Bishop of Rochester
The Bishop of Rochester is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Rochester in the Province of Canterbury. The town of Rochester has the bishop's seat, at the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary, founded as a cathedral in 604. During the late 17th and 18th centuries it was customary for the Bishop of Rochester to be appointed Dean of Westminster: the practice ended in 1802; the diocese covers West Kent which includes Medway and Maidstone. The bishop's residence is Rochester, his Latin episcopal signature is: " Roffen", Roffensis being the genitive case of the Latin name of the see. The office was created in AD 604 at the founding of the diocese in the Kingdom of Kent under King Æthelberht; the Diocese of Rochester was the oldest and smallest of all the suffragan sees of Canterbury. Founded by St Augustine, who in 604 consecrated St Justus as its first bishop; the diocesan territory consisted of the western part of Kent, separated from the rest of the county by the River Medway, though the diocesan boundaries did not follow the river closely.
The restricted territory of the diocese meant that it needed only one archdeacon to supervise all 97 parishes. From the foundation of the see the Archbishop of Canterbury had enjoyed the privilege of nominating the bishop, but Archbishop Theobald transferred the right to the Benedictine monks of the cathedral, who exercised it for the first time in 1148. Diocese of Rochester website Rochester Cathedral website
Duke of Northumberland
Duke of Northumberland is a noble title, created three times in English and British history, twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of Great Britain. The current holder of this title is Ralph Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland; the title was first created in the Peerage of England in 1551 for 1st Earl of Warwick. He had been created Viscount Lisle in 1543 and Earl of Warwick in 1547 in the Peerage of England. In 1553, Dudley advanced the claim of his daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, to the English throne, but when she was deposed by Queen Mary I, Dudley was convicted of high treason and executed. An illegitimate son of one of his younger sons, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, Sir Robert Dudley, claimed the dukedom when in exile in Italy. On 9 March 1620 the Emperor Ferdinand II recognised the title, an act which infuriated James I of England. George FitzRoy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, an illegitimate son of king Charles II, was created Duke of Northumberland in the Peerage of England in 1683.
He had been created Baron of Pontefract, Viscount Falmouth and Earl of Northumberland in 1674 in the Peerage of England. However, all the titles became extinct on his death in 1716. In 1716 Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton, was created Duke of Northumberland, Marquess of Woburn, Earl of Malmesbury and Viscount Winchendon in the Jacobite Peerage, by The Old Pretender; the title had no legal validity in the Kingdom of Great Britain. The title was created for the third time in 1766 for Hugh Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, the former Sir Hugh Smithson, 4th Baronet, who had assumed by Act of Parliament in 1750 for himself and his descendants the surname Percy, due to his having married in 1740 the daughter of Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset, whose mother Lady Elizabeth Percy, was the last of the senior blood line of the ancient House of Percy, being the only surviving child of Josceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland. In 1749 King George II created Algernon who had inherited the Dukedom of Somerset in 1748 Earl of Northumberland and by courtesy title Baron Warkworth, of Warkworth Castle in the County of Northumberland with special remainder to his son-in-law Sir Hugh Smithson, 4th Baronet.
The above steps formed a deliberate move to allow ancient names and titles of the Percys to be revived in the male-heir exhausted senior branch of the Dukedom of Somerset which at that time was about to see its largest removal, to another noble but cadet branch on Algernon's death. Algernon was created Earl of Egremont at the same time with a different remainder—see this article for further information. In 1784 the 1st Duke was granted the substantive title Lord Lovaine, Baron of Alnwick in the County of Northumberland, in the Peerage of Great Britain, with remainder to his second son Lord Algernon Percy, who succeeded and, created Earl of Beverley in 1790 and thus it too became a courtesy title; the Duke was succeeded in the dukedom and associated titles by his eldest son, the 2nd Duke, a lieutenant-general in the British Army. The 2nd Duke was in his turn succeeded by his eldest son, the 3rd Duke, who in 1812, five years before he succeeded in the dukedom, had been summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Percy.
The 3rd Duke held office as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland from 1829 to 1830. He was childless and was succeeded by his younger brother, Algernon, 1st Baron Prudhoe, the 4th Duke, who in 1814 had been created Baron Prudhoe, of Prudhoe Castle in the County of Northumberland, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the 4th Duke was an admiral in the Royal Navy and notably served as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1852. He was childless and on his death in 1865 the barony of Prudhoe became extinct while the barony of Percy was inherited by his great-nephew, John Stewart-Murray, 7th Duke of Atholl; the Admiral was succeeded in the dukedom and remaining titles by his first cousin, the 2nd Earl of Beverley, eldest son of the second son of the 1st Duke. The barony of Lovaine and earldom of Beverley have since been merged in the dukedom as courtesy titles; the 5th Duke was succeeded by his eldest son, the 6th Duke, who notably served as Lord Privy Seal between 1879 and 1880 under Lord Beaconsfield. The 6th Duke's eldest son, the 7th Duke, was summoned to the House of lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Lord Lovaine in 1887.
The 7th Duke's eldest son, Henry Percy, Earl Percy, predeceased him. He was succeeded by his fourth but eldest surviving son, the 8th Duke, whose eldest son, the 9th Duke, was killed during the retreat to Dunkirk during the Second World War. Henry was succeeded by his younger brother, the 10th Duke. In 1957, on the death of his fourth cousin once removed, James Stewart-Murray, 9th Duke of Atholl, Hugh succeeded as 9th Baron Percy, the title thus re-merging with the Dukedom; as of 2012 the titles are held by his second son, the 12th Duke, who succeeded on the death of his elder brother in 1995. Several other members of the Percy family have gained distinction. Charlotte Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, wife of the third Duke, was governess of the future Queen Victoria. Lord Josceline Percy, second son of the fifth Duke, was a politician. Lord Henry Percy, third son of the fifth Duke, was a soldier. Lord Algernon Percy, second son of the sixth Duke, was a politician. Lord Eustace Percy, seventh son of the seventh Duke, was a politician, raised to the peerage as Baron Percy of Newcastle in 1953.
Jane Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, wife of the twelf
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland
Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, was an English peer and art patron. He was born Hugh Smithson, the son of Langdale Smithson of Langdale and grandson of Sir Hugh Smithson, 3rd Baronet, from whom he inherited the Smithson Baronetcy in 1733, he changed his surname to Percy when he married Lady Elizabeth Seymour, daughter of His Grace The 7th Duke of Somerset, on 16 July 1740, through a private Act of Parliament. She was Baroness Percy in her own right, indirect heiress of the Percy family, one of the leading landowning families of England and had held the Earldom of Northumberland for several centuries; the title Earl of Northumberland passed by special remainder to Hugh Percy, as Elizabeth's husband, when her father died on 7 February 1750. In 1766, the earl was created 1st Duke of Northumberland and was created Baron Lovaine on 28 June 1784, with a special remainder in favour of his younger son, Algernon.. Richard de Percy, 5th Baron Percy, was the son of Joscelin of Louvain, styled "brother of the queen" He was created a Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1756 and a Privy Counsellor in 1762.
He took a somewhat prominent part in politics as a follower of Lord Bute, was one of George III's confidential advisers. He held the office of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1763 to 1765, that of Master of the Horse from 1778 to 1780. Sir Hugh and Lord Brooke were the most important patrons of Canaletto in England. Smithson made a Grand Tour and was in Venice in 1733, where he acquired two large Canalettos for his seat at Stanwick. In 1736 he became one of the two vice presidents of the Society for the Encouragement of Learning, he rebuilt Stanwick Park c. 1739–1740 to his own designs. He was one of the 175 commissioners for the building of Westminster Bridge, a structure he had Canaletto paint two more large canvases, c. 1747. He built an observatory, designed by Robert Adam, at Longhoughton. Thomas Chippendale dedicated his Cabinet maker's director to him; the duke and duchess were prominent patrons of Robert Adam for neoclassical interiors in the Jacobean mansion Northumberland House, the London seat of the Earls of Northumberland.
1870–1871 to enable the creation of Trafalgar Square. Remnants of the Northumberland House Glass Drawing-Room are preserved at the Victoria and Albert Museum; the greater Adam interiors for the Duke are at Syon House, executed in the 1760s. At Alnwick Castle, the Duke employed James Wyatt, whose work has been effaced by remodellings. One or other Adam designed Brizlee Tower for the duke. Alnwick Castle, Northumberland Syon House, Middlesex Northumberland House, London Stanwick Hall, Stanwick St John, the seat of the Smithson baronets. Kielder Castle, in the Kielder Forest, Northumberland, a shooting box built in 1775 by the 1st Duke to his own design by William Newton. Hugh was buried in the Northumberland Vault, within Westminster Abbey; the duke and duchess had three children: Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland Algernon Percy, 1st Earl of Beverley Lady Elizabeth Anne Frances Percy. The duke's illegitimate son, James Smithson, is famed for having made the founding bequest and provided the name for the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.
C.. Cruickshanks, biography of Smithson, Sir Hugh, 4th Bt. of Stanwick, Yorks. and Tottenham, Mdx. Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1715-1754, ed. R. Sedgwick, 1970
Alnwick is a market town in north Northumberland, England, of which it is the traditional county town. The population at the 2011 Census was 8,116; the town is on the south bank of the River Aln, 32 miles south of Berwick-upon-Tweed and the Scottish border, 5 miles inland from the North Sea at Alnmouth and 34 miles north of Newcastle upon Tyne. The town dates to about AD 600, thrived as an agricultural centre. Alnwick Castle was the home of the most powerful medieval northern baronial family, the Earls of Northumberland, it was a staging post on the Great North Road between Edinburgh and London, latterly has become a dormitory town for nearby Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The town centre has changed little, but the town has seen some growth, with several housing estates covering what had been pasture, new factory and trading estate developments along the roads to the south; the name Alnwick comes from the name of the river Aln. The history of Alnwick is the history of the castle and its lords, starting with Gilbert Tyson, written variously as "Tison", "Tisson", "De Tesson", one of William the Conqueror's standard bearers, upon whom this northern estate was bestowed.
It was held by the De Vesci family for over 200 years, passed into the hands of the house of Percy in 1309. At various points in the town are memorials of the constant wars between Percys and Scots, in which so many Percys spent the greater part of their lives. A cross near Broomhouse Hill across the river from the castle marks the spot where Malcolm III of Scotland was killed during the first Battle of Alnwick. At the side of the broad shady road called Ratten Row, leading from the West Lodge to Bailiffgate, a stone tablet marks the spot where William the Lion of Scotland was captured during the second Battle of Alnwick by a party of about 400 mounted knights, led by Ranulf de Glanvill. Hulne Priory, outside the town walls in Hulne Park, the Duke of Northumberland's walled estate, was a monastery founded in the 13th century by the Carmelites. Substantial ruins remain. In 1314, Sir John Felton was governor of Alnwick. In winter 1424, much of the town was burnt by a Scottish raiding party. Again in 1448 the town was burnt by a Scottish army led by William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas and George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus.
Thomas Malory mentions Alnwick as a possible location for Lancelot's castle Joyous Garde. The Alnwick by-pass takes the A1 London–Edinburgh trunk road around the town, it was started in 1968. Alnwick lies at 55°25′00″N 01°42′00″W 1; the River Aln forms its unofficial northern boundary. The town was within the Bamburgh Ward and Coquetdale Ward and included in the East Division of Coquetdale Ward in 1832. By the time of the 2011 Census an electoral ward covering only part of Alnwick Parish name existed; the total population of this ward was 4,766. A rural and agrarian community, the town now lies within the "travel to work" radius of Morpeth and Newcastle upon Tyne and has a sizeable commuter population; some major or noteworthy employers in the town are: Metrology Software Products Ltd and suppliers of co-ordinate measuring machine and machine tool software House of Hardy, makers of fly-fishing tackle Greys of Alnwick, makers of fly-fishing tackle Northumberland Estates, which manages the Duke of Northumberland's agricultural and property interests Barter Books, one of the largest second-hand book shops in England, set in the town's former railway station Sanofi Alnwick Research Centre, a large pharmaceutical research and testing centre NFU Mutual, provider of insurance, investments DEFRA Skin Salveation manufacturers and distributors of skin care products The town's greatest building by far is Alnwick Castle, one of the homes of the Duke of Northumberland, site of The Alnwick Garden.
The castle is the hub of a number of commercial and tourism operations. From 1945 to 1975, it was the location of a teacher training college for young women and "mature students", it houses American students studying in Europe through a partnership with Saint Cloud State University. The castle is open to tourists from April to September, the Gardens all year around, it is the second largest inhabited castle in England, after Windsor Castle. Benjamin Disraeli describes Alnwick as "Montacute" in his novel Tancred; the centre of town is the market place, with its market cross, the modern Northumberland Hall, used as a meeting place. Surrounding the market place are the main shopping streets: Narrowgate, Fenkle Street, Bondgate Within; the last of these is a wide road fronted by commercial buildings. In medieval times, Alnwick was a walled town, although due to fluctuating economic conditions during the Middle Ages, the walls were never completed. Hotspur Tower, a medieval gate, is extant, dividing Bondgate Within from Bondgate Without, restricting vehicles to a single lane used alternately in each direction.
Pottergate Tower, at the other side of the town stands on the site of an ancient gate, but the tower itself was rebuilt in the 18th century. Its ornate spire was destroyed in a storm in 1812. Outside the line of the walls, the old railway station building is ostentatious for such a small town, due to its fr
George Percy, 5th Duke of Northumberland
George Percy, 5th Duke of Northumberland PC, styled Lord Lovaine between 1790 and 1830 and known as The Earl of Beverley between 1830 and 1865, was a British Tory politician. He served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard under Sir Robert Peel between 1842 and 1846, he succeeded to his peerage on 12 February 1865, after the death of his childless cousin Algernon Percy. Born in London, he was the eldest son of Algernon Percy, 1st Earl of Beverley, second son of Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, his mother was Susan Isabella, daughter of Peter Burrell, while Algernon Percy, The Right Reverend Hugh Percy, Josceline Percy and William Henry Percy were his younger brothers. He was educated at St John's College, graduating with a Master of Arts in 1799. Northumberland was returned to parliament for the rotten borough of Bere Alston in 1799, a seat he held until 1830, when he succeeded his father in the earldom and entered the House of Lords. From 1804, he served as a Lord of the Treasury for the next two years.
He was sworn of the Privy Council in January 1842 and was appointed Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard by Sir Robert Peel, a post he held until the government fell in 1846. In February 1865, at the age of 86, he succeeded his cousin as fifth Duke of Northumberland. Northumberland was a president of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. Northumberland married the Hon. Louisa, third daughter of James Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie, on 22 June 1801, their children were: Lady Louisa Percy, died unmarried. Lord Algernon James Percy, buried within the Northumberland Vault within Westminster Abbey. Lady Margaret Percy, buried within the Northumberland Vault within Westminster Abbey. Lord Henry Algernon Pitt Percy, buried within the Northumberland Vault within Westminster Abbey. Hon. Alice Percy Algernon George Percy, 6th Duke of Northumberland Lord Josceline William Percy, married Margaret Davidson and had issue. Lady Margaret Percy, married Edward Littleton, 2nd Baron Hatherton. General Lord Henry Hugh Manvers Percy, V.
C. died unmarried. Louisa, Countess of Beverley, died in June 1848. Northumberland survived her by 19 years and died in August 1867, aged 89, he was buried in the Northumberland Vault, within Westminster Abbey, was succeeded in the dukedom by his eldest surviving son, Algernon. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Northumberland
Bishop of Carlisle
The Bishop of Carlisle is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Carlisle in the Province of York. The diocese covers the county of Cumbria except for Alston Moor and the former Sedbergh Rural District; the see is in the city of Carlisle where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, a collegiate church until elevated to cathedral status in 1133. The diocese was created in 1133 by Henry I out of part of the Diocese of Durham, it was extended in 1856 taking over part of the Diocese of Chester. The residence of the bishop was Rose Castle, until 2009; the current bishop is James Newcome, the 67th Bishop of Carlisle, who signs James Carliol and was enthroned on 10 October 2009. The original territory of the diocese first became a political unit in the reign of King William Rufus, who made it into the Earldom of Carlisle, which covered most of the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland. In 1133, during the reign of his successor, Henry I, a diocese was erected in the territory of the earldom, the territory being subtracted from the Diocese of Durham.
This happened despite there being locally a strong Celtic element that looked to Glasgow for episcopal administration. As the first bishop, the king secured the appointment of his former confessor, Æthelwulf, an Englishman, Prior of the Augustinian Canons, whom he had established at Carlisle in 1102, though at the time of his consecration Æthelwulf seems to have been Prior of the Augustinian house at Nostell in Yorkshire. An efficient administrator, he ruled the diocese until his death in 1156 and succeeded in imparting a certain vigour to diocesan life. Among other initiatives, he built a moderate-sized Norman minster of which the transepts and part of the nave still exist. To serve this cathedral he introduced his own Augustinian brethren, with the result that Carlisle was the only see in England with an Augustinian cathedral chapter, the other monastic cathedral chapters in England consisting of Benedictine monks. There was only one archdeaconry. Of the next bishop, little is known, after his death, in or about 1186, there was a long vacancy, during which the diocese was administered by another Bernard, Archbishop of Ragusa.
During this period Carlisle suffered from the incursions of the Scots, early in the reign of Henry III the king complained to the Pope that Carlisle had revolted in favour of Scotland, that the canons had elected a bishop for themselves. The papal legate, punished this action by exiling the canons and appointing Hugh, Abbot of Beaulieu, a good administrator, as bishop, it was important to the English government to have a reliable prelate at Carlisle, as they looked to the bishop to attend to Scottish affairs, negotiate treaties, play the part of diplomat. The next bishop was Walter Malclerk agent of King John, a prominent figure in the reign of Henry III. Always a patron of the Friars Preachers, he introduced both Dominicans and Franciscans into the city and diocese, he resigned. About this time a new choir was begun and carried to completion, only to be destroyed in the great fire of 1292. A fresh beginning was made by the energetic Bishop John de Halton, a favourite of Edward I, for nearly a hundred years the building of the present choir proceeded, though with many interruptions.
Its chief glory is the great East window, remarkable both for its own beauty and as marking a transition from the earlier style to the perfection of tracery. During this time the see was governed by a line of bishops and useful diplomats in their day, but not remarkable in other respects. Bishop John Kirkby took an active role in Border military actions, defeating a Scottish raid in 1345 and commanding English troops at the battle of Neville's Cross in the following year. Thomas Merke was a close friend of Richard II, tried for high treason under Henry IV and deprived; the subsequent bishops were scholars employed in negotiating truces and treaties with Scotland, several of them were Chancellors of Oxford or of Cambridge University. Among this generation of scholar diplomats was Cardinal Thomas Wolsey's friend, John Kite, who remained faithful to his master, who supported him in the poverty of his latter days; the last of the bishops in communion with Rome was Owen Oglethorpe, a kindly-tempered man, prevailed on to crown Elizabeth when no other bishop could be found to do it.
This was an act. On Christmas Day after the Queen’s accession he disobeyed the note she sent him in the Chapel Royal forbidding him to elevate the Sacred Host in her presence, his refusal to take the Oath of Supremacy led to his being deprived of his title along with the other bishops, he died a prisoner 31 December 1559. Under Owen Ogelthorp Carlisle was a poor diocese, when the Reformers plundered the churches they found little but a chalice in each, of these some were of tin. After Ogelthorp's deprivation and death, Bernard Gilpin was to succeed him in Carlisle but he refused though much pressed to it, the Bishopric was conferred on one John Best, consecrated 2 March 1560. Bishop John Best was the first post-Marian Anglican Bishop at Carlisle. Bishop Best was the 31st Bishop of Carlisle from 2 May 1561 to his death on 22 May 1570; the cathedral dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, received its current dedication at the time of the Reformation. The diocese was extended in 1856 by the addition of part of the Diocese of Chester.
Notes Bibliography Crockford's Clerical Directory - Listings Friends of Rose Castle Website