DIA took over as its codes from Stapleton when the latter airport closed. During the blizzard of March 17–19, 2003, the weight of heavy snow tore a hole in the terminal's white fabric roof. Over two feet of snow on the paved areas closed the airport for two days. Several thousand people were stranded at DIA. In 2004, DIA was ranked first in major airports for on-time arrivals according to the FAA. Another blizzard on December 20 and 21, 2006 dumped over 20 inches of snow in about 24 hours.
The airport was closed for more than 45 hours. Following that blizzard, the airport invested in new snow-removal equipment that has led to a dramatic reduction in runway occupancy times to clear snow, down from an average of 45 minutes in 2006 to just 15 minutes in 2014; as part of the original design of the airport the city specified passenger volume "triggers" that would lead to a redevelopment of the master plan and possible new construction to make sure the airport is able to meet Denver's needs. The city hit its first-phase capacity threshold in 2008, DIA is revising the master plan; as part of the master plan update, the airport announced selection of Parsons Corporation to design a new hotel, rail station and two bridges leading into the main terminal. The airport has the ability to add up to six additional ru
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
1876 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1876 was the 23rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1876. It was one of the most contentious and controversial presidential elections in American history, is known for being the catalyst for the end of Reconstruction. Republican nominee Rutherford B. Hayes faced Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. After a controversial post-election process, Hayes was declared the winner. After President Ulysses S. Grant declined to seek a third term despite being expected to do so, Congressman James G. Blaine emerged as the front-runner for the Republican nomination. However, Blaine was unable to win a majority at the 1876 Republican National Convention, which settled on Governor Hayes of Ohio as a compromise candidate; the 1876 Democratic National Convention nominated Governor Tilden of New York on the second ballot. The results of the election remain among the most disputed although it is not disputed that Tilden outpolled Hayes in the popular vote.
After a first count of votes, Tilden won 184 electoral votes to Hayes' 165, with 20 votes from four states unresolved. In Florida and South Carolina, each party reported its candidate had won the state, while in Oregon one elector was replaced after being declared illegal for being an "elected or appointed official"; the question of who should have been awarded these electoral votes is the source of the continued controversy. An informal deal was struck to resolve the dispute: the Compromise of 1877, which awarded all 20 electoral votes to Hayes. In return for the Democrats' acquiescence to Hayes' election, the Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South, ending Reconstruction; the Compromise ceded power in the Southern states to the Democratic Redeemers, who proceeded to disenfranchise black voters thereafter. The 1876 election is the second of five presidential elections in which the person who won the most popular votes did not win the election, the only such election in which the popular vote winner received a majority of the popular vote.
To date, it remains the election that recorded the smallest electoral vote victory and the election that yielded the highest voter turnout of the eligible voting age population in American history, at 81.8%. Despite not becoming president, Tilden was the first Democratic presidential nominee since James Buchanan in 1856 to win the popular vote and the first since Franklin Pierce in 1852 to do so in an outright majority, it was assumed during the year 1875 that incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant would run for a third term as president in spite of the poor economic conditions, the numerous political scandals that had developed since he assumed office in 1869, a long-standing tradition set by the first president, George Washington, not to stay in office longer than two terms. Grant's inner circle advised him to go for a third term and he did, but the House, by a sweeping 233 to 18 vote, passed a resolution declaring that the two-term tradition was to prevent a dictatorship. Late in the year, President Grant ruled himself out of running in 1876.
When the Sixth Republican National Convention assembled in Cincinnati, Ohio, on June 14, 1876, it appeared that James G. Blaine would be the nominee. On the first ballot, Blaine was just 100 votes short of a majority, his vote began to slide after the second ballot, however, as many Republicans feared that Blaine could not win the general election. Anti-Blaine delegates could not agree on a candidate until Blaine's total rose to 41% on the sixth ballot. Leaders of the reform Republicans met and considered alternatives, they chose Ohio's reform governor, Rutherford B. Hayes. On the seventh ballot, Hayes was nominated with 384 votes to 351 for Blaine and 21 for Benjamin Bristow. William A. Wheeler was nominated for vice-president by a much larger margin over his chief rival, Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen, who served as a member of the electoral commission that awarded the election to Hayes. Democratic candidates: Samuel J. Tilden, governor of New York Thomas A. Hendricks, governor of Indiana Winfield Scott Hancock, United States Army major general from Pennsylvania William Allen, former governor of Ohio Thomas F. Bayard, U.
S. senator from Delaware Joel Parker, former governor of New Jersey The 12th Democratic National Convention assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, in June 1876, the first political convention held by one of the major American parties west of the Mississippi River. Five thousand people jammed the auditorium in St. Louis with hopes for the Democratic Party's first presidential victory in 20 years; the platform called for immediate and sweeping reforms in response to the scandals that had plagued the Grant administration. Tilden won more than 400 votes on the nomination by a landslide on the second. Tilden defeated Thomas A. Hendricks, Winfield Scott Hancock, William Allen, Thomas F. Bayard, Joel Parker for the presidential nomination. Tilden overcame strong opposition from "Honest John" Kelly, the leader of New York's Tammany Hall, to obtain the nomination. Thomas Hendricks was nominated for vice-president, since he was the only person put forward for the position; the Democratic platform pledged to replace the corruption of the Grant administration with honest, efficient government and to end "the rapacity of carpetbag tyrannies" in the South.
It called for treaty protection for naturalized United States citizens visiting their homelands, restrictions on Asian immigration, tariff reform, opposition to land grants for railroads. It has been claimed that the voting Democrats received Tilden's nomination w
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th