The Bigod family was a medieval Norman family, the second Earls of Norfolk, the first being Ralph de Guader. Roger Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk, father of the true 1st Earl Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk, second son, heir, of Roger Bigod, founder of the English family of this name Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk and heir of 1st earl Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk and heir of 2nd earl Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk, son of 3rd earl. No male issue, passes to nephew Roger Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, son of Hugh Bigod, heir of 4th earl. No male issue and titles revert to crown William Bigod, first son of Roger Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk, lost in the White Ship Disaster William Hugh Bigod, other son of 2nd Earl Hugh Bigod, second son of Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk Hugh Bigod, the youngest son of 3rd earl, father of 5th earl Bigod's Rebellion Framlingham Castle Bungay Castle Orford Castle The Anarchy First Barons' War Second Barons' War
Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk was an English nobleman. Thomas Howard was born to Henry Frederick Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel and Elizabeth Stuart, Countess of Arundel. In 1660 King Charles II, acting on a unanimous petition from the House of Lords, recreated for him the dukedom of Norfolk, forfeited for treason by his great-great-grandfather Thomas Howard in 1572. Thomas had significant mental disabilities that prevented him from marrying or exercising his privileges as Duke, he spent much of his life in a private asylum in Italy. Thomas' brother, Sir Henry Howard served as Earl Marshal until Thomas died in 1677 succeeded him as Duke. Another brother, became a Catholic cardinal. Dukes of Norfolk family tree
Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk
Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk Duchess of York and Duchess of Norfolk was the child bride of Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, one of the Princes in the Tower. She died at the age of eight, she was born at Framlingham Castle in Suffolk, the only child of John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk and Lady Elizabeth Talbot. Her maternal grandparents were John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and his second wife Lady Margaret Beauchamp; the death of her father in 1476 left Anne a wealthy heiress. On 15 January 1478, aged 5, she was married in St Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, to Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, the 4-year-old younger son of Edward IV and his queen, Elizabeth Woodville. Anne died at Greenwich in London, nearly two years before her husband disappeared into the Tower of London with his older brother, Edward V. Upon her death, her heirs would have been her cousins, Viscount Berkeley and John, Lord Howard, but by an act of Parliament in January 1483 the rights were given to her husband Richard, with reversion to his descendants, failing that, to the descendants of his father Edward IV.
Anne was buried in a lead coffin in the Chapel of St. Erasmus of Formiae in Westminster Abbey; when that chapel was demolished in about 1502 to make way for the Henry VII Lady Chapel, Anne's coffin was moved to a vault under the Abbey of the Minoresses of St. Clare without Aldgate, run by nuns of the Order of Poor Clares Franciscans, her coffin disappeared. In December 1964, construction workers in Stepney accidentally dug into the vault and found Anne's coffin, it was opened, her remains were analyzed by scientists and entombed in Westminster Abbey in May 1965. Her red hair was still on her skull and her shroud still wrapped around her. Westminster Abbey is the presumed resting place of her husband, Richard Duke of York, his brother Edward V, in the Henry VII Chapel. Dukes of Norfolk family tree Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Mowbray, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 39. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 225. P. M. Kendall, The World of Anne Mowbray, Observer Colour Magazine, issued 23 May 1965 Moorhen, Wendy.
"Anne Mowbray: In Life and Death". The Ricardian Bulletin. Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. M. A. Rushton, The Teeth of Anne Mowbray, British Dental Journal, issued 19 October 1965 Stepney Child Burial, Joint press release from the London Museum and Westminster Abbey, issued 15 January 1965 Roger Warwick, Skeletal Remains of a Medieval Child, London Archaeologist, Vol. 5 No. 7, issued summer 1986
Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk
Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, was the fifth son of King Edward I of England, the eldest child by his second wife, Margaret of France, the daughter of King Philip III of France. He was, therefore, a younger half-brother of King Edward II and a full brother of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, he occupied the office of Earl Marshal of England. Thomas of Brotherton was born 1 June 1300 at the manor house at Brotherton, while his mother was on her way to Cawood, where her confinement was scheduled to take place. According to Hilton, Margaret was staying at Pontefract Castle and was following a hunt when she went into labour; the chronicler William Rishanger records that during the difficult delivery his mother prayed, as was the custom at the time, to Thomas Becket, Thomas of Brotherton was thus named after the saint and his place of birth. King Edward I had Thomas presented with two cradles, his brother Edmund of Woodstock was born in the year after that. They were overseen by wet nurses.
Like their parents, they learned to ride horses. They were visited by nobles and their half-sister Mary of Woodstock, a nun, their mother accompanied their father on his campaigns to Scotland, but kept herself well-informed on their well-being. Thomas's father died. Thomas's half-brother Edward, became king of England, as "King Edward II", Thomas was heir presumptive until his nephew, the future King Edward III, was born in 1312; the Earldom of Cornwall had been intended for Thomas, but his brother the King instead bestowed it upon his favourite, Piers Gaveston, in 1306. When Thomas was 10 years old, King Edward II assigned to him and his brother Edmund, the estates of Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, who had died without heirs in 1306. In 1312, Thomas was titled "Earl of Norfolk" by Edward II, on 10 February 1316 he was created Earl Marshal. While his brother was away fighting in Scotland, he was left Keeper of England, he was known for his violent temper. He was one of the many victims of the unchecked greed of the king's new favourite, Hugh Despenser the Younger and his father Hugh Despenser the Elder, who stole some of the young earl's lands.
He allied himself with Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer when they invaded England in 1326, stood as one of the judges in the trials against both Despensers. When his nephew Edward III reached his majority and took the government into his own hands Thomas, who had helped with the deposition, became one of his principal advisors, it was in the capacity of Lord Marshal that he commanded the right wing of the English army at the Battle of Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333. Thomas died about 20 September 1338, was buried in the choir of the Abbey of Bury St Edmunds; as he had no surviving sons, Thomas was succeeded by Margaret, as Countess of Norfolk. She was created Duchess of Norfolk for life in 1397; as a son of Edward I of England, Thomas was entitled to bear the coat of arms of the Kingdom of England, differenced by a label argent of three points. Thomas married firstly, before 8 January 1326, Alice de Hales, daughter of Sir Roger de Hales of Hales Hall in Loddon in Roughton, Norfolk, a coroner, by his wife, Alice, by whom he had a son and two daughters: Edward of Norfolk, who married Beatrice de Mortimer, daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, but died without issue before 9 August 1334.
Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, who married firstly John Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave, secondly Wauthier de Masny. Alice of Norfolk, who married Edward Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu. Thomas's wife Alice died by October 1330, when a chantry was founded for her soul in Sussex. Thomas married secondly, before 4 April 1336, Mary de Brewes, widow of Sir Ralph de Cobham, daughter of Sir Peter de Brewes of Tetbury, Gloucestershire, by Agnes de Clifford, by whom he had no surviving issue. Archer, Rowena E.. "'Brotherton, suo jure duchess of Norfolk". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/53070. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage, edited by H. A. Doubleday and Lord Howard de Walden. IX. London: St. Catherine Press. Pp. 596–9. Hilton, Lisa. Queens Consort, England's Medieval Queens. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. P. 240. ISBN 978-0-7538-2611-9. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. II. Salt Lake City.
ISBN 1449966349. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. IV. Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709. Waugh, Scott L.. "Thomas, first earl of Norfolk". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27196. Mortimer, Ian; the Greatest Traitor, 2003
John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal was a fifteenth-century English magnate who, despite having a short political career, played a significant role in the early years of the Wars of the Roses. Mowbray was born in 1415, the only son and heir of John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, Katherine Neville, he inherited his titles upon his father's death in 1432. As a minor he became a ward of King Henry VI and was placed under the protection of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, alongside whom Mowbray would campaign in France, he seems to have had an rebellious youth. Although the details of his misconducts are unknown, they were severe enough for the King to place strictures upon him and separate him from his followers. Mowbray's early career was spent in the military, he led the defence of England's possessions in Normandy during the Hundred Years' War. He fought in Calais in 1436, during 1437–38 served as warden of the east march on the Anglo-Scottish border, before returning to Calais.
Mowbray's marriage to Eleanor Bourchier in the early 1430s drew him into the partisan and complex politics of East Anglia, he became the bitter rival of William de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk. Mowbray prosecuted his feuds with vigour taking the law into his own hands; this violent approach drew the disapproving attention of the Crown, he was bound over for massive sums and imprisoned twice in the Tower of London. His enemies de la Pole resorted to violent tactics; as a result, local gentry looked to Mowbray for leadership, but in vain. As law and order collapsed in eastern England, national politics became factional, with popular revolts against the King's councillors. Richard, Duke of York, who by the 1450s felt excluded from government, grew belligerent, he rebelled twice, both times Mowbray defended King Henry. Mowbray drifted towards York, with whom he shared an enmity towards de la Pole. For much of the decade, Mowbray was able to evade direct involvement in the fractious political climate, aligned with York early in 1460 until York's death that year.
In April 1461, Mowbray was instrumental in Edward's victory at the Battle of Towton, bringing reinforcements late in the combat. He did not live to enjoy it, he died in November 1461, was succeeded as Duke of Norfolk by his only son, John. John Mowbray was the only son of John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, his wife Katherine Neville, a daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, a powerful magnate in northern England; the younger Mowbray was born on 12 September 1415 while his father was in France campaigning with Henry V. Mowbray was seventeen at his father's death and still a minor. During his minority, his estates were granted by Henry VI to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester for a farm of 2000 marks; until his majority, the Mowbray lands were administered by the English exchequer to the benefit of the crown, at a time when the government was in dire need of cash, due to the Hundred Years' War. Mowbray's wardship, the right to arrange his marriage, was sold to Anne of Gloucester, Countess of Stafford for £2,000.
By March 1434, Anne had arranged for Mowbray's marriage to her daughter Eleanor Bourchier. As a young adult, Mowbray appears to have been raucous and troublesome, surrounded himself with unruly followers; this seems to have drawn the King's attention: Mowbray had only recently—with the other lords—sworn an oath in parliament not to recruit or welcome villains and wrong-doers into his affinity, nor to maintain them. He was summoned before his council. Mowbray was instructed in how to conduct himself henceforth, a precise regimen was imposed upon him. Which aspects of Mowbray's behaviour were viewed as problematic is unknown, but since it resulted in unprecedented council-imposed restrictions upon him, his conduct must have been viewed as "abnormal"; the ordinances not only dictated the time he should go to bed at night and rise in the morning, The conditions addressed his demeanour. Their stated role was to turn Mowbray towards "good reule and good governaunce," and they were not just to guide Mowbray but to report any disobedience of the council's instructions back to that body.
On his father's death in 1432, Mowbray inherited the office of Earl Marshal, but not yet his father's lands or titles. Mowbray's father lacked full control of his estates, as they were encumbered by two Mowbray dowagers, Mowbray's mother Katherine, his sister-in-law, Constance Holland, they each held a third of the inheritance as their dower. Constance died in 1437, but Mowbray's mother survived until around 1483; because of this, the historian Rowena Archer—who made one of the few full-length studies of the Mowbray family—described Mowbray as inheriting a "hopeless" and "onerous" legacy. It had political consequences for the future; as he never held much property in the counties where his inheritance was, his influence was thus restricted there. After his father's death, Mowbray made claim to the earldom of Arundel, setting him against John, Lord Maltravers, who had made claim; this was an old dispute. Mowbray's father and grandfather had sought the earldom, blocking Maltravers' father's claim.
Mowbray based his right through his grandmother Elizabeth Fitzalan, Duchess of Norfolk.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk
Roger Bigod was the son of Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk and his first wife, Juliana de Vere. Although his father died 1176 or 1177, Roger did not succeed to the earldom of Norfolk until 1189 for his claim had been disputed by his stepmother for her sons by Earl Hugh in the reign of Henry II. Richard I confirmed him in his earldom and other honours, sent him as an ambassador to France in the same year. Roger inherited his father's office as royal steward, he took part in the negotiations for the release of Richard from prison, after the king's return to England became a justiciar. During the Revolt of 1173–74, Roger remained loyal to the king while his father sided with the king's rebellious sons. Roger fought at the Battle of Fornham on 17 October 1173, where the royalist force defeated a rebel force led by Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester. In most of the years of the reign of King John, the earl was with the king or on royal business, yet Roger was to be one of the leaders of the baronial party which obtained John's assent to Magna Carta, his name and that of his son and heir Hugh II appear among the twenty-five barons who were to ensure the king's adherence to the terms of that document.
The pair were excommunicated by the pope in December 1215, did not make peace with the regents of John's son Henry III until 1217. Around Christmas 1181, Roger married Ida Ida de Tosny, by her had a number of children including: Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk who married in 1206/ 1207, Maud, a daughter of William Marshal William Bigod Ralph Bigod Roger Bigod Margery, married William de Hastings Mary Bigod, married Ralph fitz RobertMany historians, including Marc Morris have speculated that the couple had a third daughter, who married Aubrey de Vere IV, Earl of Oxford as his second wife. If so, the marriage would have been well within the bounds of consanguinity, for the couple would have been quite related, a daughter of the second earl of Norfolk being first cousin once removed to the second earl of Oxford. Roger Bigod and his wife Ida de Tosny are the main characters in Elizabeth Chadwick's The Time of Singing, published in the USA as For the King's Favor, they appear as minor characters in other of her books set at the same time, notably To Defy a King, which concerns the marriage of their son Hugh to Maud, a daughter of William Marshal.
As Bigot, Bigod appears as a character in the play King John by William Shakespeare. Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis, Vol. 13 Morris, Marc. The Bigod Earls of Norfolk in the Thirteenth Century Cawley, Medieval Lands Project on Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy