Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle
Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, KG, PC was born in London, the second son of the 7th Earl of Lincoln. Henry's father died in 1728, his brother, the 8th Earl of Lincoln, died in 1730, making Henry the 9th Earl of Lincoln; as he was still a minor, his guardian was the 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Newcastle was childless, soon regarded Lord Lincoln as his heir. Newcastle, his brother Henry Pelham, were the two most powerful men in England, both would serve as Prime Minister. Newcastle controlled political patronage of Parliament and the Crown, so Lord Lincoln was showered with sinecure posts which brought him a large income. Chief among these sinecures was the lifetime appointment as Controller of Customs for the port of London. After graduating from university, Lord Lincoln was sent abroad to complete his education. At Turin, where he was studying fencing, he was joined by his schoolfriend, Horace Walpole. Walpole was in love with Lord Lincoln, Walpole biographer Timothy Mowl believes the two men were lovers.
Lord Lincoln was exceedingly good-looking, would have the reputation as the most handsome man in England. While still on his Grand Tour and Lord Lincoln quarreled and separated, he returned to England. On 16 October 1744, Lord Lincoln married his cousin Catherine Pelham, the daughter of his uncle Henry Pelham, at that time prime minister. An agreement was signed whereby Lord Lincoln became the heir of both his uncles, Henry Pelham and the Duke. Through his uncles, Lord Lincoln was given a place at court, being made a gentleman of the King's Bedchamber. In 1752, he was made a Knight of the Garter. In 1756, his uncle, Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, requested from King George II to be created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne with a special remainder to his nephew, Lord Lincoln. George II granted the request, when the Duke died in 1768, Lord Lincoln became the 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne; the new duke steered clear except in two instances. He had considerable influence, he used his influence to promote the career of a career army officer.
The Duke lobbied for Sir Henry to be appointed commander-in-chief of the British forces in America during the American Revolution. The Duke's son, was the aide-de-camp to Sir Henry Clinton. In 1768, the Duke was appointed to the Privy Council. In December 1783, the Duke was asked by King George III to support the new ministry of William Pitt the Younger, facing difficulty in mustering support in parliament for his premiership. Henry ordered the six MPs under his control to support Pitt, helping Pitt gain enough votes in parliament to form a ministry; the Duke died in 1794 in Westminster. The Duke is known today as the creator of Clumber Park, his country seat in Nottinghamshire, the dog breed the Clumber Spaniel, named after the estate. Clumber Park was begun in 1768 on the large estate. Four thousand acres of barren heath were landscaped into one of the most beautiful private parks in England, complete with a large man-made lake; the great mansion built there was demolished in 1938, but the park is today owned by the National Trust and is open to the public.
He had been a Bailiff on the board of the Bedford Level Corporation Fenland reclamation scheme from 1742 to 1764. The papers of the 2nd Duke are now held by Manuscripts and Special Collections at the University of Nottingham. Before his wife's death at the age of 33, the Duke had four sons with her: George Pelham-Clinton, Lord Clinton Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln, who married Lady Frances Seymour-Conway on 21 May 1775 and had issue. Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, who married Lady Anna Maria Stanhope on 2 May 1782 and had issue. Lord John Pelham-Clinton The Hon. Henry Pelham The Rt. Hon; the Earl of Lincoln The Rt. Hon; the Earl of Lincoln, KG His Grace The Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, KG, PC Biography of the 2nd Duke, with links to online catalogues, from Manuscripts and Special Collections at The University of Nottingham "Archival material relating to Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle". UK National Archives. Portraits of Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne at the National Portrait Gallery, London
Henry Pelham was a British Whig statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 27 August 1743 until his death. He was the younger brother of Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, who served in Pelham's government and succeeded him as Prime Minister. Pelham is considered to have been Britain's third Prime Minister after Sir Robert Walpole and the Earl of Wilmington. Pelham's premiership was uneventful in terms of domestic affairs, although it was during his premiership that Great Britain experienced the tumult of the 1745 Jacobite uprising. In foreign affairs, Great Britain fought in several wars. Upon Pelham's death, his brother Newcastle took full control of the ministry. Pelham, Newcastle's younger brother, was a younger son of the Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham and his wife, the former Grace Pelham, Baroness Pelham of Laughton, the daughter of Gilbert Holles, 3rd Earl of Clare and Grace Pierrepont, he was educated at Hart Hall, Oxford. Hertford College, the present-day incarnation of Hart Hall, still honours him in the title of its drinking club, the Sir Henry Pelham Gentlemen's Sporting Society.
As a volunteer he served in Dormer's regiment at the Battle of Preston in 1715 and spent some time on the Continent. He was returned as Member of Parliament for Seaford in Sussex by his brother, the Duke of Newcastle, at a by-election on 28 February 1717 and represented it until 1722. Through strong family influence, the recommendation of Robert Walpole, he was chosen in 1721 as Lord of the Treasury. At the 1722 general election he was returned as MP for Sussex county. In 1724 he entered the ministry as Secretary at War, but this office he exchanged in 1730 for the more lucrative one of Paymaster of the Forces, he made. He, the Prime Minister would meet at Houghton Hall in Norfolk, where they would draw up much of the country's policy; these meetings became known as the Norfolk Congress. With Walpole, he served as a founding governor of the popular charity the Foundling Hospital when it opened its doors in 1739. In 1742 a union of parties resulted in the formation of an administration in which Pelham became Prime Minister the following year, succeeding the Earl of Wilmington after his death.
The first year of Pelham's premiership is regarded as a continuation of the Carteret ministry, with Lord Carteret continuing as Secretary of State for the Northern Department with responsibility for foreign affairs. Pelham served as First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. In November 1744, the Pelhams forced Lord Carteret out of the ministry: Pelham bluntly told the king that either Carteret step down, or the Pelhamites would, leaving His Majesty without a government. Thereafter Pelham shared power with the Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne. Pelham was regarded as the leading figure, but rank and influence made his brother powerful in the Cabinet. In spite of a genuine attachment, there were occasional disputes between them, which sometimes led to further difficulties. Being in favour of peace, Pelham carried on the War of the Austrian Succession with languor and indifferent success, but the country, wearied of the interminable struggle, was disposed to acquiesce in his foreign policy without a murmur.
King George II, thwarted in his own favourite schemes, made overtures in February 1746 to Lord Bath, but his purpose was upset by the resignation of the two Pelhams, after a two-day hiatus in which Bath and Carteret proved unable to form a ministry, resumed office at the king's request. One of their terms was to insist; the Augustan era was essential to the development of prime ministerial power as being dependant on a Commons majority, rather than royal prerogative interventions. While the king struggled with his headstrong son, Prince of Wales, his son's uncertain constitutional position was high in the Leicester House party set. In 1748 Frederick, a Tory, planned to bring down the Pelhamites at a general election due the following year; the Prime Minister called an early poll in 1748 by asking the king to dissolve parliament in 1747. The prince and his father, the king grew to hate one another with unspeakable animosity, but one consequence was a closer relationship between the Sovereign. When he died in 1754, the King remarked "Now I shall have no more peace."
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle had been signed in 1748 leading inexorably to a number of cost-cutting budgetary measures. The Army and Navy spending shrunk from £12 m to £7 million per annum. Pelham promised to reduce interest rates through introduction of a balancing act measure from 4% to 3% by 1757, he assisted a fund to reduce the National Debt. In 1749, the Consolidation Act was passed. On 20 March 1751, the British calendar was reorganised as well. In 1752 he was able to reduce the land tax from 4 s. to 2 s in the pound. One social consequence of the press gangs going to sea in an expansive navy fleet was to the growth of industrial processes necessary for warfare. In the ports the distillation of gin demonstrated by engravers such as Hogarth in "Gin Lane" the depravity issuing forth from the demon drink. Preachers "fire and brimsone" in favour of temperance, drunken soldiers and sailors persuaded the administration to intr
A baronet or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess, is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour, not a peerage, with the exception of the Anglo-Irish Black Knight, White Knight and Green Knight. A baronet is addressed as "Sir" or "Dame" in the case of a baronetess but ranks above all knighthoods and damehoods in the order of precedence, except for the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Thistle, the dormant Order of St Patrick. Baronets are conventionally seen to belong to the lesser nobility though William Thoms claims that "The precise quality of this dignity is not yet determined, some holding it to be the head of the nobiles minores, while others, rank Baronets as the lowest of the nobiles majores, because their honour, like that of the higher nobility, is both hereditary and created by patent."Comparisons with continental titles and ranks are tenuous due to the British system of primogeniture and the fact that claims to baronetcies must be proven.
In practice this means that the UK Peerage and Baronetage consists of about 2000 families, 0.01% of UK families. In some continental countries the nobility consisted of about 5% of the population, in most countries titles are no longer recognised or regulated by the state; the term baronet has medieval origins. Sir Thomas de La More, describing the Battle of Boroughbridge, mentioned that baronets took part, along with barons and knights. Edward III is known to have created eight baronets in 1328. Present-day Baronets date from 1611 when James I granted Letters Patent to 200 gentlemen of good birth with an income of at least £1,000 a year. In 1619 James I established the Baronetage of Ireland; the new baronets were each required to pay 2,000 marks or to support six colonial settlers for two years. Over a hundred of these baronetcies, now familiarly known as Scottish baronetcies, survive to this day; as a result of the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, all future creations were styled baronets of Great Britain.
Following the Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, new creations were styled as baronets of the United Kingdom. Under royal warrants of 1612 and 1613, certain privileges were accorded to baronets. Firstly, no person or persons should have the younger sons of peers. Secondly, the right of knighthood was established for the eldest sons of baronets, thirdly, baronets were allowed to augment their armorial bearings with the Arms of Ulster on an inescutcheon: "in a field Argent, a Hand Geules"; these privileges were extended to baronets of Ireland, for baronets of Scotland the privilege of depicting the Arms of Nova Scotia as an augmentation of honour. The former applies to this day for all baronets of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom created subsequently; the title of baronet was conferred upon noblemen who lost the right of individual summons to Parliament, was used in this sense in a statute of Richard II. A similar title of lower rank was banneret. Since 1965 only one new baronetcy has been created, for Sir Denis Thatcher on 7 December 1990, husband of a former British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher.
Like knights, baronets are accorded the style "Sir" before their first name. Baronetesses in their own right use "Dame" before their first name, while wives of baronets use "Lady" followed by the husband's surname only, this by longstanding courtesy. Wives of baronets are not baronetesses. Unlike knighthoods – which apply to the recipient only – a baronetcy is hereditarily entailed; the eldest son of a baronet, born in wedlock succeeds to a baronetcy upon his father's death, but will not be recognised until his name is recognised by being placed on the Official Roll. With some exceptions granted with special remainder by letters patent, baronetcies descend through the male line. A full list of extant baronets appears in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, which published a record of extinct baronetcies. A baronetcy is not a peerage, so baronets like knights and junior members of peerage families are commoners and not peers of the realm. According to the Home Office there is a tangible benefit to the honour of baronet: according to law, a baronet is entitled to have "a pall supported by two men, a principal mourner and four others" assisting at his funeral.
Baronets had other rights, including the right to have the eldest son knighted on his 21st birthday. However, at the beginning of George IV's reign, these rights were eroded by Orders-in-Council on the grounds that Sovereigns should not be bound by acts made by their predecessors. Baronets although never having been automatically entitled to heraldic supporters, were allowed them in heredity in the first half of the 19th century where the title holder was a
Earl of Shrewsbury
Earl of Shrewsbury is a hereditary title of nobility created twice in the Peerage of England. The second earldom dates to 1442; the holder of the Earldom of Shrewsbury holds the title of Earl of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland and Earl Talbot in the Peerage of Great Britain. Shrewsbury and Waterford are the oldest earldoms in their peerages held by someone with no higher title, as such the Earl of Shrewsbury is sometimes described as the premier earl of England and Ireland; the first creation occurred in 1074 for Roger de Montgomerie, one of William the Conqueror's principal counselors. He was one of the Marcher Lords, with the Earl of Hereford and the Earl of Chester, a bulwark against the Welsh. Roger was succeeded in 1094 by his younger son Hugh, his elder son Robert of Bellême succeeding to his lands in Normandy. On Hugh’s death in 1098 the earldom passed to his brother Robert; the title was forfeit in 1102 after the 3rd Earl, rebelled against Henry I and joined Robert Curthose's invasion of England in 1101.
These earls were sometimes styled Earl of Shropshire. The title was created for a second time in 1442 when John Talbot, 7th Baron Talbot, an English general in the Hundred Years' War, was made Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England, he was made hereditary Lord High Steward of Ireland and, in 1446, Earl of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland. John Talbot, the first Earl, was succeeded by his son John, the second Earl, who had succeeded as seventh Baron Furnivall on his mother's death in 1433. Lord Shrewsbury served as both Lord Chancellor of Lord High Treasurer of England, he was killed at the Battle of Northampton in 1460 during the Wars of the Roses. His grandson, the fourth Earl, was Lord Steward of the Household between 1509 and 1538, his son, the fifth Earl, was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration as Lord Talbot in 1533, five years before he succeeded his father. On his death the titles passed to the sixth Earl, he was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration as Lord Talbot in 1553.
Lord Shrewsbury was entrusted with the custody of Mary, Queen of Scots, served as Earl Marshal from 1572 to 1590. He married as his second wife the famous Bess of Hardwick. Shrewsbury was succeeded by his son from his first marriage to Lady Gertrude Manners, the seventh Earl, he served as Lord Lieutenant of Derbyshire. He had no sons and on his death in 1616 the baronies of Talbot, Strange of Blackmere and Furnivall fell into abeyance between his three daughters, he was succeeded in the earldoms by the eighth Earl. He was Member of Parliament for Northumberland, he was succeeded by his distant relative, the ninth Earl. He was the great-great-grandson of third son of the second Earl of Shrewsbury; the family bought Barlow Woodseats Hall in 1593 as part of the estate. He was succeeded by his nephew, the tenth Earl and Lord of Grafton, he was the son of John Talbot of Grafton. On his death the titles passed to the eleventh Earl, he was killed in a duel with George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. His son, the twelfth Earl, was a prominent statesman.
He was one of the Immortal Seven who in 1688 invited William of Orange to invade England and depose his father-in-law James II and served under William and Mary as Secretary of State for the Southern Department and Secretary of State for the Northern Department. In 1694 he was created Marquess of Duke of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England; the Duke was childless and on his death in 1718 the marquessate and dukedom became extinct. He was succeeded in his other titles by the thirteenth Earl, he was the son of second son of the tenth Earl. Lord Shrewsbury was in the Holy Orders of the Church of Rome. On his death the titles passed to the fourteenth Earl, he was succeeded by his nephew Charles, the fifteenth Earl. He began in 1812 the creation of the extensive gardens at Alveton Lodge, Staffordshire which estate had been in the family since the 15th century; when he died the titles were inherited by his nephew John, the sixteenth Earl, the son of the Hon. John Joseph Talbot; when in 1831 the principal home of the family at Heythrop, Oxfordshire was destroyed by fire he moved the family seat to Alton Towers.
The sixteenth Earl was a noted patron of A W N Pugin. He was succeeded by Bertram, his second cousin once removed, the seventeenth Earl, the great-grandson of the Hon. George Talbot, younger son of the aforementioned Gilbert Talbot, second son of the tenth Earl. Bertram died unmarried at an early age in 1856. By his will he left his estates to Lord Edmund Howard, son of the Duke of Norfolk, but the will was contested by three distant relatives and after a long and expensive legal case the House of Lords ruled in 1860 in favour of Henry John Chetwynd-Talbot, 3rd Earl Talbot, who thus became the eighteenth Earl of Shrewsbury and Waterford, he was a descendant of the aforementioned the Hon. Sir Gilbert Talbot, third son of the second Earl of Shrewsbury (see the Earl Tal
Earl of Southampton
Earl of Southampton was a title, created three times in the Peerage of England. The first creation came in 1537 in favour of the courtier William FitzWilliam, he was childless and the title became extinct on his death in 1542. The second creation came in 1547 in favour of the politician Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Baron Wriothesley, Lord Chancellor between 1544 and 1547, he had been created Baron Wriothesley in 1544 in the Peerage of England. He was succeeded by his third but only the second Earl. On his death the titles passed to his second but only the third Earl, he is best remembered as a patron of William Shakespeare. He was succeeded by his second but only the fourth Earl, he was a prominent statesman and served as Lord High Treasurer under Charles II between 1660 and 1667. In 1653 he had succeeded his father-in-law Francis Leigh, 1st Earl of Chichester as second Earl of Chichester according to a special remainder in the letters patent. However, Lord Southampton had no sons and the titles became extinct on his death in 1667.
The third creation came in 1670 for Barbara Palmer, mistress of Charles II. She was made Baroness Duchess of Cleveland at the same time. See the latter title for more information on this creation. William Fitzwilliam, 1st Earl of Southampton Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton William Wriothesley Anthony Wriothesley Henry Wriothesley, 2nd Earl of Southampton Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton James Wriothesley, Lord Wriothesley Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, 2nd Earl of Chichester see Duke of Cleveland Duke of Southampton Baron Southampton Earl of Winchester http://www.raymentleigh.com http://www.tudorplace.com
Hastings (UK Parliament constituency)
Hastings was a parliamentary constituency in Sussex. It returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until the 1885 general election, when its representation was reduced to one member, it was abolished for the 1983 general election, when it was replaced by the new Hastings and Rye constituency. 1918-1950: The County Borough of Hastings. 1950-1955: The County Borough of Hastings, the Municipal Borough of Rye, part of the Rural District of Battle. 1955-1983: Planta resigned by accepting the office of Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds, causing a by-election. Brisco resigned by accepting the office of Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds. Powlett succeeded to the peerage, becoming Duke of Cleveland, causing a by-election. North's death caused a by-election. Brassey was appointed a Civil Lord of the Admiralty. Murray resigned. General Election 1914/15 Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected.
The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the Autumn of 1939, the following candidates had been selected.
Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton
Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, KG, styled Lord Wriothesley before 1624, was an English statesman, a staunch supporter of King Charles II who after the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660 rose to the position of Lord High Treasurer, which term began with the assumption of power by the Clarendon Ministry. He "was remarkable for his freedom from any taint of corruption and for his efforts in the interests of economy and financial order," a noble if not objective view of his work as the keeper of the nation's finances, he died before the impeachment of Lord Clarendon, after which the Cabal Ministry took over government. He was the only surviving son of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton by his wife Elizabeth Vernon, daughter of John Vernon of Hodnet, Shropshire, he succeeded to the earldom following his father's death in 1624, after which event he attended St. John's College, Cambridge. At first, he sided with the Parliament supporters upon the controversies leading to the English Civil War, but upon his realisation of their propensity to violence, he became a loyal supporter of King Charles I.
While remaining loyal to the deposed monarch, he still worked for peace and represented the king at the peace conferences in 1643 and one at Uxbridge in 1645. He was allowed to remain in England, having paid fines to the Committee for Compounding with Delinquents of more than £6,000. Several months after the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660, Lord Southampton was appointed Lord High Treasurer, a position he occupied until his death. Samuel Pepys admired Southampton's integrity and the stoicism with which he endured his painful last illness, but had doubts about his competence as Treasurer; this is true, you say, but what would you have me do? I have given all. Why will not people lend their money?" However Pepys admitted that Sir William Coventry, the colleague he most admired, was himself an admirer of Southampton, whom he described as "a great statesman". Coventry recalled that other ministers would joke that regardless of his complaints that it was "impossible" to find money, Southampton always succeeded in the end.
Southampton however once grimly remarked that "Impossible will be found impossible at the last", an accurate prophecy of the crisis of 1672 which led to the Stop of the Exchequer. Lord Southampton's name lives on in London as both Southampton Row and Southampton Street in Holborn are named after him, he married three times and had three daughters: to Rachel de Massue, a French Huguenot and an aunt of Henri de Massue, Marquis de Ruvigny, 1st Viscount Galway. By Rachel he had children two daughters and co-heiresses: Elizabeth Wriothesley, Viscountess Campden, wife of Edward Noel, 1st Earl of Gainsborough Rachel Wriothesley, wife of William Russell, Lord Russell, the third son of William Russell, 5th Earl of Bedford created Duke of Bedford; the eventual heir to all the estates of her father Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, was her only son Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford. to Lady Elizabeth Leigh, daughter of Francis Leigh, 1st Earl of Chichester from whom he inherited the title Earl of Chichester.
By Elizabeth Leigh he had a further daughter: Lady Elizabeth Wriothesley who married twice, firstly to Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland, whom she bore an only surviving child, heiress to the vast Percy estates, Lady Elizabeth Percy who married Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset. She secondly married 1st Duke of Montagu. Lady Frances Seymour, daughter of William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset by his second wife Lady Frances Devereux, they had no children. Encyclopædia Britannica The Peerage