Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent
Thomas Holland, 2nd Baron Holand, jure uxoris 1st Earl of Kent, KG was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War. He was from a gentry family in Lancashire, he was a son of 1st Baron Holand and Maud la Zouche. One of his brothers was Otho Holand, made a Knight of the Garter. In his early military career, he fought in Flanders, he was engaged, in 1340, in the English expedition into Flanders and sent, two years with Sir John D'Artevelle to Bayonne, to defend the Gascon frontier against the French. In 1343, he was again on service in France. In 1346, he attended King Edward III into Normandy in the immediate retinue of the Earl of Warwick. At the Battle of Crécy, he was one of the principal commanders in the vanguard under the Prince of Wales and he, served at the Siege of Calais in 1346-7. In 1348 he was invested as 13th Knight of the new Order of the Garter. Around the same time as, or before, his first expedition, he secretly married the 12-year-old Joan of Kent, daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake, granddaughter of Edward I and Margaret of France.
However, during his absence on foreign service, under pressure from her family, contracted another marriage with William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury. This second marriage was annulled in 1349, when Joan's previous marriage with Holland was proved to the satisfaction of the papal commissioners. Joan was ordered by the Pope to return to her husband and live with him as his lawful wife, which she did, had 4 children by him. Between 1353 and 1356 he was summoned to Parliament as Baron de Holland, his brother-in-law John, Earl of Kent, died in 1352, Holland became Earl of Kent in right of his wife, although it was in 1360 that he was summoned to Parliament with that title. In 1354 Holland was the king's lieutenant in Brittany during the minority of the Duke of Brittany, in 1359 co-captain-general for all the English continental possessions. Holland died fighting in Normandy on 28 December 1360, he was succeeded as baron by the earldom still being held by his wife. Another son, John became Earl of Duke of Exeter.
Thomas and Joan of Kent had five children: Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter Joan Holland, who married John IV, Duke of Brittany Maud Holland, married firstly Hugh Courtenay grandson of Hugh de Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon and secondly, Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny Edmund Holland, who died young His profile in Britannia Biographies His entry in Maximilian Genealogy
Ruthin is the county town of Denbighshire in north Wales and a community. Located in the southern part of the Vale of Clwyd, the older part of the town, the castle and St Peter's Square lie on a hill, while many newer parts are in the flood plain of the River Clwyd; this became apparent several times in the late 1990s – flood-control works costing £3 million were completed in autumn 2003. Ruthin is skirted by villages such as Rhewl; the name comes from the Welsh words rhudd and din, referring to the colour of the red sandstone bedrock, of which the castle was built in 1277–84. The original name was Castell Coch yng Ngwern-fôr; the mill is nearby. Maen Huail is a registered ancient monument attributed to the brother of Gildas and King Arthur, located outside Barclays Bank in St Peter's Square; the population at the 2001 Census was 53 per cent female. The average age of the population was 43.0 years and the population is 98.2 per cent "white". According to the 2011 census, 68 per cent were born in 25 per cent in England.
Welsh speakers account for 42 per cent of the town's population. There is evidence of Celtic and Roman settlements in the area. However, little is known of the history of the town before the construction of Ruthin Castle was started in 1277 by Dafydd, the brother of prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. However, he forfeited the castle; the Marcher Lord, Reginald de Grey, Justiciar of Chester, was given the Cantref of Deffrencloyt, his family ran the area for the next 226 years. The third Baron de Grey's land dispute with Owain Glyndŵr triggered Glyndŵr's rebellion against King Henry IV, which began on 16 September 1400, when Glyndŵr burned Ruthin to the ground, reputedly leaving only the castle and a few other buildings standing; the Lord de Grey established a Collegiate Church in 1310. Now the Collegiate and Parish Church of St Peter, it dominates the Ruthin skyline, it boasts two medieval carved roofs. These days it is known for its musical tradition, it has a large choir of a four-manual Wadsworth-Willis organ.
Behind the church can be seen the old college buildings and Christ's Hospital. A Ruthin native, Sir Thomas Exmewe was Lord Mayor of the City of London in 1517–18; the half-timbered Old Court House, on the square, features the remains of a gibbet last used to execute a Franciscan priest, Charles Meehan known as Mahoney. He was shipwrecked on the Welsh coast at a time when Catholicism was equated with treason — Meehan was hanged and quartered in 1679, he was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1987 as one of the Eighty-five martyrs of England and Wales. During the English Civil War, the castle survived an eleven-week siege, after which it was demolished by order of Parliament, it was rebuilt in the 19th century as a country house, which has now been turned into the Ruthin Castle Hotel. From 1826 until 1921 the castle was the home of the Cornwallis-West family, members of Victorian and Edwardian high society. In its 18th-century heyday as a town on drovers' routes from Wales into England, Ruthin was reputed to have "a pub for every week of the year".
By 2007, there were only eleven pubs in the town. The public records of 23 October 1891 show 31 such establishments serving a population of 3186; the Ruthin Union Workhouse was built in 1834. The first copies of the Welsh national anthem, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, were printed in what is now the Siop Nain tea and gift shop on Well Street. In 1863 the Denbigh and Corwen Railway, which linked in Denbigh with the Vale of Clwyd Railway reached the town; the route ran from Rhyl through Denbigh and Ruthin to Corwen. Thereafter the line joined a route from Ruabon through Llangollen and Bala to Barmouth; the railway and Ruthin railway station closed in 1963 under the Beeching Axe. The site of the town's railway station is now occupied by a large road roundabout and the Ruthin Craft Centre, which opened in 1982, but was rebuilt and reopened in 2008.. Ruthin hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1868 and 1973; the Urdd National Eisteddfod visited Ruthin in 1992 and 2006. The town's principal school is a comprehensive school for 11 to 18-year-olds.
It was founded in about 1830 as a Grade II listed building as the home of local solicitor before becoming in 1898 Ruthin County School for Girls. The school went co-educational with feeder junior schools up to around six miles away in 1938; the school underwent building work in the 1950s, in the early 1970s, in 2001–2002. The listed building becoming the Sixth Form Centre; the school's sports facilities, including the swimming pool are used as the town's Leisure Centre, feature a theatre and arts complex, Theatr John Ambrose, named after the late headmaster of the school in the 1980s and 1990s. This was opened by the actor Rhys Ifans, a former pupil of Ysgol Pentrecelyn and Ysgol Maes Garmon in Mold, but brought up in Ruthin. In 1574 Dr Gabriel Goodman re-founded Ruthin School, founded in 1284 and is one of the oldest private schools in the United Kingdom. In 1590, Goo
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Alfred reigned as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 1893 to 1900. He was the second son and fourth child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, he was known as the Duke of Edinburgh from 1866 until he succeeded his paternal uncle Ernest II as the reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in the German Empire. Prince Alfred was born on 6 August 1844 at Windsor Castle to the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria, her husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the second son of Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, he was second in the line of succession behind the Prince of Wales. Alfred was baptized by the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Howley, at the Private Chapel in Windsor Castle on 6 September 1844, his godparents were Prince George of Cambridge. Alfred studied violin at Holyrood, where his accompanist was Hungarian expatriate George Lichtenstein. Alfred remained second in line to the British throne from his birth until 8 January 1864, when his older brother Edward and his wife Alexandra of Denmark had their first son, Prince Albert Victor.
Alfred became third in line to the throne and as Edward and Alexandra continued to have children, Alfred was further demoted in the order of succession. In 1856, at the age of 12, it was decided that Prince Alfred, in accordance with his own wishes, should enter the Royal Navy. A separate establishment was accordingly assigned to him, with Lieutenant J. C. Cowell, RE, as governor, he passed the examination in August 1858, was appointed as midshipman in HMS Euryalus at the age of 14. In July 1860, while on this ship, he paid an official visit to the Cape Colony, made a favourable impression both on the colonials and on the native chiefs, he took part in a hunt at Hartebeeste-Hoek, resulting in the slaughter of large numbers of game animals. On the abdication of King Otto of Greece, in 1862, Prince Alfred was chosen to succeed him, but the British government blocked plans for him to ascend the Greek throne because of the Queen's opposition to the idea, she and her late husband had made plans for him to succeed to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg.
Prince Alfred, remained in the navy, was promoted to lieutenant on 24 February 1863, serving under Count Gleichen on the corvette HMS Racoon. He was promoted to captain on 23 February 1866 and was appointed to the command of the frigate HMS Galatea in January 1867. In the Queen's Birthday Honours on 24 May 1866, the Prince was created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Ulster, Earl of Kent, with an annuity of £15,000 granted by Parliament, he took his seat in the House of Lords on 8 June. While still in command of the Galatea, the Duke of Edinburgh started from Plymouth on 24 January 1867 for his voyage around the world. On 7 June 1867, he left Gibraltar, reached the Cape of Good Hope on 24 July and paid a royal visit to Cape Town on 24 August 1867 after landing at Simon's Town a while earlier, he landed at Glenelg, South Australia, on 31 October 1867. Being the first member of the royal family to visit Australia, he was received with great enthusiasm. During his stay of nearly five months he visited Adelaide, Sydney and Tasmania.
Adelaide school Prince Alfred College was named in his honour to mark the occasion. On 12 March 1868, on his second visit to Sydney, he was invited by Sir William Manning, President of the Sydney Sailors' Home, to picnic at the beachfront suburb of Clontarf to raise funds for the home. At the function, he was wounded in the back by a revolver fired by Henry James O'Farrell. Alfred was shot just to the right of his spine and was tended for the next two weeks by six nurses, trained by Florence Nightingale and led by Matron Lucy Osburn, who had just arrived in Australia in February 1868. In the violent struggle during which Alfred was shot, William Vial had managed to wrest the gun away from O'Farrell until bystanders assisted. Vial, a master of a Masonic Lodge, had helped to organise the picnic in honour of the Duke's visit and was presented with a gold watch for securing Alfred's life. Another bystander, George Thorne, was wounded in the foot by O'Farrell's second shot. O'Farrell was arrested at the scene tried and hanged on 21 April 1868.
On the evening of 23 March 1868, the most influential people of Sydney voted for a memorial building to be erected, "to raise a permanent and substantial monument in testimony of the heartfelt gratitude of the community at the recovery of HRH". This led to a public subscription. Alfred soon recovered from his injury and was able to resume command of his ship and return home in early April 1868, he reached Spithead on 26 June 1868, after an absence of seventeen months. He visited Hawaii in 1869 and spent time with the royal family there, where he was presented with leis upon his arrival, he was the first member of the royal family to visit New Zealand, arriving in 1869 on HMS Galatea. He became the first European prince to visit Japan and on 4 September 1869, he was received at an audience by the teenaged Emperor Meiji in Tokyo; the Duke's next voyage was to India, where he arrived in December 1869 and Ceylon, which he visited the following year. In both countries and at Hong Kong, which he visited on the way, he was the first British prince to set foot in the country.
The native rulers of India vied with one another in the magnif
Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent
Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent was Justiciar of England and Ireland and one of the most influential men in England during the reigns of King John and of his infant son and successor King Henry III. De Burgh's family were minor landholders in Norfolk and Suffolk, from whom he inherited at least four manors, his mother was named Alice, his father may have been named Walter. He was the younger brother of William de Burgh, the founder of the de Burgh/Burke/Bourke dynasty in Ireland, his younger brother Geoffrey was Archdeacon of Norwich and Bishop of Ely, his younger brother Thomas was castellan of Norwich. De Burgh entered the service of Prince John by 1198, from until 1202 rose in importance in John's administration, he served successively as chamberlain of John's household, an ambassador to Portugal, sheriff first of Dorset and Somerset and of Berkshire and Cornwall, custodian of the castles of Dover and Windsor, custodian of the Welsh Marches. For these services, he was granted a series of manors and other castles, became a powerful figure in John's administration.
In 1202, de Burgh was sent to France by King John, to assist in the defense of Poitou against King Philip II of France. De Burgh was appointed castellan of the great castle of Chinon in Touraine. During this time, he served as guard of Duke of Brittany. After all of Poitou had fallen to the French king, de Burgh held the castle for an entire year, until he was captured during the successful storming of the castle in 1205, he was held captive until 1207, during which time his royal appointments and grants of land passed to other men. Following his return to England, de Burgh did however acquire fresh offices in John's administration, he acquired lands scattered throughout East Anglia, the southwest of England, elsewhere, making him once again an important baron in England. In 1212, de Burgh returned to France at first as deputy seneschal of Poitou and as seneschal, he served John in his efforts to recover dominions lost to Philip II of France, until the signing of a truce between John and Philip following John's failed military campaign in France in 1214.
De Burgh remained loyal to King John during the barons' rebellion in the last years of his reign. In the early stages of that rebellion, John sent de Burgh to London with the Bishop of Coventry, in an unsuccessful attempt to command the people of London to resist the Barons' military advance. De Burgh and Philip d'Aubigny brought together the king's troops at Rochester, but John made peace with the rebels. In the Magna Carta of 1215, de Burgh is listed as one of those who advised the king to sign that charter, of which his brother Geoffrey de Burgh, Bishop of Ely, was a witness. De Burgh is listed as the person who would act on the king's behalf if the king were out of the country. Soon after the issuing of the Magna Carta, de Burgh was declared Chief Justiciar of England. During the First Barons' War of 1215-1217, de Burgh served John as sheriff of Kent and Surrey, as well as castellan of Canterbury and Dover. De Burgh defended Dover Castle during a siege that lasted until John died in October, 1216, the infant King Henry III was crowned.
On 24 August 1217, a French fleet arrived off the coast of Sandwich in Kent, in order to provide Prince Louis of France ravaging England, with soldiers, siege engines and fresh supplies. Hubert set sail to intercept the French fleet and at the resulting Battle of Sandwich he scattered the French and captured their flagship The Great Ship of Bayonne, commanded by Eustace the Monk, promptly executed; when the news reached Louis, he entered into fresh peace negotiations. When Henry III came of age in 1227 de Burgh was made Governor of Rochester Castle, lord of Montgomery Castle in the Welsh Marches and Earl of Kent, he remained one of the most influential people at court. On 27 April 1228 he was named Justiciar for life, but in 1232 the plots of his enemies succeeded and he was removed from office and soon was in prison. He escaped from Devizes Castle and joined the rebellion of Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke in 1233. In 1234, Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury effected a reconciliation.
He resigned the Justiciarship about 28 May 1234, but had not exercised the power of the office after September 1232. The judgment was reversed by William Raleigh known as William de Raley in 1234, which for a time, restored the earldom; the marriage of Hubert de Burgh's daughter Margaret to Richard of Clare, the young Earl of Gloucester, brought de Burgh into some trouble in 1236, for the earl was as yet a minor and in the king's wardship, the marriage had been celebrated without the royal licence. Hubert, protested that the match was not of his making, promised to pay the king some money, so the matter passed by for the time; the marriage came to an end, by way of her death. In 1206 he purchased the manor of Tunstall in Kent from Robert de Arsic, his eldest son John de Burgh inherited Tunstall. He was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and was given charge of Falaise, in Normandy. At Falaise he was the gaoler of Arthur I, Duke of Brittany, the nephew of King John and boy claimant to the English throne.
Arthur may not have been murdered after leaving de Burgh's custody. De Burgh is cited as having been appointed at some time before 1215 Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, which position after the Baron's War, carried with it ex officio the Constableship of Dover Castle. In the case of de Burgh however, a rather long period seems to have elapsed between the two appointments. Someti
Jemima Yorke, 2nd Marchioness Grey
Jemima Yorke, 2nd Marchioness Grey and Countess of Hardwicke was a British peeress. She was a daughter of 3rd Earl of Breadalbane and Holland and Lady Amabel Grey, her maternal grandparents were Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Kent, his first wife, the former Jemima Crew. On 22 May 1740, she married Hon. Philip Yorke and they had two daughters: Lady Amabel, married Alexander Hume-Campbell, Lord Polwarth. Lady Mary, married Thomas Robinson, had issue. On 5 June that year, she succeeded as Marchioness Grey by a special remainder upon the death of her maternal grandfather, the Duke of Kent, who held the title; as she had no male heirs, the title became extinct upon her own death in 1797, but her elder daughter was created Countess de Grey in her own right. Wrest Park Collett-White, James. "Yorke, Jemima". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/68351
Duke of Kent
The title of Duke of Kent has been created several times in the peerages of Great Britain and the United Kingdom, most as a royal dukedom for the fourth son of King George V. Since 1942, the title has been held by Queen Elizabeth II's cousin. A title associated with Kent first appears anciently with the Kingdom of Kent, one of the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms that merged to form the Kingdom of England; the Kings of Cantware date back to about 449. After 825, when the Kingdom of Kent was taken over by Egbert, King of Wessex, Kent became a dependency of Wessex and was ruled by sub-kings related to the Wessex rulers; the titular kingship became something like the heir-apparent's title, as Aethelwulf, Egbert's son, became King of Kent in 825. By 860, Kent lost its status as a kingdom. In the Peerage of England, the first title of Kent was that of the Earl of Kent. After the death of his father, Godwin the Earl of Wessex, sometime between 1056 and 1058, became Earl of Kent, a new earldom at the time.
It is possible that Godwin was the first Earl of Kent, since he ruled over that area as well as many others. After Leofwine's death at Hastings in 1066, William the Conqueror named his half-brother, Odo of Bayeux, Bishop of Bayeux, the new Earl of Kent. However, Odo was twice removed from this title; the first occasion was in 1082. It was not until 1141. In 1227, it became extinct with his death. In 1321, it was again revived for Edmund of Woodstock, through the marriage of Joan Plantagenet to Thomas Holland, the title passed to the Holland family, which held the title until 1408. In 1461, it was revived for William Neville, in 1465 for Edmund Grey; the Grey family held the title until Henry Grey, 12th Earl of Kent, made Marquess of Kent in 1706 and Duke of Kent in 1710, died without male heirs in 1740. Henry Grey succeeded his father, Anthony Grey, as the 12th Earl of Kent in 1702. In 1706, he was elevated to Marquess of Kent, along with Earl of Viscount Goderich. In 1710 he was elevated once again as Duke of Kent, following the death of his sons, Marquess Grey with a special remainder to his granddaughter.
Henry had one son and five daughters with his first wife, Jemima Crew, one son and one daughter with his second wife, Sophia Bentinck. By the time of Henry's death in 1740, both of his sons had died and George, leaving the Duke of Kent without a male heir, his granddaughter Lady Jemima Campbell would inherit two titles in her own right, Marchioness Grey and Baroness Lucas. On 23 April 1799 the double dukedom of Kent and Strathearn was given, with the earldom of Dublin, to King George III's fourth son, Prince Edward Augustus. Edward had a daughter, Princess Alexandrina Victoria. Upon Edward's death in 1820, the dukedom of Kent and Strathearn became extinct, as he had no legitimate male heir; the next creation of a title of Kent, was not that of Duke or Marquess, but rather that of Earl, with the creation of Prince Alfred, the second son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, as Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Ulster, of Kent in 1866. The Duke of Edinburgh had only one son, Prince Alfred, who would have inherited his father's titles had he not died before his father in 1899.
With Prince Alfred's death in 1900, Kent's title became extinct. In 1934, Prince George, the fourth son of King George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary, was created Duke of Kent, Earl of St Andrews and Baron Downpatrick. Prince George had three children before his death in 1942: Prince Edward, Princess Alexandra, Prince Michael. Prince Edward, upon his father's death, succeeded to his father's peerages; the current Duke of Kent has two sons. King George V's Letters Patent of 30 November 1917 restricted the style Royal Highness and the titular dignity of Prince to the sons of the Sovereign, the male line grandsons of the Sovereign, the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales. Great grandchildren of the Sovereign in the male line enjoy the courtesy titles of the children of dukes. Therefore, the heir apparent to the dukedom of Kent, is George, Earl of St. Andrews. Lord St. Andrews married in 1988, has three children, his son Lord Downpatrick is second in line to his grandfather's peerages.
When Lord St. Andrews succeeds, the dukedom will cease to be a Royal dukedom. After Lord St. Andrews and Lord Downpatrick, the current duke's younger son Lord Nicholas Windsor is in remainder to the dukedom, as are the current duke's brother, Prince Michael of Kent, his son, Lord Frederick Windsor; the current Duke of Kent carries out numerous duties for both military and civil. He is the Grand Master of the English Freemasons, has served as the President of The Scout Association of the United Kingdom since 1975 and of the Royal Institution, he has performed a number of state visits to Commonwealth nations on behalf of the Queen. He has acted as Counsellor of State, his Royal Highness is the Grand Prior of the Order of St George. He holds numerous other appointments in the military; the Duke o