click links in text for more info

Earl of Surrey

Earl of Surrey is a title in the Peerage of England, created five times. It was first created for a close companion of William the Conqueror, it is held as a subsidiary title by the Dukes of Norfolk. The Earldom of Surrey was first created in 1088 for William de Warenne, as a reward for loyal service to William during the Conquest, he received the lordship of Reigate Castle in Surrey, but had holdings in twelve other counties. Because he held little property in Surrey, the earldom came to be more called of Warenne; the name Warenne comes from the name of their property in Normandy where the family's ancestral castle, was located on the Varenne River. It was held by William de Warenne's son and grandson, both named William, by the husbands of Isabella, daughter of the third William de Warenne; the first of these was William of Blois, son of King Stephen, the second was Hamelin, half-brother of Henry II. The latter took the de Warenne surname, a son and great-great-grandson of Hamelin and Isabella subsequently held the earldom.

With the failure of the second de Warenne male line in 1347, the earldom passed to Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, a nephew of the last de Warenne earl, although he did not assume the title until after the death of the previous earl's widow in 1351. It was held by his son, who forfeited it upon his execution in 1397. John Holland, a grandson of the first Fitzalan earl of Surrey, was created Duke of Surrey, he held the title for 2 years until he was stripped of it by Henry IV, who restored the earldom to the Fitzalans. The restored earl died in 1415 without male heirs, whereupon the earldom of Surrey became either extinct or abeyant, while the earldom of Arundel passed to his 1st cousin once removed, great-grandson of the 9th Earl of Surrey; the title was revived several times during the 15th century, for John de Mowbray in 1451, for Richard of Shrewsbury in 1477. Both died without issue. In 1483 the title was revived for Thomas Howard, who became Duke of Norfolk, it has been held by this family since.

The Dukes of Norfolk quarter the de Warrenne arms on their coat of arms. The 4th earl of this creation inherited the earldom of Arundel, thus re-uniting the two earldoms. William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey was granted the Manor of Wakefield by the crown and his descendants, the Earls Warenne, inherited it when he died in 1088; the building of Sandal Castle was begun early in the 12th century by William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey, granted the Sandal estates in 1107 and it became the stronghold of the manor. A second castle was abandoned. Wakefield formed the caput of an extensive baronial holding that extended to Cheshire and Lancashire and was held by the Warennes until the 14th century, when it passed to Warenne heirs; the Warenne Earls were called Earl de Warenne at least as as Earl of Surrey. The numbering of the earls follows the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey, earldom attainted in 1101, restored 1103 William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey Isabel de Warenne, Countess of Surrey William I, Count of Boulogne, Earl of Surrey, her first husband, younger son of King Stephen of England.

Hamelin de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, her second husband, illegitimate son of Geoffrey of Anjou. He was called Warenne after his marriage. William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey, grandson. Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, 8th Earl of Surrey, nephew. Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, 9th Earl of Surrey Thomas FitzAlan, 12th Earl of Arundel, 10th Earl of Surrey Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey John de Mowbray, 1st Earl of Surrey and Warenne, nephew of the last FitzAlan earl. Succeeded as 4th Duke of Norfolk in 1461. Title extinct at his death without sons. Richard of Shrewsbury, younger son of Edward IV, was created Earl of Warenne and Duke of Norfolk on 7 February 1477, when he was three years old, he married Anne Mowbray, only daughter of John de Mowbray above, when both were four. He was one of the Princes in the Tower, died there at an uncertain date, but without children, so all his titles are extinct. Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Surrey, a descendant of Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk through a female, Howard was a second cousin of the last Earl.

Forfeited in 1485 after the Battle of Bosworth, where his father was killed and attainted. Restored as Earl of Surrey in 1489. Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, 2nd Earl of Surrey Attainted 1547. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, the poet. Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, 3rd Earl of Surrey Philip Howard, 1st Earl of Arundel, by courtesy Earl of Surrey from 1554 to 1572.

Orange Grove, Texas

Orange Grove is a city in Jim Wells County, United States. The population was 1,318 at the 2010 census. Orange Grove is located in northeastern Jim Wells County at 27°57′22″N 97°56′21″W. Texas State Highway 359 passes through the city, leading northeast 12 miles to Mathis and southwest 18 miles to Alice, the Jim Wells county seat. According to the United States Census Bureau, Orange Grove has a total area of 1.1 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,288 people, 473 households, 339 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,192.6 people per square mile. There were 515 housing units at an average density of 476.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.37% White, 0.31% African American, 0.47% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 8.07% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 50.31% of the population. There were 473 households out of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families.

27.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.33. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,981, the median income for a family was $42,500. Males had a median income of $32,500 versus $22,105 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,082. About 13.6% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under age 18 and 14.1% of those age 65 or over. The BRAC decision to close Naval Air Station Chase Field near Beeville led to an increase in Pilot Training Rate and the physical number of aircraft stationed at NAS Kingsville in Kleberg County.

70 T-45 trainer aircraft have arrived. In recognition of the increased congestion at Kingsville, the Navy made a significant investment in improving the facilities and capabilities of the Auxiliary Landing Field at Orange Grove, about 5 miles southwest of town; the terminal airspace at Kingsville was expanded to include Orange Grove, the ALF serves as an overflow relief from the primary airfield. Hunting and fishing at NALF Orange Grove and Escondido Ranch is authorized in accordance with station directives and state and federal laws. Naval Air Station Kingsville's gesture is a great example of how the United States Navy gives a hoot. Located in Kingsville, TX, NAS Kingsville has decided to play seasonal host to the burrowing owl; the South Texas Naval air station, in a partnership with the U. S. Geological Survey's Texas Gulf Coast Field Research Station, the Coastal Bend Bays & Estuaries Program, Texas A&M-Corpus Christi and the Coastal Bend Ambassadors, will offer an open field with artificial burrows for the burrowing owls, which are anticipated to stay there over the winter, beginning in October.

The Naval Auxiliary Landing Field in Orange Grove, TX will have artificial burrows. NAS Kingsville has 18 artificial burrows; the burrows are done with each group being about 100 yards apart. The city is served by the Orange Grove Independent School District

Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome

Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome known as palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a deficiency in cathepsin C. PLS is characterized by periodontitis and palmoplantar keratoderma; the severe destruction of periodontium results in loss of most primary teeth by the age of 4 and most permanent teeth by age 14. Hyperkeratosis of palms and soles of feet appear in first few years of life. Destructions of periodontium follows immediately after the eruption of last molar tooth; the teeth are involved in the same order in which they erupt. Mutations in the cathepsin C gene, located at human chromosome 11q14.1-q14.3, are the cause of PLS. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner; this means the defective gene responsible for the disorder is located on an autosome, two copies of the defective gene are required in order to be born with the disorder. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive disorder both carry one copy of the defective gene, but do not experience any signs or symptoms of the disorder.

Early diagnosis and treatment is important to allow for prompt treatment to prevent long-term consequences such as tooth loss. A diagnosis can be made by a urine analysis for low/no activity of the enzyme cathepsin C. A full patient history and identification of characteristic physical symptoms is another way to identify this syndrome; however the symptoms are visually similar to other, conditions, it is only with the eruption of infant teeth that tissue degeneration or inflammation become apparent in conjunction with a sudden abnormality of skin colour. Another physical diagnosis is to identify abnormal accumulation of calcium within the skull. Genetic testing at the molecular level can look for alterations in the CTSC gene which are known to cause Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome, however this diagnostic service is only available at specialized laboratories. In 2006, retinoids and antibiotics have been used with a successful dental maintenance for one year. In the past, only Extraction of all teeth and construction of a complete denture were made.

An alternative to rehabilitation with conventional dental prothesis after total loss of the natural teeth was proposed by Drs Ahmad Alzahaili and his teacher Jean-François Tulasne. This approach entails transplanting bone extracted from the cortical external surface of the parietal bone to the patient’s mouth, affording the patient the opportunity to lead a normal life. Notwithstanding this treatment do not scope the disease itself, it is the repositioning of bone from calvaria to the maxillary bones, placement of dental implants in a edentulous maxillae, when the patient has lost all teeth. An developed method to reconstruct maxillae in edentulous elderly people by other dental professionals. There's still no real treatment to help those who suffer from this disease to keep all their natural teeth, though their exfoliation and loss can be delayed; the maintenance of teeth is done by dental professionals with a procedure called scaling and root planing with the use of systemic antibiotics. The syndrome should be diagnosed as earlier as possible, so the teeth can be kept longer in the mouth, helping the development of the maxillary bones.

It is named for M. M. Paul Lefèvre. Porokeratosis plantaris discreta List of cutaneous conditions List of dental abnormalities associated with cutaneous conditions Keratosis palmoplantar periodontopathy.

Level of Repair Analysis

Level of Repair Analysis is used as an analytical methodology used to determine where an item will be replaced, repaired, or discarded based on cost considerations and operational readiness requirements. For a complex engineering system containing thousands of assemblies, sub-assemblies, organized into several levels of indenture and with a number of possible repair decisions, LORA seeks to determine an optimal provision of repair and maintenance facilities to minimize overall system life-cycle costs. Logistics personnel examine not only the cost of the part to be replaced or repaired but all of the elements required to make sure the job is done correctly; this includes the skill level of personnel, support equipment required to perform the task, test equipment required to test the repaired product, the facilities required to house the entire operation. LORA establishes when and where each unit will be repaired and determines if it is more cost effective to discard an item than attempt to repair it.

While this kind of analysis seems costly and unnecessary, at enterprise scales over many years, significant cost savings can be realized. For example, the LORA process may discover that replacing a part costs hundreds of times that amount, when all cost are considered. If this part is replaced hundreds of times per year, over the course of many years there may be an opportunity to save money by adjusting the repair process to leverage this economy of scale; this analysis drives. LORA is the most important physical supportability analysis business decision made during acquisition of a system. LORA is performed in two steps: Establish noneconomic decision criteria used to make initial support decisions Evaluate alternative economic models to determine the most cost effective support solution for the system; the LORA process produces the final support solution for the system. It determines where each required maintenance action will be performed, the physical resources that must be available to support performance of maintenance, what the support infrastructure must be capable of sustaining throughout the operational life of the system.

The results of LORA are documented and used as the basis for development of the physical resources for support of the system. The LORA process starts by identification of the options, it is common for systems to use 3 levels of maintenance. LORA produces a decision for each item within the system, indicating where each maintenance action for the item will be performed. Organizational, or O-level maintenance occurs at the organizational unit level, for example by a single maintenance squadron as part of an aircraft wing. O-level maintenance is optimized for quick turn-around, to enhance operational availability. Maintenance at this level consists of immediate remove and replace operations that replace failed LRUs with spare assets taken from inventory. Repair-in-place procedures are common. Intermediate, or I-level maintenance occurs in specialized backshops that are allocated to multiple operating units residing at a common operating location, for example, an entire wing or multiple wings at an operating base.

Because it is more specialized, I-level maintenance allows for more thorough and time-consuming diagnostic testing and repair procedures in support of failed items removed at the organizational level of repair. Test equipment is more common at this level of repair, is used to automate many test procedures. Spare parts maintained at this level of repair are known as bench stock. Intermediate-level maintenance deployment can vary and is dependent on desired operating conditions. In minimal maintenance concepts, there may be minimal or no I-level maintenance, a system known as two-level maintenance. A system deploying a typical I-level repair capability would be known as a three-level maintenance system. Depot, or D-level maintenance occurs in specialized repair depots, or at original equipment manufacturer facilities; these sites are not at operating locations, extensive diagnostic equipment and even manufacturing capabilities exist. Equipment overhauls and modifications are executed at this repair level.

Non-economic LORA decision criteria are a list of rules or guidelines that are used to determine if there is an overriding reason why maintenance should be performed. Some organizations have policies that any item costing less than a predetermined price level will be discarded and replaced rather than be repaired. Other decisions are addressed using cost models that calculate the possible costs of all support options and identify the least cost solution; the total cost of each option can be compared to determine the lowest option in terms of long-term support over the life of the system. Logistics support analysis DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HANDBOOK: LEVEL OF REPAIR ANALYSIS, MIL-HDBK-1390 AS1390, Level of Repair Analysis


Autographivirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Caudovirales, in the family Podoviridae. Bacteria serve as natural hosts. There are 15 species in this subfamily, divided among 3 genera. Since the 1990s, the term "T7 supergroup" has been coined for the expanding group of bacteriophages related to coliphage T7, as members of the family Podoviridae. Enterobacteriaceae phages SP6 and K1-5 were the first to be considered as an estranged subgroup of the "T7 supergroup". Pseudomonas phage phiKMV shared commonalities at the genome organizational level; as such, based on the available morphological and proteomic data, this clade of viruses was established as a subfamily of the family Podoviridae. The name of this subfamily, termed Autographivirinae, refers to the “auto-graphein” or “self-transcribing” phages which encode their own RNA polymerase, a common characteristic among its members. Viruses in Autographivirinae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Head-tail geometries, T=7 symmetry; the diameter is around 60 nm.

Genomes are linear, around 40-42kb in length. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. DNA templated; the virus exits the host cell by lysis, holin/endolysin/spanin proteins. Bacteria serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion. Group: dsDNA Currently, the Autographivirinae are subdivided in three genera: T7likevirus, Sp6likevirus. Unclassified members include cyanophages P60, syn5 and P-SSP7. Other bacteriophages like Bacteriophage SIO1 and VpV262 are evolutionary related to the Autographivirinae, but do not contain a phage-encoded RNA polymerase and show greater differences at the genome organization level. Another genus may be formed by the phages Cronobacter sakazakii Bacteriophage vB_CsaP_GAP227, Yersinia phages ϕR8-01 and ϕ80-18 and Aeromonas phage phiAS7. Another group in this family are the cyanopodoviruses. Viralzone: Autographivirinae ICTV

Guadalupe River (Texas)

The Guadalupe River runs from Kerr County, Texas, to San Antonio Bay on the Gulf of Mexico. It is a popular destination for rafting, fly fishing, canoeing. Larger cities along it include Kerrville, New Braunfels, Gonzales and Victoria, it has several dams along its length, the most notable of which, Canyon Dam, forms Canyon Lake northwest of New Braunfels. The upper part, in the Texas Hill Country, is a smaller, faster stream with limestone banks and shaded by pecan and bald cypress trees, it is formed by the North Fork and South Fork Guadalupe Rivers. It is popular as a tubing destination where recreational users float down it on inflated tire inner tubes during the spring and summer months. East of Boerne, on the border of Kendall County and Comal County, it flows through Guadalupe River State Park, one of the more popular tubing areas along it; the lower part begins near New Braunfels. The section between Canyon Dam and New Braunfels is the most used in terms of recreation, it is a popular destination for whitewater rafters, canoeists and tubing.

When the water is flowing at less than 1,000 cu ft/s there could be hundreds if not thousands of tubes on this stretch of it. At flows greater than 1,000 cu ft/s, there should be few tubes on the water. Flows greater than 1,000 cu ft/s and less than 2,500 cu ft/s are ideal for paddling; the flow is controlled by Canyon Dam, by the amount of rainfall the area has received. It is joined by the Comal River in New Braunfels and the San Marcos River about two miles west of Gonzales; the part below the San Marcos River, as well as the latter, is part of the course for the Texas Water Safari. The San Antonio River flows into it just north of Tivoli. Ahead of the entry into the San Antonio Bay estuary, it forms a delta and splits into two distributaries referred as the North and South parts; each distributary flows into the San Antonio Bay estuary at Guadalupe Bay. The river was first called after Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe by Alonso de León in 1689, it was renamed the San Augustin by Domingo Terán de los Ríos who maintained a colony on it, but the name Guadalupe persisted.

Many explorers referred to the current Guadalupe as the San Ybón above its confluence with the Comal, instead the Comal was called the Guadalupe. Evidence indicates that it has been home to humans for several thousand years, including the Karankawa and Huaco Indians. Being led by Prince Solms, 228 pioneer immigrants from Germany traveled overland from Indianola to the site chosen to be the first German settlement in Texas, New Braunfels. Upon reaching the river, the pioneers found it too high to cross due to the winter rains. Prince Solms wishing to impress the others with his bravado, plunged into the raging waters and crossed the swollen river on horseback. Not to be outdone by anyone, Betty Holekamp followed and crossed the river, thus Betty Holekamp is known as the first white woman to cross the Guadalupe on horseback. On July 17, 1987, a sudden flash flood swept a bus full of children away at a low water crossing; the incident occurred near the town of Comfort, which lies about 50 miles northwest of San Antonio.

At the time, the Pot O' Gold Ranch, situated on the south side of the river about two miles southwest of Comfort, was hosting a church camp, with over 300 children from various churches attending. On the night of July 16 and into the morning of the 17th 12 inches of rain had fallen across the Texas hill country to the north, triggering immense flooding on the Guadalupe River; the camp was scheduled to end on the 17th and the children were to be headed home that day, but camp supervisors at the ranch decided to evacuate the children early that morning before it rose too high. At around 9 AM that morning, the children were loaded into buses and the buses were directed to a low water crossing. While most of the buses managed to make it across, one bus from the Seagoville Road Baptist Church/Balch Springs Christian Academy in the Dallas suburb of Balch Springs was swept away, along with Pastor Richard Koons, his wife Lavonda, chaperons Allen and Deborah Coalson, thirty-nine children, ranging in age from 8 to 17.

The vehicle had been among the last to leave the camp and proceed alongside the flooded crossing, but when the bus stalled due to rising waters and Coalson attempted to get the children to safety by instructing them to form a human chain so that they could reach shore hand in hand. As this was attempted, a sudden rush of water swept them all away. Rescuers from the Texas Department of Public Safety and the US Army's 507th Medical Division managed to save all four adults and twenty-nine of the children via helicopters; the last survivor was rescued from the river around 11:30 AM, by that afternoon two children had been confirmed dead, with eight still missing. The first confirmed fatality was 14-year-old Melanie Finley, who after being lifted from the river by helicopter lost her grip on the rope and fell to her death; the second fatality was thirteen-year-old Tonya Smith, found entangled in barbed wire two miles downstream from where the bus was washed away. Several parents of the children descended on Comfort, most staying at a makeshift shelter set up by town residents and the American Red Cross at the Comfort Elementary School.

Six more bodies were recovered from the river on July 18, identified as Lagenia Keenum, 15. The following day, the ninth and