James Balfour Paul
Sir James Balfour Paul was the Lord Lyon King of Arms, the officer responsible for heraldry in Scotland, from 1890 until the end of 1926. Paul was born in Edinburgh, the second son of the Rev. John Paul of St Cuthbert's Church and Margaret Balfour, at their home, 13 George Square in Edinburgh, his great-grandfather was Sir William Moncreiff, 7th Baronet. He was educated at Royal High University of Edinburgh, he was admitted an advocate in 1870. Thereafter he was Registrar of Friendly Societies, Treasurer of the Faculty of Advocates, appointed Lord Lyon King of Arms in 1890, he was created a Knight Bachelor in the 1900 New Year Honours list, received the knighthood on 9 February 1900. Among his works was The Scots Peerage, a nine-volume series published from 1904 to 1914, he tried two interesting heraldic cases in Court of the Lord Lyon, the first being in 1909, when Sir Colin Macrae claimed the right to use the coat of arms as Chief of the Name of Clan Macrae, opposed by Colonel John MacRae-Gilstrap.
The second was action brought against Mrs. Fraser Mackenzie by Colonel James Stewart-Mackenzie, 1st Baron Seaforth, in connection with the bearing of arms in right of her father. In the second case, the Lyon's ruling was upheld on appeal by the House of Lords. Shortly before his retirement in 1926, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order in the 1926 New Year Honours list, he was admitted an Esquire and a Commander of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, was a member of the Royal Societies and University Clubs, he was Secretary of the Order of the Thistle. He gave the Rhind Lectures on heraldry, he resided at Edinburgh. Sir James married, in 1872, Helen Margaret, daughter of John Nairne Forman of Staffa, WS, they had four children: a daughter. One son, John William became a heraldic officer, while another, Arthur Forman, became an architect and partner of Robert Rowand Anderson. Sir James is buried with other family in Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh, in the north section east of the opening in the wall between the original cemetery and the north extension.
History of the Royal Company of Archer Record Series of Registrum Magni Sigilli, Handbook to the Parliament House Heraldry in relation to Scottish History and Art. An Ordinary of Arms Contained in the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland 1st ed. 2nd ed. Memoir and Remains of John M. Gray in 2 vols; the Scots Peerage Vol. I, with successive volumes up to Vol. IX Accounts of the Lord Treasurer of Scotland Vols. II-XI, 1900-1916 "Ancient Artillery, with some notes on Mons Meg" in The Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, volume 50, 1915-1916, pps: 191-201. Scottish History Society, Diary of the Rev. George Ridpath, Minister of Stichill Kelly's Handbook to the Titled and Official Classes, 1903, London, p. 1156. Douglas, Sir Robert, Sir James Balfour, ed; the Scots Peerage, Wood's — Volume IX contains the index for the other eight volumes. Works related to Obituary: Sir James Balfour Paul at Wikisource Family tree
Clackmannan, is a small town and civil parish set in the Central Lowlands of Scotland. Situated within the Forth Valley, Clackmannan is 1.8 miles south-east of Alloa and 3.2 miles south of Tillicoultry. The town is within the county of Clackmannanshire, of which it was the county town, until Alloa overtook it in size and importance. According to a 2009 estimate the population of the settlement of Clackmannan is 3,348 residents; the name of the town refers to the Stone of Manau or Stone of Mannan, a pre-Christian monument that can be seen in the town square beside the Tolbooth or Tollbooth Tower, which dates from 1592. During the 12th century, the area formed part of the lands controlled by the abbots of Cambuskenneth, it became associated with the Bruce family, during the 14th century, built a strategic tower-house. It still stands above the town according to Historic Scotland. A crater on asteroid 253 Mathilde is named after Clackmannan; because Mathilde is a dark, carbonaceous body, its craters have been named after famous coalfields from across the world.
The Clackmannan Group is the name given to a suite of rocks of late Dinantian and Namurian age laid down during the Carboniferous period in the Midland Valley of Scotland. The war memorial was designed by Sir Robert Lorimer in 1919. List of places in Clackmannanshire Clackmannan Clackmannan F. C. Former Scottish League members Clackmannan Library Clackmannan Tower: Clackmannan Towers Official Website ClacksNet: Clackmannanshire's Community network Look Aboot Ye - Clackmannanshire Community News and Forums Clackmannan Town Hall Trust - Putting the heart back into our community Clackmannan Loyal - Horseshoe Bar Rangers Supporters Club
Earl of Shrewsbury
Earl of Shrewsbury is a hereditary title of nobility created twice in the Peerage of England. The second earldom dates to 1442; the holder of the Earldom of Shrewsbury holds the title of Earl of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland and Earl Talbot in the Peerage of Great Britain. Shrewsbury and Waterford are the oldest earldoms in their peerages held by someone with no higher title, as such the Earl of Shrewsbury is sometimes described as the premier earl of England and Ireland; the first creation occurred in 1074 for Roger de Montgomerie, one of William the Conqueror's principal counselors. He was one of the Marcher Lords, with the Earl of Hereford and the Earl of Chester, a bulwark against the Welsh. Roger was succeeded in 1094 by his younger son Hugh, his elder son Robert of Bellême succeeding to his lands in Normandy. On Hugh’s death in 1098 the earldom passed to his brother Robert; the title was forfeit in 1102 after the 3rd Earl, rebelled against Henry I and joined Robert Curthose's invasion of England in 1101.
These earls were sometimes styled Earl of Shropshire. The title was created for a second time in 1442 when John Talbot, 7th Baron Talbot, an English general in the Hundred Years' War, was made Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England, he was made hereditary Lord High Steward of Ireland and, in 1446, Earl of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland. John Talbot, the first Earl, was succeeded by his son John, the second Earl, who had succeeded as seventh Baron Furnivall on his mother's death in 1433. Lord Shrewsbury served as both Lord Chancellor of Lord High Treasurer of England, he was killed at the Battle of Northampton in 1460 during the Wars of the Roses. His grandson, the fourth Earl, was Lord Steward of the Household between 1509 and 1538, his son, the fifth Earl, was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration as Lord Talbot in 1533, five years before he succeeded his father. On his death the titles passed to the sixth Earl, he was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration as Lord Talbot in 1553.
Lord Shrewsbury was entrusted with the custody of Mary, Queen of Scots, served as Earl Marshal from 1572 to 1590. He married as his second wife the famous Bess of Hardwick. Shrewsbury was succeeded by his son from his first marriage to Lady Gertrude Manners, the seventh Earl, he served as Lord Lieutenant of Derbyshire. He had no sons and on his death in 1616 the baronies of Talbot, Strange of Blackmere and Furnivall fell into abeyance between his three daughters, he was succeeded in the earldoms by the eighth Earl. He was Member of Parliament for Northumberland, he was succeeded by his distant relative, the ninth Earl. He was the great-great-grandson of third son of the second Earl of Shrewsbury; the family bought Barlow Woodseats Hall in 1593 as part of the estate. He was succeeded by his nephew, the tenth Earl and Lord of Grafton, he was the son of John Talbot of Grafton. On his death the titles passed to the eleventh Earl, he was killed in a duel with George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. His son, the twelfth Earl, was a prominent statesman.
He was one of the Immortal Seven who in 1688 invited William of Orange to invade England and depose his father-in-law James II and served under William and Mary as Secretary of State for the Southern Department and Secretary of State for the Northern Department. In 1694 he was created Marquess of Duke of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England; the Duke was childless and on his death in 1718 the marquessate and dukedom became extinct. He was succeeded in his other titles by the thirteenth Earl, he was the son of second son of the tenth Earl. Lord Shrewsbury was in the Holy Orders of the Church of Rome. On his death the titles passed to the fourteenth Earl, he was succeeded by his nephew Charles, the fifteenth Earl. He began in 1812 the creation of the extensive gardens at Alveton Lodge, Staffordshire which estate had been in the family since the 15th century; when he died the titles were inherited by his nephew John, the sixteenth Earl, the son of the Hon. John Joseph Talbot; when in 1831 the principal home of the family at Heythrop, Oxfordshire was destroyed by fire he moved the family seat to Alton Towers.
The sixteenth Earl was a noted patron of A W N Pugin. He was succeeded by Bertram, his second cousin once removed, the seventeenth Earl, the great-grandson of the Hon. George Talbot, younger son of the aforementioned Gilbert Talbot, second son of the tenth Earl. Bertram died unmarried at an early age in 1856. By his will he left his estates to Lord Edmund Howard, son of the Duke of Norfolk, but the will was contested by three distant relatives and after a long and expensive legal case the House of Lords ruled in 1860 in favour of Henry John Chetwynd-Talbot, 3rd Earl Talbot, who thus became the eighteenth Earl of Shrewsbury and Waterford, he was a descendant of the aforementioned the Hon. Sir Gilbert Talbot, third son of the second Earl of Shrewsbury (see the Earl Tal
Robert Bruce, 1st Earl of Ailesbury
Robert Bruce, 1st Earl of Ailesbury and 2nd Earl of Elgin, PC, FRS, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1663, when he inherited his father's title as Earl of Elgin. Robert Bruce was the son of Thomas Bruce, 1st Earl of Elgin by Anne Chichester. During his father's lifetime, Lord Bruce, as he was styled, was Member of Parliament for Bedfordshire in the Convention Parliament in 1660 and the Cavalier Parliament in 1661, until he succeeded to his father's titles, becoming the 2nd Earl of Elgin in 1663; the following year, he was created Earl of Ailesbury on 18 March 1664, as well as Viscount Bruce of Ampthill and Baron Bruce of Skelton, for his services in procuring the English Restoration. He was Lord Lieutenant of Bedfordshire from 1660 with the Earl of Cleveland, from 1667 to his death. In October 1678, Lord Ailesbury was invested as a Privy Counsellor and a Gentleman of the Bedchamber, he was Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire from 1681 to his death. In 1685, he was invested as a Fellow of the Royal Society and Lord Chamberlain on 30 July 1685.
Robert Bruce died in 1685, aged 58, at Houghton House, just north of Ampthill and was buried on 26 October of that year, at Maulden. His widow, the Dowager Countess of Ailesbury, built Ampthill House nearby in 1686 as a dower house. By this time, the Bruce family had extensive estates, among them were: Whorlton Castle, West Tanfield and Clerkenwell Priory. Robert Bruce married Lady Diana Grey, daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Earl of Stamford and Lady Anne Cecil, on 16 February 1645, they had seventeen children, nine of which seem to have survived to adulthood: Hon. Edward Bruce Thomas Bruce, 2nd Earl of Ailesbury Hon. Henry Bruce Lady Diana Bruce, married firstly, Sir Seymour Shirley, 5th Baronet, on 29 January 1666. Lady Mary Bruce, married Sir William Walter, 2nd Baronet. Lady Christiana Bruce, married firstly, on 4 June 1677 at Ampthill, John Rolle, eldest son and heir apparent of Sir John Rolle of Stevenstone, with whom she had two sons, Robert Rolle and John Rolle. Lady Anne Bruce, married Sir William Rich, 2nd Baronet in 1672.
Hon. Robert Bruce Hon. Charles Bruce Hon. Bernard Bruce Lady Arabella Bruce Lady Anne Charlotte Bruce, married Sir Nicholas Bagenal of Newry, a grandson of Henry Bagenal. Lady Henrietta Bruce, married Thomas Ogle. Hon. Robert Bruce Hon. James Bruce Lady Christian Bruce. Lady Elizabeth Bruce. Henderson, Thomas Finlayson. "Bruce, Robert". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 7. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Website with information about the Ailesbury Mausoleum at Maulden
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Earl of Denbigh
Earl of Denbigh is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1622 for soldier William Feilding, 1st Viscount Feilding; the earldom was one of the hereditary peerages whose entitlement to sit in the House of Lords was removed by the House of Lords Act 1999. The family seat is Newnham Paddox House, near Warwickshire; the Feilding Family have been Lords of Newnham Paddox in Monks Kirby, Warwickshire since 1433. Despite certainly being of Warwickshire origin, in the middle of the seventeenth century following their elevation to the peerage, the Feilding family began to claim descent from the Habsburgs through the counts of Laufenburg and Rheinfelden; the claim, though accepted at one time, including by the historian Edward Gibbon, was the subject of ridicule. It was comprehensively debunked at the start of the twentieth century. William Feilding was Master of the Great Wardrobe under King James I and took part in the Expedition to Cádiz of 1625. Feilding had been created Baron Feilding, of Newnham Paddox in the County of Warwick, Viscount Feilding in 1620.
These titles are in the Peerage of England. William Feilding owed his elevation in court and to the peerage to his marriage with Susan Villiers; the Villiers family were minor Midlands gentry until Susan's brother, George Villiers, became the confidante and lover of King James I and was granted the dukedom of Buckingham. Lord Denbigh was succeeded by the second Earl. In contrast to his father he fought as a Parliamentarian in the Civil War. In 1664 he was created Baron St Liz in the Peerage of England, with remainder to the heirs male of his father. William's second son the Hon. George Feilding was created Earl of Desmond in 1628, he died childless and was succeeded by his nephew, William Feilding, 2nd Earl of Desmond, who now became the third Earl of Denbigh. His son, the fourth Earl, served as Lord-Lieutenant of Denbighshire, his great-great-grandson, the seventh Earl, was a courtier. His grandson, the ninth Earl, served as a Lord-in-waiting from 1897 to 1905 in the Conservative administrations of Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour.
As of 2010 the titles are held by his great-great-great-grandson, the twelfth Earl, who succeeded his father in 1995. Lord Denbigh is Grand Carver of England; the Hon. George Feilding, second son of the first Earl of Denbigh, was created Baron Fielding, of Lecaghe in the County of Tipperary, Viscount Callan, of Callan in the County of Kilkenny, in 1622, was made Earl of Desmond in 1628. All three titles were in the Peerage of Ireland, he was succeeded by his son, the second Earl, who in 1675 succeeded his uncle as third Earl of Denbigh. See above for further history of the titles. Other members of the Feilding family may be mentioned; the writer Henry Fielding was the son of Edmund Feilding, the third son of John Feilding, the youngest son of the 3rd Earl. His sister Sarah Fielding was a well-known author, their half-brother was John Fielding, the celebrated blind Judge. Lady Elizabeth Feilding, daughter of the first Earl of Denbigh, was created Countess of Guilford for life in 1660; the Hon. Sir Percy Robert Basil Feilding, second son of the seventh Earl, was a General in the Army.
William Feilding, 1st Earl of Denbigh Basil Feilding, 2nd Earl of Denbigh George Feilding, 1st Earl of Desmond, 2nd and youngest son of the 1st Earl William Feilding, 3rd Earl of Denbigh and 2nd Earl of Desmond Basil Feilding, 4th Earl of Denbigh and 3rd Earl of Desmond William Feilding, 5th Earl of Denbigh and 4th Earl of Desmond Basil Feilding, 6th Earl of Denbigh and 5th Earl of Desmond William Robert Feilding, Viscount Feilding William Basil Percy Feilding, 7th Earl of Denbigh and 6th Earl of Desmond Rudolph William Basil Feilding, 8th Earl of Denbigh and 7th Earl of Desmond Rudolph Robert Basil Aloysius Augustine Feilding, 9th Earl of Denbigh and 8th Earl of Desmond Rudolph Edmund Aloysius Feilding, Viscount Feilding William Rudolph Stephen Feilding, 10th Earl of Denbigh and 9th Earl of Desmond William Rudolph Michael Feilding, 11th Earl of Denbigh and 10th Earl of Desmond Alexander Stephen Rudolph Feilding, 12th Earl of Denbigh and 11th Earl of Desmond The heir apparent is the present holder's son, Peregrine Rudolph Henry Feilding, Viscount Feilding.
George Feilding, 1st Earl of Desmond William Feilding, 2nd Earl of Desmond Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Newnam Paddox Art Park Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Rudolph Stephen Feilding, 10th Earl of Denbigh Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Rudolph Michael Feilding, 11th Earl of Denbigh
Edward Bruce, 1st Lord Kinloss
Edward Bruce, 1st Lord Kinloss PC was a Scottish lawyer and judge. He was the second son of Edward Bruce of Alison Reid. Edward served as a Lord of Session from 1597 to 1603 and was created Lord Kinloss in 1602, with remainder to his heirs and assigns whatsoever, he played an important role in King James VI's succession to the throne of England, accompanied the King to England on his accession in 1603. The same year, Edward became an English subject, was admitted to the Privy Council,and appointed Master of the Rolls for life, he received Whorlton Castle and its manor in 1603, which would remained in the Bruce family until the late 19th century. In 1604, he was made Lord Bruce of Kinloss, with remainder to his heirs male. Lord Bruce married daughter of Alexander Clerk, he died in London in January 1611 and was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son named, Edward Bruce. Children of Edward Bruce and Magdalene Clerk were: Edward Bruce, 2nd Lord Kinloss Christian Bruce, who married William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire.
Thomas Bruce, 1st Earl of Elgin Robert Bruce, Baron of Skelton Janet Bruce, who married Thomas Dalyell of the Binns, was the mother of General Tam Dalyell of the Binns. After his death, his widow married secondly Sir James Fullerton, MP and courtier, in 1616. William Gouge dedicated his book A Guide to Goe to God to her and Sir James