Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is a member of the British royal family. He is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, Diana, Princess of Wales. Since birth, he has been second in the line to succeed his grandmother Elizabeth II, queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms. William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and studied for a degree at the University of St. Andrews. During a gap year, he spent time in Chile and Africa. In December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet and was commissioned in the Blues and Royals regiment. In April 2008, William completed pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell underwent helicopter flight training and became a full-time pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009, his service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013. He trained for a civil pilot's licence and spent over two years working as a pilot for the East Anglian Air Ambulance. In 2011, Prince William was married Catherine Middleton.
The couple have three children: Prince George, Princess Charlotte, Prince Louis. Prince William was born at Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital, London, at 9:03 pm on 21 June 1982 as the first child of Charles, Prince of Wales—heir apparent to Queen Elizabeth II—and Diana, Princess of Wales, his names, William Arthur Philip Louis, were announced by Buckingham Palace on 28 June. He was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 4 August, the 82nd birthday of his paternal great-grandmother Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, he was the first child born to a Prince and Princess of Wales since Prince John in 1905. William's parents affectionately called him "Wombat" or "Wills"—a name coined by the press. Since his birth, William has been second in the line of succession to the British throne. At age seven, he told his mother he wanted to be a police officer when he was older so that he might be able to protect her. You've got to be King."William began accompanying his parents on official visits at an early age.
In 1983, he accompanied them on a tour to Australia and New Zealand, a decision made by Diana. The decision was considered to be unconventional because the first- and second-in-line to the throne would be travelling together, because of William's young age, his first public appearance was on 1 March 1991—Saint David's Day—during an official visit of his parents to Cardiff. After arriving by aeroplane, William was taken to Llandaff Cathedral where he signed the visitors' book, showing he is left-handed. On 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after being accidentally hit on the forehead by a fellow student wielding a golf club, he suffered a depressed fracture of the skull and was operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital, resulting in a permanent scar. In a 2009 interview, he dubbed this scar a "Harry Potter scar" and said, "I call it that because it glows sometimes and some people notice it—other times they don't notice it at all". William's mother wanted him and his younger brother Harry to have wider experiences than are usual for royal children.
She took them to Walt Disney World and McDonald's, as well as AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless, bought them items owned by teenagers, such as video games. Diana, by divorced from Charles, died in a car accident in the early hours of 31 August 1997. William aged 15, together with his 12-year-old brother and their father, were staying at Balmoral Castle at the time; the Prince of Wales waited until his sons awoke the following morning to tell them about their mother's death. William accompanied his father, paternal grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, his maternal uncle Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, at his mother's funeral. William was educated at independent schools, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School near Wokingham and was tutored during summers by Rory Stewart. At Ludgrove, he participated in football, basketball, clay pigeon shooting, cross country running, he was admitted.
There, he studied Geography and History of Art at A-Level, obtaining an'A' in Geography, a'C' in Biology, a'B' in History of Art. At Eton, he continued to play football, captaining his house team; the decision to place William in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun, which William's grandfather, two uncles, two cousins all attended. Diana's father and brother both attended Eton; the royal family and the tabloid press agreed William would be allowed to study free from intrusion in exchange for regular updates about his life. John Wakeham, chairman of the Press Complaints Commission, said of the arrangement, "Prince William is not an institution, he is a boy: in the next few years the most important and sometimes painful part of his life, he will grow up and become a man."After completing his studies at Eton, William took a gap year, during which he took part in British Army training exercises in Belize, worked on English dairy farms, visited Africa, for ten weeks taught children in southern Chile.
As part of the Raleigh International programme in the town of Tortel, William lived with other young volunteers, sharing in the common household chores—including cleaning the toilet—and als
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs. From a gentry family, he served first as a page at the court of the House of Stuart under James, Duke of York, through the 1670s and early 1680s, earning military and political advancement through his courage and diplomatic skill. Churchill's role in defeating the Monmouth Rebellion in 1685 helped secure James on the throne, yet just three years he abandoned his Catholic patron for the Protestant Dutchman, William of Orange. Honoured for his services at William's coronation with the earldom of Marlborough, he served with further distinction in the early years of the Nine Years' War, but persistent charges of Jacobitism brought about his fall from office and temporary imprisonment in the Tower, it was not until the accession of Queen Anne in 1702 that Marlborough reached the zenith of his powers and secured his fame and fortune.
His marriage to the hot-tempered Sarah Jennings – Anne's intimate friend – ensured Marlborough's rise, first to the Captain-Generalcy of British forces to a dukedom. Becoming de facto leader of Allied forces during the War of the Spanish Succession, his victories on the fields of Blenheim, Ramillies and Malplaquet, ensured his place in history as one of Europe's great generals, but his wife's stormy relationship with the Queen, her subsequent dismissal from court, was central to his own fall. Incurring Anne's disfavour, caught between Tory and Whig factions, who had brought glory and success to Anne's reign, was forced from office and went into self-imposed exile, he returned to England and to influence under the House of Hanover with the accession of George I to the British throne in 1714. Marlborough's insatiable ambition made him the richest of all Anne's subjects, his family connections wove him into the fabric of European politics. His leadership of the allied armies consolidated Britain's emergence as a front-rank power.
He maintained unity among the allies, thereby demonstrating his diplomatic skills. Throughout ten consecutive campaigns during the Spanish Succession war, Marlborough held together a discordant coalition through his sheer force of personality and raised the standing of British arms to a level not known since the Middle Ages. Although in the end he could not compel total capitulation from his enemies, his victories allowed Britain to rise from a minor to a major power, ensuring the country's growing prosperity throughout the 18th century. Churchill was the son of Sir Winston Churchill of Glanvilles Wootton in Dorset, by his wife Elizabeth Drake, fourth daughter of Sir John Drake of Ash in the parish of Musbury in Devon; the Churchill family is stated by the Devon historian William George Hoskins to have originated at the estate of Churchill, in the parish of Broadclyst in Devon, during the reign of King Henry II. At the end of the English Civil War Lady Drake was joined at her Devon home, Ash House in the parish of Musbury, by her fourth daughter Elizabeth Drake and her husband Winston Churchill, a Royalist cavalry captain.
Unlike his mother-in-law who had supported the Parliamentary cause, Winston had the misfortune of fighting on the losing side of the war – for which he, like so many other Cavaliers, was forced to compound. Although Winston had paid off the fine by 1651, it had impoverished him. From this episode may derive the Churchill family motto: Fiel Pero Desdichado. Winston Churchill and his wife Elizabeth Drake had at least nine children, only five of whom survived infancy; the eldest daughter, Arabella Churchill, was born on 28 February 1649. John Churchill, the eldest son, was born on 26 May 1650; the two younger sons were George Churchill, an admiral in the Royal Navy, Charles Churchill, a general who served on campaign in Europe with his eldest brother John. Little is known of John Churchill's childhood about which he left no written description, but growing up in these impoverished conditions at Ashe, with family tensions soured by conflicting allegiances, may have made a lasting impression on the young Churchill.
His descendant and biographer the Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, asserted that the conditions at Ashe "might well have aroused in his mind two prevailing impressions: first a hatred of poverty... and secondly the need of hiding thoughts and feelings from those to whom their expression would be repugnant". After the Restoration of King Charles II in 1660 his father's fortunes took a turn for the better, although he remained far from prosperous. In 1661, Winston became Member of Parliament for Weymouth, as a mark of royal favour he received rewards for losses incurred fighting against the Parliamentarians during the civil war, including the appointment as a Commissioner for Irish Land Claims in Dublin in 1661; when Winston departed for Ireland the following year, John enrolled at the Dublin Free School. The King's own penury meant the old Cavaliers received scant financial reward, but the prodigal monarch could offer something which would cost him nothing – positions at court for their progeny.
Thus in 1665, John's sister Arabella became Maid of Honour to the Duchess of York. Some months John
Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer
Albert Edward John Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer, styled The Honourable Albert Spencer until 1910 and as Viscount Althorp from 1910 to 1922, known less formally as "Jack" Spencer, was a British peer. He was the paternal grandfather of Diana Spencer, just under 14 years old at the time of his death. Diana would go on to marry Prince of Wales, heir to the British throne, six years later. Lord Spencer was born in London, the son of Charles Spencer, 6th Earl Spencer, his wife, the former Margaret Baring, second daughter of Edward Baring, 1st Baron Revelstoke, his godparents included King Edward VII. He was educated at Harrow School and Trinity College, where he was a friend of Lionel Lupton, who studied the same subject at Trinity, they signed up together to fight in World War I. Lupton's sister Olive Middleton was the great grandmother of Kate Middleton who married the great-grandson of Lord Spencer, Prince William, in April 2011. On 5 August 1914, Spencer was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 1st Regiment of Life Guards, was promoted to lieutenant on 21 October 1914, appointed an aide-de-camp on 9 May 1917, promoted to captain on 15 June 1917.
When 1st Life Guards merged with the 2nd Life Guards on 18 November 1922, Spencer was appointed a captain in the new regiment. He retired from the army on 20 September 1924, but remained a member of the Regular Army Reserve of Officers until reaching the mandatory retirement age on 2 June 1943. On 27 August 1924, Lord Spencer was appointed the Honorary Colonel of the 4th Battalion, Northamptonshire Regiment, remaining in that role when it was renamed 50th Anti-Aircraft Battalion on 1 October 1937, throughout its various post-war incarnations until relinquishing his appointment on 1 April 1967, he was awarded the Territorial Efficiency Decoration on 12 September 1944, with two clasps on 20 November 1953. On 9 April 1935, Lord Spencer was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Northamptonshire, became Lord Lieutenant of Northamptonshire on 11 March 1952, serving until 31 July 1967, he was made a knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem on 1 July 1955. Lord Spencer was active in the local politics of Northamptonshire as a Conservative councillor.
He opened his ancestral home, Althorp, to the public and was a well-known art connoisseur, being a trustee of the Wallace Collection and chairman of the Royal School of Needlework. He was a Fellow of both the Society of Antiquaries of London and the Royal Society of Arts, for eight years in the 1960s he was Chair of the Advisory Council of the Victoria and Albert Museum, he was Chairman of the Governors at Wellingborough School from 1946 to 1972. Lord Spencer married Lady Cynthia Hamilton, second daughter of the 3rd Duke of Abercorn, on 26 February 1919 at St. James's Church in Piccadilly and they had two children: Lady Anne Spencer married in 1944 to Captain Christopher Wake-Walker, son of Sir Admiral Frederic Wake-Walker, had issue. John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer. Lord Spencer died at St Matthews Nursing Home, after a short illness, was succeeded by his son, the father of Diana, Princess of Wales. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, he was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, never visited Hanover. His life and with it his reign, which were longer than those of any of his predecessors, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence.
Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. George III's eldest son, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent until his father's death, when he succeeded as George IV. Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them; until it was reassessed in the second half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square, he was the grandson of King George II, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford. One month he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker, his godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha and his great-aunt the Queen of Prussia. Prince George grew into a healthy but shy child; the family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight, he was the first British monarch to study science systematically. Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, French, history, geography, commerce and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing and riding, his religious education was wholly Anglican.
At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred." Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated". George's grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, George became heir apparent to the throne, he inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would serve as Prime Minister. George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values.
In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of the Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and must act contrary to my passions." Attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother. The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday; the search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight on 22 September both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress, the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage until his mental illness struck, they had 15 children -- six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House for use as a family retreat.
His other residences were Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for
The griffin, griffon, or gryphon is a legendary creature with the body and back legs of a lion. Because the lion was traditionally considered the king of the beasts and the eagle the king of birds by the Middle Ages the griffin was thought to be an powerful and majestic creature. Since classical antiquity, Griffins were known for guarding treasure and priceless possessions. In Greek and Roman texts and Arimaspians were associated with gold deposits of Central Asia. Indeed, as Pliny the Elder wrote, "griffins were said to lay eggs in burrows on the ground and these nests contained gold nuggets."In medieval heraldry, the Griffin became a Christian symbol of divine power and a guardian of the divine. The derivation of this word remains uncertain, it could be related to the Greek word γρυπός, meaning'curved', or'hooked'. This could have been an Anatolian loan word, compare Akkadian karūbu, similar to Cherub. A related Hebrew word is כרוב. Most statuary representations of griffins depict them with bird-like talons, although in some older illustrations griffins have a lion's forelimbs.
Its eagle's head is conventionally given prominent ears. Infrequently, a griffin is portrayed without wings, or a wingless eagle-headed lion is identified as a griffin. In 15th-century and heraldry, such a beast may be called an alce or a keythong. In heraldry, a griffin always has forelegs like an eagle's hind-legs. A type of griffin with the four legs of a lion was distinguished by only one English herald of heraldry as the Opinicus, which had a camel-like neck and a short tail that resembles a camel's tail. There is evidence of representations of griffins in Ancient Iranian and Ancient Egyptian art dating back to before 3000 BC. In Egypt, a griffin can be seen in a cosmetic palette from Hierakonpolis, known as the "Two Dog Palette", dated to ca. 3300-3100 BC. In Iranian mythology, griffin is called Shirdal means: Lion-Eagle. Shirdal have used in ancient art of Iran since late second millennium BC. Shirdals appeared on cylinder seals from Susa as early as 3000 BC. Shirdals are common motifs in the art of Luristan and North West region of Iran in Iron Age, Achaemenid art.
Griffin depictions appear in the Levant and Anatolia in the Middle Bronze Age, dated at about 1950-1550 BC. Early depictions of griffins in Ancient Greek art are found in the 15th century BC frescoes in the Throne Room of the Bronze Age Palace of Knossos, as restored by Sir Arthur Evans, it continued being a favored decorative theme in Classical Greek art. In Central Asia, the griffin appears about a thousand years after Bronze Age Crete, in the 5th–4th centuries BC originating from the Achaemenid Persian Empire; the Achaemenids considered the griffin "a protector from evil and secret slander". The modern generalist calls it the lion-griffin, as for example, Robin Lane Fox, in Alexander the Great, 1973:31 and notes p. 506, who remarks a lion-griffin attacking a stag in a pebble mosaic at Pella as an emblem of the kingdom of Macedon or a personal one of Alexander's successor Antipater. The Pisa Griffin is a large bronze sculpture, in Pisa in Italy since the Middle Ages, though it is of Islamic origin.
It is the largest bronze medieval Islamic sculpture known, at over three feet tall, was created in the 11th century in Al-Andaluz. From about 1100 it was placed on a column on the roof of Pisa Cathedral until replaced by a replica in 1832. Adrienne Mayor, a classical folklorist and historian of science, proposes that the ancient Greek idea and image of the griffin in classical art and literature beginning in the seventh century BC was influenced in part by the fossilized remains of beaked dinosaurs such as Protoceratops observed on the way to gold deposits by nomadic prospectors of ancient Scythia, This hypothesis is speculative, based on a number of Greek and Latin literary sources and related artworks, beginning with the first written ancient descriptions of griffins in a lost work by Aristeas of Proconnessus in the seventh century BC), cited by Aeschylus and Herodotus and ending with Aelian. Mayor's suggestion has been contested in a blog claiming that it ignores pre-Mycenaean accounts and bird-lion composites in earlier art that goes far earlier than 7th century BCE..
A multitude of imaginary composite creatures combining features of birds and mammals can be found in ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern art, including mammals with bird heads in Minoan, Mycenaean,and Egyptian art, but there are no pre-Mycenaean written accounts about Griffins. Mayor's suggestion is speculative, intended to account for the profusion of Greco-Latin literary accounts of the "gryps" as a real animal of the East and the accompanying popularity of artistic representations that arose in Greece after travelers like Aristeas brought back tales of "Griffins" from Central Asia. Several ancient mythological creatures are similar to the griffin; these include the Lama
Ermine in heraldry is a "fur", a type of tincture, consisting of a white background with a pattern of black shapes representing the winter coat of the stoat. The linings of medieval coronation cloaks and some other garments reserved for use by high-ranking peers and royalty, were made by sewing many ermine furs together to produce a luxurious white fur with patterns of hanging black-tipped tails. Due to the association of the ermine fur with the linings of coronation cloaks and peerage caps, the heraldic tincture of ermine was reserved to similar applications in heraldry; the ermine spot, the conventional heraldic representation of the tail has had a wide variety of shapes over the centuries. When "ermine" is specified as the tincture of the field, the spots are part of the tincture itself, rather than a semé or pattern of charges; the ermine spot, may be used singly as a mobile charge, or as a mark of distinction signifying the absence of a blood relationship. On a bend ermine, the tails follow the line of the bend.
In the arms of William John Uncles, the field ermine is cut into bendlike strips by the three bendlets azure, so the ermine tails are depicted bendwise. Though ermine and vair were the two furs used in early armory, other variations of these developed later. Both in continental heraldry and British, the fur pattern was used in varying colors as a blazon atop other tinctures, e.g. "d'Or, semé d'hermines de sable" for black ermine spots on a gold field. British heraldry created three names for specific variants, rather than blazoning them longhand. Ermines is the reverse of ermine – a field sable semé of ermine-spots argent, it is sometimes called counter-ermine. Erminois is ermine with a field Or instead of argent, pean is the reverse of erminois. Erminites is alleged to be the "same as ermine, except that the two lateral hairs of each spot are red." James Parker mentions it, as does Pimbley, though by the former's admission this is of doubtful existence. Arthur Charles Fox-Davies describes it as a "silly of former heraldic writers, not of former heralds."
Flag of Brittany Flag of Norfolk Ó Donnagáin Family Crest Fox-Davies, A. C.. The Art of Heraldry: An Encyclopædia of Armory. New York: Benjamin Blom, Inc. LCCN 68-56481 Fox-Davies, A. C.. A Complete Guide to Heraldry. Whitefish, MT: Kessenger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-0630-8 LCCN 09-23803 Koninklijke en Vorstelijke Mode, House of Orange web site, an article on royal fashion, with much attention to ermine-lined velvet cloaks and mantels Practical Advice On The Choice Of Furs. No. 4. Ermine. Continued, from Every Woman's Encyclopaedia, an article detailing the fashion and history of ermine coats and cloaks