James Earl, an American portrait painter, was a brother of Ralph Earl. He was born in Leicester, Massachusetts on May 1, 1761, died of yellow fever at Charleston on August 18, 1796 at the age of 35. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bryan, Michael. "Earle, James". In Graves, Robert Edmund. Bryan's Dictionary of Engravers. I. London: George Bell & Sons
Pliny Earle (physician)
Pliny Earle II, MD was an American physician and poet. Pliny Earle was born in Leicester and was the son of the inventor Pliny Earle of the Earle family, he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1837 studied in the hospitals of Paris, visited institutions for the insane in European countries. In 1840 he became resident physician of the asylum for the insane at Frankford, where he remained two years. From April 1844 till April 1849, he was physician to Bloomingdale asylum, in New York, he afterward visited insane hospitals in Europe. In 1853 he was appointed visiting physician to the New York City lunatic asylum, in the same year delivered a course of lectures on mental disorders at the College of physicians and surgeons, New York. In 1863 he became professor of materia medica and psychology at Berkshire Medical College Pittsfield, the first professorship of mental diseases established by a medical College in the United States, his lectures there were limited to the one course of 1864, owing to his appointment as superintendent and physician-in-chief of the state hospital for the insane in Northampton, Massachusetts.
He held this place until October 1885. In 1871 he visited forty-six institutions for the insane in Europe. Dr. Earle was, so far as known, the first person that addressed an audience of the insane in any other than a religious discourse, his introduction of lectures on natural philosophy at the Frankford asylum, in the winter of 1840-1841, was the initiative to a system of combined instruction and entertainment, adopted, is now considered essential to the highest perfection of an institution for the insane. In the winter of 1866-1867, at the hospital in Northampton, he delivered a course of lectures on insanity before audiences in which the average number of insane persons was about 250, he was a founder of the American Medical Association, the New York Academy of Medicine, the Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane, the New England Psychological Society. Non-fiction A Visit to Thirteen Asylums for the Insane in Europe The History and Statistics of the Bloomingdale Asylum Institutions for the Insane in Prussia and Austria An Examination of the Practice of Bloodletting in Mental Disorders The Curability of Insanity Marathon and other Poems Biographical sketch and portrait at The American Journal of Psychiatry Pliny Earle papers
Caroline Earle White
Caroline Earle White was an American philanthropist and anti-vivisection activist. She co-founded the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in 1867, founded its women's branch in 1869, founded the American Anti-Vivisection Society in 1883. White was an active clubwoman, was involved in literary societies and women's suffrage, worked with organizations that helped the poor obtain medical services. Caroline Earle was born in Philadelphia on September 28, 1833, to Quaker parents Thomas Earle and Mary Hussey. Thomas Earle was a successful Philadelphia lawyer, devoted to the abolitionist cause and represented both free and fugitive African Americans. Earle wrote the new constitution for Pennsylvania and was a candidate for Vice President when the Anti-Slavery party had its first Presidential ticket in 1840. Earle's mother, Mary Hussey, was an abolitionist and a suffragist. Earle was educated on Nantucket Island in Massachusetts, she studied astronomy, was well versed in Latin and spoke German, French and Spanish.
Her family’s wealth gave her many educational opportunities not available to other girls of the time. In 1856 Earle married attorney Richard P. White, a member of one of the most respected Catholic families in Pennsylvania. Richard White would open a firm with Caroline’s brother, under the name Earle and White. After a year of study White converted to Catholicism, she and her husband had Thomas Earle White. After her marriage, White had many humanitarian pursuits to occupy her time, she wrote and published several travel guides, short stories, novels, including A Holiday in Spain and Norway, Love in the Tropics: A Romance of the South Seas, An Ocean Mystery. Many of her works received critical acclaim. After her conversion to Catholicism, she became president of the St. Vincent’s Aid Society, an organization that donated medical services and supplies to poor and orphaned children, she served as chairwoman of the Ladies Auxiliary and the American Catholic Historical Society, as vice president of the Browning Society, a women’s literary club.
She was a supporter of women’s suffrage. Involvement in such a wide range of reform movements was not unusual for middle-class women in the 19th century. In fact White believed that one social injustice could lead to another, as evidenced with her involvement with the Women’s Christian Temperance Union. In the 1878 annual report for the women’s branch of the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, she stated that much of the cruelty toward animals was due to alcohol, she said, “Ought we not in our desire to ameliorate the sufferings of our dumb friends, to add our efforts to those who are laboring for a reform in this manner?” The WPSPCA built water fountains in cities all over the country to provide men and animals a place to drink besides the local bar. As a child, White witnessed drivers beating their exhausted horses as they labored under heavy freight down Philadelphia’s streets, she recalled how such sights depressed and troubled her that she could no longer walk down certain streets.
Richard White knew of his wife’s feelings and mentioned to her that she should become involved in the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Inspired by the RSPCA, wealthy American Henry Bergh founded the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals on April 10, 1866. In the summer of 1866 Caroline Earle White visited Henry Bergh in New York. Bergh told her she should begin like he did, obtaining patronage of the city’s most prominent individuals. White drafted a petition calling for the creation of a Philadelphia chapter of SPCA, secured dozens of signatures and pledges of financial support. Unknown to her, at the same time two other Philadelphians were trying to organize a Philadelphia SPCA: M. Richards Muckle, business manager of the Philadelphia Public Ledger, S. Morris Waln. Brought together by Henry Bergh, S. Morris Waln provided financial support while White and Muckle, with Richard White’s assistance, drafted the group’s charter and corresponding laws. On June 21, 1868 the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was founded.
S. Morris Waln was elected president, her husband served on the board of managers and most spoke for her. Although women played major roles in American humane organizations. To remedy their lack of autonomy many women began to form women’s branches of preexisting groups. White founded the Women’s Humane Society in 1869. Early on the WPSPCA took on many animal issues, such as homeless dogs and cats, by opening America’s first animal shelter; the shelter employed three cruelty officers, men authorized to prevent and punish animal abuse. WPSPCA supporters expressed their animal welfare concerns through campaigns and legislation. White urged her members to boycott cruel carriage horse companies and to place malicious drivers under citizens arrest. In 1909, the group, along with other city humanitarians, secured legislation forbidding the sale or purchase of disabled work horses. White’s organization passed the Twenty-eight Hour Law in 1871, a mandate that required railway companies to provide facilities to feed and rest animals in transit every 28 hours.
The WPSPCA sent agents to assess the railways’ adherence and prosecute any
George Hussey Earle Sr.
George Hussey Earle Sr. was a prominent Philadelphia lawyer. As an abolitionist he represented many fugitive slaves, he was a founder of the Republican party. Born a "free Quaker" in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Thomas Earle and Mary Hussey, Earle was an eighth generation descendant of Pilgrim John Howland; the August 1907 issue of Law Notes states that Earle was a "personal friend" of Abraham Lincoln, "the oldest surviving delegate to the first Republican National Convention that nominated Fremont for the presidency."He worked at the Baldwin Locomotive Works, was apprenticed to Matthias Baldwin for a time. Earle became involved in the anti-slavery movement when he opposed the riot which resulted in the burning to the ground of Pennsylvania Hall in 1838, he was a delegate to the "Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society, Eastern District" around 1844, was admitted to the Philadelphia Bar on 27 January 1845. Earle "possessed an abhorrence for slavery voluntarily gave his services to the cause of the fugitive slaves."
In April 1859 he was retained by local abolitionists to represent Daniel Dangerfield, a case which gained nationwide attention because "it was one of the first judicial decisions dealing with the interpretation of the Fugitive Slave Law." Lucretia Mott, a cousin of Earle's mother Mary Hussey Earle, sat beside Dangerfield during the trial. Dangerfield was released due to insufficient proof of his slavery, he was a leading pioneer in the legal battle against the Fugitive Slave Laws. Earle played the role of municipal reformer, he was a member of the Committee of One Hundred —"a non-partisan effort in aid of good government" dedicated to ending bossism politics in Philadelphia in the late 1800s. Made up of Independent Republicans "seeking to reform the management of the Republican party," the Committee was influential in the election of Democrat Samuel G. King as Philadelphia mayor, he practiced law for 50 years. Earle penned a poem upon the death of his wife Frances Van Leer in 1892—the last stanza which reads: Earle died on 18 June 1907.
His funeral was held at the home of Mrs. Edward Hine Johnson, his remains are interred at Woodlands Cemetery in Philadelphia. George H. Earle Sr. – via Wikisource. Father – via Wikisource. A poem by his daughter Florence Earle Coates Pliny Earle I, inventor Thomas Earle, lawyer, philanthropist Caroline Earle White and anti-vivisection activist Florence Earle Coates, poet George Howard Earle Jr. lawyer & businessman George Howard Earle III, Governor of Pennsylvania, 1935-39 Ralph Earle II, U. S. Ambassador The arrest and release of Daniel Webster, a fugitive slave: correspondence of the Anti-slavery standard. 1859
New England is a region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts; the largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which includes Worcester, Manchester, New Hampshire, Providence, Rhode Island. In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquian allies in America.
In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history. In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship, enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists; these confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, was the first region of the U. S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Merrimack river valleys. The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area.
Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south; each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries, it maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, isolation with immigration. The earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages.
Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Pequots, Narragansetts and Wampanoag. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine, their principal town was Norridgewock in Maine. The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine; the Narragansetts and smaller tribes under their sovereignty lived in Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket; the Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, the Mohegan and Pequot tribes lived in the Connecticut region. The Connecticut River Valley linked numerous tribes culturally and politically; as early as 1600, French and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal and cloth for local beaver pelts. On April 10, 1606, King James I of England issued a charter for the Virginia Company, which comprised the London Company and the Plymouth Company.
These two funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, to return a profit. In 1620, the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower and established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England. In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England"; the name was sanctioned on November 3, 1620 when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. The Pilgrims wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship, it became their first governing document; the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633. Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636.
At this time, Vermont was yet unsettled, the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were claimed and governed by Massachusetts. Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alter
George Howard Earle Jr.
George H. Earle Jr. was a Philadelphia lawyer and "financial diplomat", sought after to save ailing corporations from financial ruin. Earle was born in Pennsylvania. Grandson of noted abolitionist and philanthropist, Thomas Earle, only son to Philadelphia lawyer George H. Earle Sr. and Mrs. Frances Van Leer Earle, he gained notoriety for his abilities as a "business doctor"—having turned around many organizations from the brink of financial ruin after being appointed as receiver and reorganizer. A Harvard University graduate, Earle became a member of the Philadelphia bar—following in his father's and grandfather's footsteps—practicing his trade as a lawyer in the firm of Earle & White in Philadelphia, but Earle would soon forsake the practice of law "save as a useful medicament to be employed in the cure of invalid companies, as a study for the little indoor leisure that business leaves him." He would be appointed as president and director to nearly two dozen Philadelphia companies and corporations.
Mr. Earle married Catharine H. French on 12 December 1881, two years after he graduated from Harvard, it was his desire to marry Miss French after he began earning at least five dollars a week, his starting weekly salary at an attorney's office just fresh from college was only $2.50. They would have ten children in all, to include George Howard Earle III—former Governor of Pennsylvania. Along with his father, Earle was a member of the Committee of One Hundred —"a non-partisan effort in aid of good government" dedicated to ending bossism politics in Philadelphia in the late 1800s; this committee of reformers, consisting of Independent Republicans "seeking to reform the management of the Republican party," would lose influence and effectiveness. According to When Bosses Ruled Philadelphia, among proposed reasons for their ineffectiveness was the resulting "division between reformers over the question of partisanship," "poor organization and their dislike of political activism," and the fact that it was "a self-constituted body that conducted political affairs in an autocratic manner," geographically isolated from the "bulk of the city's population"—Mr. Earle himself remarked that it had been "essentially aristocratic in temperament."
Despite the committee's failure to bring about a lasting, broad-scale influence in the city, Mr. Earle would continue to speak up for good government practices, for the protection of political liberty for all Americans. On October 3, 1896, at a Republican meeting in Berwyn, Earle urged his "fellow citizens" to vote for McKinley over Bryan, stating:...a false prophet has come among you... who, in a country where all are in the highest class—that of the American citizens—tries to divide us into many, set those classes against each other. It would not be the last time. In a letter to Pennsylvania Governor Samuel Pennypacker on May 16, 1906, Earle wrote of his concern that President Theodore Roosevelt might be yielding to the latest "craze" of "Bryanism"—i.e. yielding to populism instead of standing on principle with regard to public policy—serving to discredit the Republican party:...some one has to speak in favor of the right when so speaking is unpopular. The more unpopular, the greater the necessity...
The Republican party has done much for this country. It has created and preserved prosperity by fighting crazes. For the first time in its history, it is yielding to one. If it would only say "we have made this prosperity, it is our child, shall have our protection," and stand to its guns, it will beat Bryanism to death as it always has, but with its leader caring more for popularity than principle, courageous, as he is uninformed, I, myself, am convinced that it will have to go out of power in order that it may return chastened and more trusted than ever... I worked hard for Roosevelt's re-election, had great admiration for him, still have, but I much fear him... It is surprising at this time to find how many "old things" are true when the greater part of the world is engaged in discrediting and despising them. After the Panic of 1907, Earle would speak out against a central bank—despite the "present evils," stating, "I can suggest no remedy, but would prefer present evils to those resulting from the creation of too centralized a power.
The true remedy must be found, not in placing our dependence upon the discretion of any one, but of every one,—that is, upon liberty, rather than upon power and restraint."In an article of February 1910, Earle is depicted as a "doctor to ailing corporations", the interviewer asserting that there is "strong ground for belief that he has an idea of doctoring the country's ills in the same manner as he would a sick corporation"— There are little lakes at Broadacres, which he has made by damming a brook, groups of bathers can be seen there any day in the summer. "The place is wide open," he said in explanation. "I have always had a profound sympathy for the man who from the day of his birth has had no foot of land that he could call his own. The least I can do is to give every one free use of mine." When told that Mr. Rockefeller, on his estate at Pocantico Hills, had gone in for high iron fences everywhere, he shook his head gravely and said: "That is the sort of thing we shall have to do away with some day."
It was an astonishing sentiment, coming from the presi
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap