Caithness is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland. Caithness has a land boundary with the historic county of Sutherland and is otherwise bounded by sea; the land boundary follows a watershed and is crossed by two roads, the A9 and the A836, one railway, the Far North Line. Across the Pentland Firth ferries link Caithness with Orkney, Caithness has an airport at Wick; the Pentland Firth island of Stroma is within Caithness. The name was used for the earldom of Caithness and the Caithness constituency of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Boundaries are not identical in all contexts, but the Caithness area is now within the Highland council area. Caithness is one of the Watsonian vice-counties, subdivisions of Britain and Ireland which are used for the purposes of biological recording and other scientific data-gathering; the vice-counties were introduced by Hewett Cottrell Watson who first used them in the third volume of his Cybele Britannica published in 1852.
He refined the system somewhat in volumes, but the vice-counties remain unchanged by subsequent local government reorganisations, allowing historical and modern data to be more compared. They provide a stable basis for recording using similarly-sized units, although grid-based reporting has grown in popularity, they remain a standard in the vast majority of ecological surveys, allowing data collected over long periods of time to be compared easily; the Caith element of Caithness comes from the name of a Pictish tribe known as the Cat or Catt people, or Catti. The -ness element comes from Old Norse and means "headland"; the Norse called the area Katanes, over time this became Caithness. The Gaelic name for Caithness, means "among the strangers"; the Catti are represented in the Gaelic name for eastern Sutherland and the old Gaelic name for Shetland, Innse Chat. Caithness extends about 30 miles north-south and about 30 miles east-west, with an area of about 712 square miles; the topography is flat, in contrast to the majority of the remainder of the North of Scotland.
Until the latter part of the 20th century when large areas were planted in conifers, this level profile was rendered still more striking by the total absence of forest. The underlying geology of most of Caithness is old red sandstone to an estimated depth of over 4,000 metres; this consists of the cemented sediments of Lake Orcadie, believed to have stretched from Shetland to Grampian during the Devonian period, about 370 million years ago. Fossilised fish and plant remains are found between the layers of sediment. Older metamorphic rock is apparent in the Scaraben and Ord area, in the high southwest area of the county. Caithness' highest point is in this area; because of the ease with which the sandstone splits to form large flat slabs it is an useful building material, has been used as such since Neolithic times. Caithness is a land of open, rolling farmland and scattered settlements; the area is fringed to the north and east by dramatic coastal scenery and is home to large, internationally important colonies of seabirds.
The surrounding waters of the Pentland Firth and the North Sea hold a great diversity of marine life. Away from the coast, the landscape is dominated by open moorland and blanket bog known as the Flow Country, the largest expanse of blanket bog in Europe, extending into Sutherland; this is divided up along the straths by more fertile croft land. The Caithness landscape is rich with the remains of pre-historic occupation; these include the Grey Cairns of Camster, the Stone Lud, the Hill O Many Stanes, a complex of sites around Loch Yarrows and over 100 brochs. A prehistoric souterrain structure at Caithness has been likened to discoveries at Midgarth and on Shapinsay. Numerous coastal castles are Norwegian in their foundations; when the Norsemen arrived in the 10th century, the county was inhabited by the Picts, but with its culture subject to some Goidelic influence from the Celtic Church. The name Pentland Firth can be read as meaning Pictland Fjord. Numerous bands of Norse settlers landed in the county, established themselves around the coast.
On the Latheron side, they extended their settlements as far as Berriedale. Many of the names of places are Norse in origin. In addition, some Caithness surnames, such as Gunn, are Norse in origin. For a long time sovereignty over Caithness was disputed between Scotland and the Norwegian Earldom of Orkney. Circa 1196, Earl Harald Maddadsson agreed to pay a monetary tribute for Caithness to William I. Norway has recognised Caithness as Scottish since the Treaty of Perth in 1266; the understanding of Caithness prehistory is well represented in the county, by groups including Yarrows Heritage Trust, Caithness Horizons and Caithness Broch Project. Caithness formed part of the shire or sheriffdom of Inverness, but gained independence: in 1455 the Earl of Caithness gained a grant of the justiciary and sheriffdom of the area from the Sheriff of Inverness. In 1503 an act of the Parliament of Scotland confirmed the separate jurisdiction, with Dornoch and Wick named as burghs in which the sheriff of Caithness was to hold courts.
The area of the sheriffdom was declared to be identical to that of the Diocese of Caithness. The Sheriff of Inverness still retained power over important legal cases, until 1641. In that year, parliament declared Wick the head burgh of the shire of Caithness and the Earl of Caithne
A lingua franca known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect when it is a third language, distinct from both of the speakers' native languages. Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons but for cultural, religious and administrative convenience, as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities; the term is taken from the medieval Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a Romance-based pidgin language used as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th century. A world language – a language spoken internationally and learned and spoken by a large number of people – is a language that may function as a global lingua franca. Lingua Franca refers to any language used for communication between people who do not share a native language.
It can refer to hybrid languages such as pidgins and creoles used for communication between language groups. It can refer to languages which are native to one nation but used as a second language for communication between groups. Lingua Franca is a functional term, independent of any linguistic language structure. Whereas a vernacular language is the native language of a specific geographical community, a lingua franca is used beyond the boundaries of its original community, for trade, political or academic reasons. For example, English is a vernacular in the United Kingdom but is used as a lingua franca in the Philippines. Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, Portuguese and Russian, serve a similar purpose as industrial/educational lingua francas, across regional and national boundaries. International auxiliary languages created with the purpose of being lingua francas such as Esperanto and Lingua Franca Nova have not had a great degree of adoption globally so they cannot be described as global lingua francas.
The term lingua franca derives from Mediterranean Lingua Franca, the language that people around the Levant and the eastern Mediterranean Sea used as the main language of commerce and diplomacy from late medieval times during the Renaissance era, to the 18th century. At that time, Italian-speakers dominated seaborne commerce in the port cities of the Ottoman Empire and a simplified version of Italian, including many loan words from Greek, Old French, Portuguese and Spanish as well as Arabic and Turkish came to be used as the "lingua franca" of the region. In Lingua Franca, lingua means a language, as in Portuguese and Italian, franca is related to phrankoi in Greek and faranji in Arabic as well as the equivalent Italian. In all three cases, the literal sense is "Frankish", but the name applied to all Western Europeans during the late Byzantine Empire; the Douglas Harper Etymology Dictionary states that the term Lingua Franca was first recorded in English during the 1670s, although an earlier example of the use of Lingua Franca in English is attested from 1632, where it is referred to as "Bastard Spanish".
As as the late 20th century, some restricted the use of the generic term to mean only hybrid languages that are used as vehicular languages, its original meaning, but it now refers to any vehicular language. The term is well established in its naturalization to English, why major dictionaries do not italicize it as a "foreign" term, its plurals in English are lingua francas and linguae francae, with the first of those being first-listed or only-listed in major dictionaries. The use of lingua francas has existed since antiquity. Latin and Koine Greek were the lingua francas of the Hellenistic culture. Akkadian and Aramaic remained the common languages of a large part of Western Asia from several earlier empires. In certain countries, the lingua franca is the national language. Indonesian – which originated from a Malay language variant spoken in Riau – has the same function in Indonesia, although Javanese has more native speakers. Still, Indonesian is spoken throughout the country. Persian is both the lingua franca of Iran and its national language.
The Hindustani language is the lingua franca of Northern India. Many Indian states have adopted the Three-language formula in which students in Hindi speaking states are taught: " Hindi; the order in non-Hindi speaking states is: " the regional language. Hindi has emerged as a lingua franca for the locals of Arunachal Pradesh, a linguistically diverse state in Northeast India, it is estimated. The only documented sign language used as a lingua franca is Plains Indian Sign Language, used across much of North America, it was used as a second language across many indigenous peoples. Alongside or a derivation of Plains Indian Sign Language was Plateau Sign Language, now extinct. Inuit Sign Language could be a similar case in the Arctic among the Inuit for communication across oral language boundaries, but little research
The Brus known as The Bruce, is a long narrative poem, in Early Scots, of just under 14,000 octosyllabic lines composed by John Barbour which gives a historic and chivalric account of the actions of Robert the Bruce and Sir James Douglas in the Scottish Wars of Independence during a period from the circumstances leading up to the English invasion of 1296 through to Scotland's restored position in the years between the Treaty of 1328 and the death of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray in 1332. The poem's centre-piece is an extensive account of the Battle of Bannockburn of 1314. Barbour's poetic account of these events is a keystone in Scotland's national story; the description of the battle is Barbour’s masterpiece. The poem was written about 1375, "...to throw behind the new king, Robert II the weight of his grandfather's achievements and reputation." Barbour's work is a romance based upon a lost life of Douglas and a chronicle or chronicles which told of King Robert and his times. At the beginning of the poem, he conflates three Bruces into the single person of the hero by design.
Archie Duncan notes Barbour's fondness for exaggerated numbers for the size of any army. Here and there the order of events is transposed. Despite this, it has been regarded from his own time as, in all details, a trustworthy source for the history of the period. Throughout the piece, Bruce overshadows all his associates. In book nine, in recounting Edward Bruce's victories in Galloway, Barbour does not relate the whole story, but sums up his worthiness by remarking that "he might have rivaled any of his contemporaries excepting only his brother"; the king is a hero of the chivalric type common in contemporary romance. Many lines are full of vigour. Despite a number of errors of fact, the account has a greater degree of historical veracity than is associated with the verse-chronicle genre, but it is much more than a rhyming chronicle. Its style is somewhat severe. No one has doubted Barbour's authorship of the Brus, but argument has been attempted to show that the text as we have it is an edited copy by John Ramsay, a Perth scribe, who wrote out the two extant texts, one preserved in the Advocates Library and the other in the library of St John's College, Cambridge.
Barbour's influence on Scottish writers can be seen in Robert Burns' Scots Wha Hae, Walter Scott's Lord of the Isles and Castle Dangerous. Text from The Brus by Barbour THE POET’S PROEM. Storyß to rede ar delitabill, suppoß þat þai be nocht bot fabill, þan suld storyß þat suthfast wer, And þai war said on gud maner, Hawe doubill plesance in heryng. Þe fyrst plesance is þe carpyng, And þe toþir þe suthfastnes, þat schawys þe thing rycht. Þarfor I wald fayne set my will, Giff my wyt mycht suffice þartill, To put in wryt a suthfast story, þat it lest ay furth in memory, Swa þat na length of tyme it let, na ger it haly be forȝet. For auld storys þat men redys, Representis to þaim þe dedys Of stalwart folk þat lywyt ar, Rycht as þai þan in presence war. And, certis, þai suld weill hawe pryß þat in þar tyme war wycht and wyß, And led thar lyff in gret trawaill, And oft in hard stour off bataill Wan gret price off chewalry, And war woydit off cowardy; as wes king Robert off Scotland, þat hardy wes off hart and hand.
Off þaim I thynk þis buk to ma. Scottish literature Barbour, Innes, Cosmo, ed; the Brus: From a Collation of the Cambridge and Edinburgh Manuscripts, Aberdeen: The Spalding Club, retrieved 2011-12-14 - in Scots Barbour, Skeat, Walter W. ed. The Bruce; the Bruce, being the Metrical History of Robert The Bruce, King of Scots, London: Gowans & Gray Limited, retrieved 2011-12-14 - a modern English translation The Brus edited by Emeritus Professor A A M Duncan
A croft is a fenced or enclosed area of land small and arable, but not always, with a crofter's dwelling thereon. A crofter is one who has tenure and use of the land as a tenant farmer in rural areas; the word croft is West Germanic in etymology and is now most familiar in Scotland, most crofts being in the Highlands and Islands area. Elsewhere the expression is archaic. In Scottish Gaelic, it is rendered croit. Similar positions have been the medieval villein and the Swedish torpare and Norwegian husmenn; the Scottish croft is a small agricultural landholding of a type, subject to special legislation applying to the Highland region of Scotland since 1886. The legislation was a response to the complaints and demands of tenant families who were victims of the Highland Clearances; the modern crofters or tenants appear little in evidence before the beginning of the 18th century. They were tenants at will underneath the tacksman and wadsetters, but their tenure was secure enough; the first evidence that can be found of small tenants holding directly of the proprietor is in a rental of the estates of Sir D. MacDonald in Skye and North Uist in 1715.
The first planned crofting townships in the Outer Hebrides were Barragloum and Kirkibost which were laid out into 32 large "lots" of between 14 and 30 acres in the uniform rectangular pattern that would become familiar in decades. This work was carried out in 1805 by James Chapman for the Earl of Seaforth; the first edition of the Ordnance Survey in 1850 highlights the division of this land and the turf and stone boundaries built by the first tenants in 1805 are still in use today as croft boundaries. Kirkibost was'cleared' of its tenants in 1823 and the 1850 mapping shows roofless ruins on each parcel of land; the township was however re-settled in 1878 following the Bernera Riot four years earlier using the same division boundaries set out in 1805. The Parliament of the United Kingdom created the Crofters' Act 1886, after the Highland Land League had gained seats in that parliament; the government was Liberal, with William Ewart Gladstone as Prime Minister. Another Crofters' Act was created in 1993.
The earlier Act established the first Crofting Commission, but its responsibilities were quite different from those of the newer Crofters Commission created in 1955. The Commission is based in Inverness. Crofts held subject to the provisions of the Crofters' Acts are in the administrative counties of Shetland, Caithness, Ross-shire, Inverness-shire and Argyll, in the north and west of Scotland. Under the 1886 legislation protected crofters are members of a crofters' township, consisting of tenants of neighbouring crofts with a shared right to use common pasture. Since 1976 it has been possible for a crofter to acquire title to his croft, thus becoming an owner-occupier; the Land Reform Act 2003 gives crofters the right to buy their land. Crofting Torp This article incorporates text from "Dwelly's Gaelic Dictionary". Scottish Crofting Federation Crofters CommissionArticles Crofters, Indigenous People of the Highlands and Islands at Scottish Crofting Foundation
Robert II of Scotland
Robert II reigned as King of Scotland from 1371 to his death as the first monarch of the House of Stewart. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of the Scottish king Robert the Bruce by his first wife Isabella of Mar. Edward Bruce, younger brother of Robert the Bruce, was named heir to the throne but he died without heirs on 3 December 1318. Marjorie had died in 1317 in a riding accident and parliament decreed her infant son, Robert Stewart, as heir presumptive, but this lapsed on 5 March 1324 on the birth of a son, David, to King Robert and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. Robert Stewart became High Steward of Scotland on his father's death on 9 April 1326, in same year parliament confirmed the young Steward as heir should Prince David die without a successor. In 1329 King Robert I died and the six-year-old David succeeded to the throne under the guardianship of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray. Edward Balliol, son of King John Balliol—assisted by the English and those Scottish nobles, disinherited by Robert I—invaded Scotland inflicting heavy defeats on the Bruce party on 11 August 1332 at Dupplin Moor and Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333.
Robert, who had fought at Halidon joined his uncle, King David in refuge in Dumbarton Castle. David escaped to France in 1334 and parliament, still functioning, appointed Robert and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray as joint Guardians of the kingdom. Randolph was captured by the English in July 1335 and in the same year Robert submitted to Balliol bringing about the removal of his guardianship; the office was reinstated in 1338 and Robert held it until David's return from France in June 1341. Hostilities continued and Robert was with David at the Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 and either escaped or fled the field but David was captured and remained a prisoner until he was ransomed in October 1357. Robert married Elizabeth Mure around 1348, legitimising five daughters, his subsequent marriage to Euphemia de Ross in 1355 produced two surviving daughters. Robert rebelled against the King in 1363 but submitted to him following a threat to his right of succession. David died in 1371 and Robert succeeded him at the age of fifty-five.
The border magnates continued to attack English-held zones in southern Scotland and by 1384, the Scots had re-taken most of the occupied lands. Robert ensured that Scotland was included in the Anglo-French truce of 1384 and, a factor in the coup in November when he lost control of the country first to his eldest son and from 1388 to John's younger brother, Robert. King Robert was buried at Scone Abbey. Robert Stewart, born in 1316, was the only child of Walter Stewart, High Steward of Scotland and King Robert I's daughter Marjorie Bruce, who died in 1317 following a riding accident, he had the upbringing of a Gaelic noble on the Stewart lands in Bute, in Renfrew. In 1315 parliament removed Marjorie's right as heir to her father in favour of her uncle, Edward Bruce. Edward was killed at the Battle of Faughart, near Dundalk on 14 October 1318, resulting in a hastily arranged Parliament in December to enact a new entail naming Marjorie's son, Robert, as heir should the king die without a successor.
The birth of a son, afterwards David II, to King Robert on 5 March 1324 cancelled Robert Stewart's position as heir presumptive, but a Parliament at Cambuskenneth in July 1326 restored him in the line of succession should David die without an heir. This reinstatement of his status was accompanied by the gift of lands in Argyll and the Lothians; the first war of independence began in the reign of King John Balliol. His short reign was bedeviled by Edward I's insistence on his overlordship of Scotland; the Scottish leadership concluded that only war could release the country from the English king's continued weakening of Balliol's sovereignty and so finalised a treaty of reciprocal assistance with France in October 1295. The Scots forayed into England in March 1296—this incursion together with the French treaty angered the English king and provoked an invasion of Scotland taking Berwick on 30 March before defeating the Scots army at Dunbar on 27 April. John Balliol submitted to Edward and resigned the throne to him before being sent to London as a prisoner.
Despite this, resistance to the English led by William Wallace and Andrew Moray had emerged in the name of King John Balliol. On their deaths, Robert the Bruce continued to resist the English and succeeded in defeating the forces of Edward II of England and gained the Scottish throne for himself. David Bruce, aged five, became king on 7 June 1329 on the death of his father Robert. Walter the Steward had died earlier on 9 April 1327, the orphaned eleven-year-old Robert was placed under the guardianship of his uncle, Sir James Stewart of Durrisdeer, who along with Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, William Lindsey, Archdeacon of St Andrews were appointed as joint Guardians of the kingdom. David's accession kindled the second independence war. In 1332 Edward Balliol, son of the deposed John Balliol, spearheaded an attack on the Bruce sovereignty with the tacit support of King Edward III of England and the explicit endorsement of'the disinherited'. Edward Balliol's forces delivered heavy defeats on the Bruce supporters at Dupplin Moor on 11 August 1332 and again at Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333, at which the 17-year-old Robert participated.
Robert's estates were overrun by Balliol, who granted them to David Strathbogie, titular earl of Atholl, but Robert evaded capture and gained protection at Dumbarton Castle where King David was taking refuge. Few other strongholds remain
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
Modern Scots comprises the varieties of Scots traditionally spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster, from 1700. Throughout its history, Modern Scots has been undergoing a process of language attrition, whereby successive generations of speakers have adopted more and more features from English from the colloquial register; this process of language contact or dialectisation under English has accelerated since widespread access to mass media in English, increased population mobility became available after the Second World War. It has taken on the nature of wholesale language shift towards Scottish English, sometimes termed language change, convergence or merger. By the end of the twentieth century Scots was at an advanced stage of language death over much of Lowland Scotland. Residual features of Scots are simply regarded today as slang by people from outwith Scotland, but by many Scots; the varieties of Modern Scots are divided into five dialect groups: Insular Scots – spoken in Orkney and Shetland.
Northern Scots – Spoken north of the Firth of Tay. North Northern – spoken in Caithness, Easter Ross and the Black Isle. Mid Northern – spoken in Moray, Buchan and Nairn. South Northern – spoken in east Angus and the Mearns. Central Scots – spoken in the Central Lowlands and South west Scotland. North East Central – spoken north of the Forth, in south east Perthshire and west Angus. South East Central – spoken in the Lothians and Berwickshire West Central – spoken in Dunbartonshire, Renfrewshire, Ayrshire, on the Isle of Bute and to the southern extremity of Kintyre. South West Central – spoken in west Dumfriesshire, Kirkcudbrightshire and Wigtownshire. Southern Scots – spoken in mid and east Dumfriesshire and the Scottish Borders counties Selkirkshire and Roxburghshire, in particular the valleys of the Annan, the Esk, the Liddel Water, the Teviot and the Yarrow Water, it is known as the "border tongue" or "border Scots". Ulster Scots – spoken by the descendants of Scottish settlers in Ulster counties Antrim and Donegal.
Known as "Ullans". The southern extent of Scots may be identified by the range of a number of pronunciation features which set Scots apart from neighbouring English dialects. Like many languages across borders there is a dialect continuum between Scots and the Northumbrian dialect, both descending from early northern Middle English; the Scots pronunciation of come contrasts with in Northern English. The Scots realisation reaches as far south as the mouth of the north Esk in north Cumbria, crossing Cumbria and skirting the foot of the Cheviots before reaching the east coast at Bamburgh some 12 miles north of Alnwick; the Scots –English / cognate group can be found in a small portion of north Cumbria with the southern limit stretching from Bewcastle to Longtown and Gretna. The Scots pronunciation of wh as becomes English south of Carlisle but remains in Northumberland, but Northumberland realises “r” as called the burr, not a Scots realisation; the greater part of the valley of the Esk and the whole of Liddesdale have been considered to be northern English dialects by some, Scots by others.
From the nineteenth century onwards influence from the South through education and increased mobility have caused Scots features to retreat northwards so that for all practical purposes the political and linguistic boundaries may be considered to coincide. As well as the main dialects, Edinburgh and Glasgow have local variations on an Anglicised form of Central Scots. In Aberdeen, Mid Northern Scots is spoken by a minority. Due to their being near the border between the two dialects, places like Dundee and Perth can contain elements and influences of both Northern and Central Scots. There is no official standard orthography for modern Scots, but most words have accepted spellings. During the 15th and 16th centuries, when Scots was a state language, the Makars had a loose spelling system separate from that of English. However, by the beginning of the 18th century, Scots was beginning to be regarded "as a rustic dialect of English, rather than a national language". Scots poet Allan Ramsay "embarked on large-scale anglicisation of Scots spelling".
Successors of Ramsay—such as Robert Fergusson, Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott—tended to follow his spelling ideas, the general trend throughout the 18th and 19th centuries was to adopt further spellings from English, as it was the only accessible standard. Although descended from the Scots of the Makars, 18th-19th century Scots abandoned some of the more distinctive old Scots spellings for standard English ones. Writers began using the apologetic apostrophe, to mark "missing" English letters. For example, the older Scots spelling taen/tane became ta’en though the word had not been written or pronounced with a "k" for hundreds of years. 18th-19th century Scots drew on the King James Bible and was influenced by the conventions of Augustan English poetry. All of this "had the unfortunate effect of suggesting that Broad Scots was not a separate language system, but rather a divergent or inferior form of English". This'Scots of the book' or Standard Scots lacked neither "authority nor author".
It was used throughout Lowland Scotland and Ulster, by writers such as Allan Ramsay, Robert Fergusson, Robert Burns, Sir Walter Scott, Charles Murray, David Herbison, James Orr, James Hogg and William Laidlaw among others. It is described in the 1921 Manual of Modern Scots. By the