Statue of James Henry Greathead, London
The statue of James Henry Greathead, designed by James Butler, is installed outside the Royal Exchange, where it conceals a ventilation shaft. It was erected in 1994 on a traffic island in the middle of Cornhill, with traffic passing to either side, similar to the statue of Prince Albert at Holborn Circus; the London Troops War Memorial is nearby. James Henry Greathead was a South African civil engineer best known for his work on the railway lines now incorporated into the London Underground. Greathead was an engineer on the London & Southwark Subway the City & South London Railway, now part of the Northern line, which has a station near to the statue at Bank; the bronze statue depicts a bearded Greathead wearing a broad-brimmed hat and carrying a coat over his right arm, holding a piece of paper which he is reading. It stands on a hollow oval Portland stone base with granite plinth; the base bears a bronze plaque on one side depicting a tunnelling shield with an inscription that credits Greathead as being the "inventor of the travelling shield that made possible the cutting of the tunnels of London's deep level tube system".
The other side of the base bears the carved stone badge of the South London Railway. Visible in a gap between the statue and the base are the metal grilles of a vent shaft installed at Bank Junction to meet safety standards introduced after the King's Cross fire in 1987; the statute was unveiled by the Lord Mayor of London Sir Paul Newell on 17 January 1994. James Henry Greathead, Tunnelling Expert and Railway Engineer, victorianweb.org James Henry Henry Greathead's statue, London Walking Tours greathead.org
Abraham Lincoln: The Man
Abraham Lincoln: The Man is a larger-than-life size bronze statue of Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States. The original statue is in Lincoln Park in Chicago, several replicas have been installed in other places around the world. Completed by Augustus Saint-Gaudens in 1887, it has been described as the most important sculpture of Lincoln from the 19th century. At the time, the New York Evening Post called it "the most important achievement American sculpture has yet produced." Abraham Lincoln II, Lincoln's only grandson, was present, among a crowd at the unveiling. The artist created the Seated Lincoln sculpture in Chicago's Grant Park; the sculpture depicts a contemplative Lincoln about to give a speech. It is set upon a pedestal and, in Chicago, an exedra designed by architect Stanford White. Chicago businessman Eli Bates provided $40,000 in his will for the statue. Saint-Gaudens was specially selected for the commission after a design competition failed to produce a winning artist.
Saint-Gaudens, who revered the President, had seen Lincoln at the time of his inauguration, viewed Lincoln's body lying in state. For his design, the artist relied on a life mask and hand casts made of Lincoln in 1860 by Leonard W. Volk. While planning and working on the Standing Lincoln, Saint-Gaudens was first enticed to what would become his home and studio, an associated artist's colony. To convince him to vacation near Cornish, New Hampshire, a friend told him the area had "many Lincoln-shaped men"; the sculpture's naturalism influenced a generation of artists. The monument was a favorite of Hull House founder Jane Addams, who once wrote, "I walked the wearisome way from Hull-House to Lincoln Park... in order to look at and gain magnanimous counsel from the statue." Journalist Andrew Ferguson discusses the statue at length in his book Land of Lincoln, writing that the statue presents "a sort of world-weariness that seems kind". The City of Chicago awarded the monument landmark status on December 12, 2001.
It is located near the Chicago History North Avenue. Replicas of the statue stand at Lincoln Tomb in Springfield, Parque Lincoln in Mexico City, Parliament Square in London; the Parliament Square statue was given to Britain in July 1920. The American Ambassador made a formal presentation at Central Hall, where Prime Minister David Lloyd George accepted the gift on behalf of the people of Britain; the Mexico City statue was presented by United States President Lyndon Johnson to the people of Mexico in 1964. Johnson received a small copy of the bust from the statue, which since is seen displayed in the Oval Office of the White House. In 2016, a newly cast replica of the full-height statue was installed in the garden at Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site in Cornish. From 1910 onwards, Saint-Gaudens' widow, oversaw the casting of a number of smaller replicas of the statue, reduced to under one-third the size of the original; some of these replicas are now held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, the Yale University Art Gallery, the Harvard Art Museums, Fay School, Southborough MA, the Jackson District Library in Jackson, the Newark Museum, New Jersey, the Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site.
List of public art in Chicago List of public art in Mexico City Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Master Sculptor, exhibition catalog online as PDF from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on this statue
Statue of Charlie Chaplin, London
The statue of Charlie Chaplin in Leicester Square, London, is a work of 1979 by the sculptor John Doubleday. It portrays the actor and filmmaker in his best-known role, as The Tramp. A memorial to Chaplin in the city of his birth was proposed on 25 December 1977, soon after Chaplin's death, by Illtyd Harrington, the leader of the opposition in the Greater London Council. Initial plans for a memorial in the Elephant and Castle, in South London where Chaplin spent his early years, were dropped and instead Leicester Square, at the centre of London's entertainment district, became the preferred location for the work; the bronze statue was first unveiled on 16 April 1981 at its original site, on the south-western corner of the square, by the actor Sir Ralph Richardson. An inscription on the plinth read THE COMIC GENIUS/ WHO GAVE PLEASURE/ TO SO MANY; the following year a modified version was erected in the Swiss town of Vevey, Chaplin's home from 1952 until his death. Following a refurbishment of Leicester Square in 1989–1992, the statue was moved to a site north of the statue of William Shakespeare, the square's centrepiece.
In a refurbishment of 2010–2012 Chaplin's statue was removed altogether, together with busts of William Hogarth, John Hunter, Sir Isaac Newton and Sir Joshua Reynolds. The statue was installed in a nearby street, Leicester Place, in 2013; this was. In 2016 it was re-unveiled on Chaplin's birthday. Media related to Statue of Charlie Chaplin, London at Wikimedia Commons
Banqueting House, Whitehall
The Banqueting House, Whitehall, is the grandest and best known survivor of the architectural genre of banqueting house. It is the only remaining component of the Palace of Whitehall, the residence of English monarchs from 1530 to 1698; the building is important in the history of English architecture as the first structure to be completed in the neo-classical style, to transform English architecture. Begun in 1619 and designed by Inigo Jones in a style influenced by Andrea Palladio, the Banqueting House was completed in 1622 at a cost of £15,618, 27 years before King Charles I of England was beheaded on a scaffold in front of it in January 1649; the building was controversially re-faced in Portland stone in the 19th century, though the details of the original façade were faithfully preserved. Today, the Banqueting House is a national monument, open to the public and preserved as a Grade I listed building, it is cared for by an independent charity—Historic Royal Palaces—which receives no funding from the British Government or the Crown.
The Palace of Whitehall was the creation of King Henry VIII, expanding an earlier mansion that had belonged to Cardinal Wolsey, known as York Place. The King was determined that his new palace should be the "biggest palace in Christendom", a place befitting his newly created status as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. All evidence of the disgraced Wolsey was eliminated and the building rechristened the Palace of Whitehall. During Henry's reign, the palace had no designated banqueting house, the King preferring to banquet in a temporary structure purpose-built in the gardens; the Keeper of the Banqueting House was a position enhanced by Queen Mary I by designating it in relation to a building of the same name at Nonsuch Palace, near the south edge of Greater London, which has since been demolished and instead marks the site of a footpath junction of the London Loop. This house was used to entertain the French agent in London and ambassador Gilles de Noailles and his wife in 1556; the first permanent banqueting house at Whitehall had a short life.
It was built for King James I, but was destroyed by fire in January 1619, when workmen, clearing up after New Year's festivities, decided to incinerate the rubbish inside the building. An immediate replacement was commissioned from the fashionable architect Inigo Jones. Jones had spent time in Italy studying the architecture evolving from the Renaissance and that of Andrea Palladio, returned to England with what were, at the time, revolutionary ideas: to replace the complicated and confused style of the Jacobean English Renaissance with a simpler, classically inspired design, his new banqueting house at Whitehall was to be a prime example. Jones made no attempt to harmonise his design with the Tudor palace; the design of the Banqueting House is classical in concept. It introduced a refined Italianate Renaissance style, unparalleled in the free and picturesque Jacobean architecture of England, where Renaissance motifs were still filtered through the engravings of Flemish Mannerist designers; the roof is flat and the roofline is defined by a balustrade.
On the street façade, the engaged columns, of the Corinthian and Ionic orders, the former above the latter, stand atop a high, rusticated basement and divide the seven bays of windows. The building is on three floors: The ground floor, a warren of cellars and store rooms, is low; the lower windows of the hall are surmounted by alternating triangular and segmental pediments, while the upper windows are unadorned casements. Beneath the entablature, which projects to emphasize the central three bays, the capitals of the pilasters are linked by swags in relief, above which the entablature is supported by dental corbel table. Under the upper frieze and masks suggest the feasting and revelry associated with the concept of a royal banqueting hall. Much of the work on the Banqueting House was overseen by Nicholas Stone, a Devonshire mason who had trained in Holland, it has been said that, until this time, English sculpture resembled that described by the Duchess of Malfi: "the figure cut in alabaster kneels at my husband's tomb."
Like Inigo Jones, Stone was well aware of Florentine art and introduced to England a more delicate classical form of sculpture inspired by Michelangelo's Medici tombs. This is evident in his swags on the street façade of the Banqueting House, similar to that which adorns the plinth of his Francis Holles memorial. In 1638, Jones drew the designs for a new and massive palace at Whitehall in which his banqueting house was to be incorporated as one wing enclosing a series of seven courtyards, visible on the monumental main façade as only a small flanking wing; these revealed the ideas behind Jones' concept of Palladianism. However, King Charles I, who commissioned the plans, never amassed the resources to execute them. In January 1698, the Tudor Palace was razed by fire. All that remained was the Banqueting House, Whitehall Gate, Holbein Gate. Christopher Wren and Nicholas Hawksmoor were asked to design a new palace, but nothing came of the scheme, it has been said that the widowed King William III never cared for the area, had his wife, Mary II, been alive, with her appreciation of the historical significance of Whitehall, he would have insisted on the rebuilding.
The term Banqueting House was something of a misnomer. The hall within the house was, in fact, used not only for banqueti
Statue of Mahatma Gandhi, Parliament Square
The statue of Mahatma Gandhi in Parliament Square, London, is a work by the sculptor Philip Jackson. In July 2014, Chancellor of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom, George Osborne, announced while on a visit to India that a statue of Mahatma Gandhi would be placed in Parliament Square, Westminster, he said that "I hope this new memorial will be a lasting and fitting tribute to his memory in Britain, a permanent monument to our friendship with India." It was announced at the same time. He had created the statue of the Queen Mother, the RAF Bomber Command Memorial, the statue of Bobby Moore. Planning permission was granted by Westminster City Council that year in November. Financing for the statue was through sponsorships; this was supported by the work of the Gandhi Statue Memorial Trust, set up by Meghnad Desai, Baron Desai, as well as a special advisory panel created by the Government. This was chaired by Sajid Javid MP, the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. By the time that planning permission, £100,000 had been raised by the Trust, but a further £500,000 was needed and they sought to raise that by January 2015 in order to tie in with a planned visit to London by Prime Minister, Narendra Modi of India.
The statue was unveiled by the Indian Finance Minister Arun Jaitley on 14 March 2015. It was dedicated as a commemoration of the centenary of Gandhi's return to India from South Africa, regarded as the commencement of his efforts for Indian independence. Speakers at the unveiling of the statue included Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron, the Indian film actor Amitabh Bachchan and Gandhi's grandson Gopalkrishna Gandhi; the statue is 9 feet tall, made from bronze. It is based on a photograph of Gandhi standing outside the offices of Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald in 1931; the plinth that the statue is mounted on is lower than those on the other statues in Parliament Square, a deliberate choice by the Gandhi Statue Memorial Trust. It was planned to be the final statue to be placed in Parliament Square; because of the placement of the statue of Gandhi, developers are expecting to move the placement for a planned statue of former British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, to outside of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in Middlesex Guildhall.
On its unveiling, commentators noted the irony of the statue's placement near the statue of Sir Winston Churchill that stands in Parliament Square. Churchill, who opposed Indian independence, famously once called Gandhi "a seditious Middle Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace"; the Telegraph of Kolkata noted that the fact "that Gandhi and Mandela now stand alongside a slew of white men in Parliament Square is proof of how much England itself has moved away from Winston Churchill's views on racism and imperialism." List of artistic depictions of Mahatma Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Statue of Mahatma Gandhi, Gandhi Maidan Statue of Mahatma Gandhi, Johannesburg Gandhi Statue Memorial Trust Media related to Statue of Mahatma Gandhi, Parliament Square, London at Wikimedia Commons
Statue of Millicent Fawcett
The statue of Dame Millicent Fawcett, the suffragist leader and social campaigner, in Parliament Square, London, is a 2018 work by the Turner Prize-winning artist Gillian Wearing. Following a campaign and petition by the activist Caroline Criado Perez, the statue's creation was endorsed by both the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Theresa May, the Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan; the statue, Parliament Square's first monument to a woman and its first sculpture by a woman, was funded through the government's Centenary Fund, which marks 100 years since some women won the right to vote. The memorial was unveiled on 24 April 2018; the bronze statue portrays Dame Millicent at the age of 50, when she became president of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies. The figure holds a banner reading COURAGE/ CALLS TO/ COURAGE/ EVERYWHERE, an extract from a speech Fawcett gave in 1920, seven years after the death of the suffragette Emily Wilding Davison. Fawcett was rather critical of Davison's actions in 1913, shortly after the latter's death, although she became more sympathetic to Davison's behaviour some years later.
She wears a walking suit, typical attire of that period featuring a long dress. The artist integrated the texture of the tweed fabric into the bronze of the suit; the Fawcett Society lent a piece of Fawcett's jewellery to Wearing, who scanned the brooch and incorporated it into the statue's design. The initial design was modified following feedback from members of Westminster City Council, as they felt that the sign Fawcett was holding made her look as if she were hanging laundry out to dry. Wearing modified her design to move Fawcett's hands to the corners of the sign, lowered and flattened the sign itself; the names and images of 55 women and four men who supported women's suffrage appear on the statue's plinth. They are as follows: The feminist campaigner and journalist Caroline Criado Perez began a campaign to install a statue of a woman in Parliament Square on 8 March 2016, after noticing while jogging that day that all the existing statues on the square were of men. Criado Perez had initiated the 2013 campaign to add a woman to British banknotes, after Elizabeth Fry was replaced by Winston Churchill on the £5 note, soon thereafter the Bank of England announced that Jane Austen would appear on the new £10 note.
The campaign called for a statue of a suffragette to be placed in Parliament Square in time for the centenary of the Representation of the People Act 1918. Following some research, Criado Perez discovered that only 2.7 percent of the statues in the United Kingdom were of individual women who were not members of the British royal family. On 10 May 2016, to launch the campaign, an open letter was written to the new Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan, signed by 42 prominent women, requesting a statue of a suffragette in Parliament Square by February 2018. Khan agreed to a new suffragette statue, but did not commit to Parliament Square and instead said that the authorities would "explore a suitable site for the statue". An online petition for the suffragette statue received 74,000 signatures; this was presented to Parliament on 7 June. At the same time, Criado Perez stated that she backed Millicent Fawcett as the subject of the statue, adding that "It's shocking that she doesn’t have a statue of her own – and Parliament Square is the obvious place for her to be.
Not round the corner, or up the road. Nothing less than Parliament Square will do."On 2 April 2017, it was announced that a statue of Fawcett would be erected in Parliament Square. The Prime Minister, Theresa May, said following the announcement, "The example Millicent Fawcett set during the struggle for equality continues to inspire the battle against the burning injustices of today, it is right and proper that she is honoured in Parliament Square alongside former leaders who changed our country." The Suffrage Statue Commission selected Gillian Wearing, a former Turner Prize winner, to create the statue with it funded from the Government's Centenary Fund. The statue was part of the 14-18 NOW series of artistic commissions that marked the centenary commemorations of World War I. In addition to the campaign for a statue of Fawcett, a rival campaign existed to install a statue of Emmeline Pankhurst in Parliament Square, which had begun in 2014; this campaign was backed by the former Prime Minister David Cameron, the former MP Neil Thorne, the Leader of the House of Commons Andrea Leadsom and the first female Speaker of the House of Commons Betty Boothroyd.
An existing statue of Pankhurst, the Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst Memorial, has stood in Victoria Tower Gardens next to the Palace of Westminster since 1958. The Pankhurst campaign had sought to move this statue into Parliament Square, but discovered that it was too small to be placed there; the campaign commissioned sculptor Angela Conner to produce a 12 feet tall statue of Pankhurst. Discussions were held about installing a pair of statues in the Square, portraying both Fawcett and Pankhurst. Campaigners from the two suffragette campaigns met, but after Thorne gained the initial agreement of Westminster City Council to place two statues, the Fawcett campaign turned this down following a second meeting between the parties. Criado Perez said that she was "not prepared to compromise on the central point of the campaign, to have a statue for a new woman and have one front and centre", feared that a pair of statues would be featured less prominently in the Square than a single one; the decision was made
Statue of Edward VI (Scheemakers)
The statue of Edward VI by Peter Scheemakers at St Thomas' Hospital, London is one of two statues of the king at the hospital. Both commemorate Edward's re-founding of the hospital in 1551, it was moved to its current location inside the North Wing of the hospital in the 20th century. It was designated a Grade II* listed structure in 1979. Edward VI was his third queen, Jane Seymour. Born on 12 October 1537, he succeed his father at the age of nine in 1547 but never attained his majority, dying aged 15 in 1553. During the Reformation St Thomas', as a religious foundation, was deprived of its revenues and estates and was closed in 1540. In 1551, Edward granted a charter for the hospital's refounding; the origin of St Thomas' Hospital was the sick house attached to the Church of St Mary Overie in Southwark, founded in the 12th century. By the late 17th century, the hospital was in a dilapidated state and Sir Robert Clayton employed the architect, St Thomas' governor, Thomas Cartwright to undertake complete rebuilding.
The new buildings, of red brick and in a classical style were completed just after Clayton's death, in 1709. Following the complete reconstruction of the hospital in 1872, on a site further up the River Thames at Lambeth, the statue was moved to the new site and has been repositioned subsequently; the sculptor Peter Scheemakers came from a family of sculptors. Of Flemish origin, both his father and his two sons worked in the profession, he came to London some time before 1720 and made his reputation with the bust of William Shakespeare in Westminister Abbey in 1740. His statue of Edward VI predates that work. In bronze, the effigy shows the king in period dress; the inscription on the plinth records. Treasurer of the hospital; the sculpture was designated a Grade II* listed structure in 1979. Cherry, Bridget.