Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry and tank forces. Known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress; the first military forces in history were infantry. In antiquity, infantry were armed with an early melee weapon such as a spear, axe or sword, or an early ranged weapon like a javelin, sling, or bow, with a few infantrymen having both a melee and a ranged weapon. With the development of gunpowder, infantry began converting to firearms. By the time of Napoleonic warfare, infantry and artillery formed a basic triad of ground forces, though infantry remained the most numerous. With armoured warfare, armoured fighting vehicles have replaced the horses of cavalry, airpower has added a new dimension to ground combat, but infantry remains pivotal to all modern combined arms operations.
Infantry have much greater local situational awareness than other military forces, due to their inherent intimate contact with the battlefield. Infantry can more recognise and respond to local conditions and changing enemy weapons or tactics, they can operate in a wide range of terrain inaccessible to military vehicles, can operate with a lower logistical burden. Infantry are the most delivered forces to ground combat areas, by simple and reliable marching, or by trucks, sea or air transport, they can be augmented with a variety of crew-served weapons, armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles. In English, use of the term infantry began about the 1570s, describing soldiers who march and fight on foot; the word derives from Middle French infanterie, from older Italian infanteria, from Latin īnfāns, from which English gets infant. The individual-soldier term infantryman was not coined until 1837. In modern usage, foot soldiers of any era are now considered infantrymen. From the mid-18th century until 1881 the British Army named its infantry as numbered regiments "of Foot" to distinguish them from cavalry and dragoon regiments.
Infantry equipped with special weapons were named after that weapon, such as grenadiers for their grenades, or fusiliers for their fusils. These names can persist long after the weapon speciality. More in modern times, infantry with special tactics are named for their roles, such as commandos, snipers and militia. Dragoons were created. However, if light cavalry was lacking in an army, any available dragoons might be assigned their duties. Conversely, starting about the mid-19th century, regular cavalry have been forced to spend more of their time dismounted in combat due to the ever-increasing effectiveness of enemy infantry firearms, thus most cavalry transitioned to mounted infantry. As with grenadiers, the dragoon and cavalry designations can be retained long after their horses, such as in the Royal Dragoon Guards, Royal Lancers, King's Royal Hussars. Motorised infantry have trucks and other unarmed vehicles for non-combat movement, but are still infantry since they leave their vehicles for any combat.
Most modern infantry have vehicle transport, to the point where infantry being motorised is assumed, the few exceptions might be identified as modern light infantry, or "leg infantry" colloquially. Mechanised infantry go beyond motorised, having transport vehicles with combat abilities, armoured personnel carriers, providing at least some options for combat without leaving their vehicles. In modern infantry, some APCs have evolved to be infantry fighting vehicles, which are transport vehicles with more substantial combat abilities, approaching those of light tanks; some well-equipped mechanised infantry can be designated as armoured infantry. Given that infantry forces also have some tanks, given that most armoured forces have more mechanised infantry units than tank units in their organisation, the distinction between mechanised infantry and armour forces has blurred; the terms "infantry", "armour", "cavalry" used in the official names for military units like divisions, brigades, or regiments might be better understood as a description of their expected balance of defensive and mobility roles, rather than just use of vehicles.
Some modern mechanised infantry units are termed cavalry or armoured cavalry though they never had horses, to e
Lobos is the headquarters city of the Lobos Partido in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It was founded on 2 June 1802 by José Salgado. Located 100 km from Buenos Aires, Lobos is a fertile agricultural area known because of the dairy activity and dairy-related products. Lobos Administrative Area is bordered by Navarro to the northwest; the administrative area is as web divided into seven quarters: Arévalo, Elvira, Empalme Lobos, Las Chacras, Salvador María and Zapiola. Besides the rural importance, Lobos is considered an important tourist center within the Province of Buenos Aires, Lobos Lagoon being the most important feature; the lagoon is located some 15 km. from the city. Other areas of special interest are the local aerodrome, several ranches, a museum of sciences of the nature and history, Perón’s museum; as far as its history is concerned, Lobos is overly known for being the place of birth of three times President Juan Domingo Perón born on 8 October 1895, it is the place where the gaucho legend Juan Moreira was killed in 1874 after struggling with the law.
Perón’s original house was restored and turned into a museum where photographs and personal items can be viewed, amid other ancient artifacts of Lobos history. The history of Lobos began in 1740 when a Jesuit mission led by Reverend Father Falkner, who surveyed the centre and South of the Province of Buenos Aires and thus picked up some geographic information of the area. In 1772 thanks to Falkner's notes a map of the region was printed in London; the map contained the inscription Laguna de Lobos below the drawing of the lagoon. It's said that the name Lobos stems from the amount of otters that at that time populated the lagoon and were known as "lobos de agua" or "lobos de río", there are historians who believe Lobos had been given this name due to the wild dogs staying around and because they bore a resemblance to wolves. By 1779 several guards settled down there and several forts and military positions were built to form a defence wall against the natives; these positions were set up by order of viceroy Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo and named them Chascomús, Monte, Navarro and Rojas.
On 21 August 1779 Gunnery Sergeant Pedro Rodríguez concluded the construction of the main parts of the fort San Pedro de Los Lobos, over the eastern bank of the Lagoon about 300 meters from its shoreline and nearly 1,500 meters east of the mouth of Las Garzas stream, finishing the work Lieutenant Bernardo Serrano. By the end of 18th century José Salgado and his wife Pascuala Rivas de Salgado were granted an area to colonize as a donation made by viceroy Vértiz, founding Pago de Los Lobos on 2 June 1802. Back in that time, their Christian faith brought them to build a straw-and-mud oratory, under advocation of Nuestra Señora del Carmen, forming the Chapel in June 1803 being the first priest doctor José García Miranda; the chappel became the urban core of Lobos. Surveyor Federico C. De Meyrelles conducted important mesures, planning in 1868, from which the city was constituted; the regime of city management started when Fructuoso Velásquez was named by the Cabildo of Buenos Aires as Mayor of the Brethrem in 1805.
After the first corporative city hall was established, with limited authority the first councillor and president of the city hall was Juan Antonio Cascallares in 1856. The first mayor of the autonomous community was Manuel Antonio Caminos Arévalo in 1877. After the school councils were set up in 1875; the first president of the división for Lobos was presbyterian Felipe Olivera, who became parish in 1876. The first councillor with exclusive functions was Felipe Aráoz between 1877-1878. References to education in Lobos date back to the establishment of an elementary school by 1832, however, it is possible that there had been school teachers settled in Lobos since 1826. In 1872 a Catholic Misión arrived to Lobos and left wooden cruxes each with a brick basis as clue of its presence, located at the northern part of the city near Salgado Channel’s bank and there is another crux at the southern part of the city; the current church was opened in 1906 by Monsignor Terreno, bishop of La Plata and it was completed in 1912.
In the church lies the rests of the founder José Salgado, Colonel Domingo S. Arévalo, soldier of the Independence and parishes Enrique Ferroni, José Albertini and Emilio Larumbe; the church is 19 meters wide with a capacity for 2,000 people. The tower lifts 37 meters; the main altar is made up of Carrara marble and it boasts a peculiar beauty. To be completed. See also: Mayors of Lobos Lobos is known by its lagoon, the aerodrome, a museum of sciences, Juan Perón's house, turned into a museum, several ranches; the Lobos Lagoon, at 15 kilometres from Lobos and 115 kilometres from the City of Buenos Aires is the main tourism lure of the area. It has an area of 8 km² making it the right place for fishing activities. Due to its surrounding, rich in vegetation it is possible to appreciate a wealth of birds. However, the fishing fauna allows amateur fishers to enjoy an unforgettable stay. Since 1988 every year the Sport Fishing Festival is carried out, it takes place in December, such Competence was declared of City Tourism Interest, the Province and the Nation.
In this contest different activities are carried out and by the end of it the Queen of Fishing is selected. There is a music show on a stage over water. All these activities are
San Carlos de Bariloche known as Bariloche, is a city in the province of Río Negro, situated in the foothills of the Andes on the southern shores of Nahuel Huapi Lake. It is located within the Nahuel Huapi National Park. After development of extensive public works and Alpine-styled architecture, the city emerged in the 1930s and 1940s as a major tourism centre with skiing and mountaineering facilities. In addition, it has numerous restaurants, cafés, chocolate shops; the city has a permanent population of 108,205 according to the 2010 census. The name Bariloche comes from the Mapudungun word Vuriloche meaning "people from behind the mountain"; the Poya people used the Vuriloche pass to cross the Andes, keeping it secret from the Spanish priests for a long time. Nahuel Huapi lake was known to Spaniards since the times of the Conquest of Chile. Following the trails of the Mapuche people across the Andes, in the summer of 1552–1553, the Spanish Governor of the Captaincy of Chile Pedro de Valdivia sent Francisco de Villagra to explore the area east of the Andes at the latitudes of the city of Valdivia.
Francisco de Villagra crossed the Andes through Mamuil Malal Pass and headed south until reaching Limay River in the vicinity of Nahuel Huapi Lake. Another early Spaniard to visit the zone of Nahuel Huapi Lake was the Jesuit priest Diego de Rosales, he had been ordered to the area by the Governor of Chile Francisco Antonio de Acuña Cabrera y Bayona, concerned about the unrest of the native Puelche and Poya after the slave-hunting expeditions carried out by Luis Ponce de León in 1649, who captured Indians and sold them into slavery. Diego de Rosales started his journey at the ruins of Villarica in Chile, crossed the Andes through Mamuil Malal Pass, traveled further south along the eastern Andean valleys, reaching Nahuel Huapi Lake in 1650. In 1670 Jesuit father Nicolás Mascardi, based in Chiloé Archipelago, entered the area through the Reloncaví Estuary and Todos los Santos Lake to found a mission at the Nahuel Huapi Lake, which lasted until 1673. A new mission at the shores of Nahuel Huapi Lake was established in 1703, backed financially from Potosí, thanks to orders from the viceroy of Peru.
Historians disagree if the mission belonged to the jurisdiction of Valdivia or Chiloé. According to historic documents, the Poya of Nahuelhuapi requested the mission to be reestablished to forge an alliance with the Spaniards against the Puelche. Following the 1712 Huilliche rebellion in Chiloé Archipelago some insurgents sought refuge with Father Manuel del Hoyo in the mission; the mission was destroyed in 1717 by Poyas following a disagreement with the missionaries. Soon thereafter authorities learned that four or five people travelling to Concepción had been killed by the Poya; the colonists assembled a punitive expedition in Calbuco and Chiloé. Composed of both Spaniards and indios reyunos, the expedition did not find any Poya. In 1766 the head of the Mission of Ralún tried to reestablish the mission at Nahuel Huapi, but the following year, the Crown suppressed the Society of Jesus, ordering them out of the colonies in the Americas; the area had stronger connections to Chile than to the distant city of Buenos Aires during most of the 19th century, but the explorations of Francisco Moreno and the Argentine campaigns of the Conquest of the Desert established the legitimacy of the Argentine government.
It thought the area was a natural expansion of the Viedma colony, the Andes were the natural frontier to Chile. In the 1881 border treaty between Chile and Argentina, the Nahuel Huapi area was recognized as part of Argentina. German settlers begun to arrive in neighboring southern Chile from the 1840s; some of these settlers and their descendants begun a lucrative leather industry obtaining leather from indigenous communities across the Andes. In the 1880s the Argentine Army displaced indigenous communities disrupting this trade and forcing leather merchants in Chile themselves to cross the Andes to obtain supplies; this way numerous entrepreneurs from Chile, many with a German background, established cattle and trade business in the area of Nahuel Huapi and Lácar lakes. The modern settlement of Bariloche developed from a little shop called La Alemana established by Carlos Wiederhold in 1895. Wiederhold was a German-Chilean from a wealthy family from the city of Osorno whose ancestors arrived in the Chilean government programme of German colonization of Valdivia and Llanquihue.
As Wiederhold was named consul of the German Empire in Chile he left Bariloche for Puerto Montt in the 1900s. In Puerto Montt Wiederhold continued to run the business while in Bariloche Wiederhols business partner Federico Hube a German-Chilean from Osorno, was left in charge of local affairs. By 1900 Chilean merchants dominated trade in the area of Nahuel Huapi Lake by their control of nearby mountain passes. Hube & Achelis controlled Camino y Lacoste did so in Paso Puyehue. A war scare between Chile and Argentina in the 1900s meant some difficulties for these earlier entrepeneurs who came to benefit from the 1902 boundary arbitration between Chile and Argentina which increased trust along the international boundary. A small settlement developed around La Alemana, its former site is the city center. By 1895 the settlement of Bariloche was made up of German-speaking immigrants: Austrians and Slovenians, as well as Italians from the city of Belluno, Chileans. A local legend says that the name came from a letter erroneously addressed to Wiederhold as San Carlos instead of Don Carlos.
Most of the commerce in Bariloche related to goods imported and exported at the seaport
Peronism or Justicialism is an Argentine political movement based on the political ideology and legacy of former President Juan Domingo Perón and his second wife Eva Perón. The Peronist Justicialist Party derives its name from the concept of social justice. Since its inception in 1946, Peronist candidates have won nine of the 12 presidential elections from which they have not been banned; as of 2018, Juan Domingo Perón was the only Argentine to have been elected president three times. The pillars of the Peronist ideal, known as the "three flags", are social justice, economic independence and political sovereignty. Peronism can be described as a third position ideology as it rejects both communism. Peronism espouses corporatism and thus aims to mediate tensions between the classes of society, with the state responsible for negotiating compromise in conflicts between managers and workers. However, it is a ill-defined ideology as different and sometimes contradictory sentiments are expressed in the name of Peronism.
Today, the legacy and thought of Perón have transcended the confines of any single political party and bled into the broader political landscape of Argentina. Traditionally, the Peronist movement has drawn its strongest support from the working class and sympathetic unions and has been characterized as proletarian in nature. From the perspective of opponents, Peronism is an authoritarian ideology. Perón was compared to fascist dictators, accused of demagoguery and his policies derided as populist. Proclaiming himself the embodiment of nationality, Perón's government silenced dissent by accusing opponents of being unpatriotic; the corporatist character of Peronism drew attacks from socialists who accused his administration of preserving capitalist exploitation and class division. Conservatives rejected its modernist ideology and felt their status threatened by the ascent of the Peronist apparat. Liberals condemned dictatorial tendencies. Defenders of Peronism describe the doctrine as populist, albeit in the sense that they believe it embodies the interests of the masses and in particular the most vulnerable social strata.
Admirers hold Perón in esteem for his administration's anti-imperialism and non-alignment as well as its progressive initiatives. Amongst other measures introduced by Perón's governments, social security was made universal while education was made free to all who qualified and working students were given one paid week before every major examination. Vast low-income housing projects were created and paid vacations became standard. All workers were guaranteed free medical care and half of their vacation-trip expenses and mothers-to-be received three paid months off prior to and after giving birth. Workers' recreation centers were constructed throughout the country. Perón's ideas were embraced by a variety of different groups in Argentina across the political spectrum. Perón's personal views became a burden on the ideology, see for example his anti-clericalism, which did not strike a sympathetic chord with upper-class Argentinians. Peronism is regarded as a form of corporate socialism, or "right-wing socialism".
Perón's public speeches were nationalist and populist. It would be difficult to separate Peronism from corporate nationalism, for Perón nationalized Argentina's large corporations, blurring distinctions between corporations and government. At the same time, the labor unions became corporate, ceding the right to strike in agreements with Perón as Secretary of Welfare in the military government from 1943–1945. In exchange, the state was to assume the role of negotiator between conflicting interests. Peronism lacked a strong interest in matters of foreign policy other than the belief that the political and economic influences of other nations should be kept out of Argentina—he was somewhat isolationist. Early in his presidency, Perón envisioned Argentina's role as a model for other countries in Latin America and beyond, but such ideas were abandoned. Despite his oppositional rhetoric, Perón sought cooperation with the United States government on various issues. Political opponents sustain that Perón and his administration resorted to organized violence and dictatorial rule.
Perón maintained the institutions of democratic rule, but subverted freedoms through such actions as nationalizing the broadcasting system, centralizing the unions under his control and monopolizing the supply of newspaper print. At times, Perón resorted to tactics such as illegally imprisoning opposition politicians and journalists, including Radical Civic Union leader Ricardo Balbin. Perón's admiration for Benito Mussolini is well documented. Many scholars categorize Peronism as a fascist ideology. Carlos Fayt believes that Peronism was just "an Argentine implementation of Italian fascism". Hayes reaches the conclusion that "the Peronist movement produced a form of fascism, distinctively Latin American". One of the most vocal critics of Peronism was the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges. After Perón ascended to the presidency in 1946, Borges spoke before the Argentine Society of Writers by saying: Dictatorships breed oppression, dictatorships breed servility, dictatorships breed cruelty. Bellboys babbling orders, portraits of caudillos, prearranged cheers or insults, walls covered with names, unanimous ce
Colegio Militar de la Nación
The National Military College is the institution in charge of the undergraduate education of officers of the Argentine Army. It is located at Buenos Aires. Established on October 11, 1869, by President Domingo Sarmiento at the height of the Paraguayan War, its original quarters were opened in where the Parque Tres de Febrero stands today, with Col. Juan F. Czetz as the first superintendent, it was transferred to San Martín in 1892, to its present location, the site of the 1852 Battle of Caseros that deposed mid-19th century strongman Juan Manuel de Rosas, in 1938. Its present facilities were inaugurated in 1937. El Palomar and La Casa de Caseros, installations involved in the Battle of Caseros, were declared a National Historic Monument. Traditionally, most cadets belonged to high- or middle-class families, with many of them having a long military tradition; this has changed in recent years, the Corps of Cadetes becoming more representative of lower-class families. Women were first admitted in the College in 1999, allowed into Infantry and Cavalry arms in 2013.
There are four different type of courses in the College: four-year course. For officers of the five combat arms, plus Quartermater and Ordnance corps. Cadets get a degree in administration. Course for professional nurses. Cadets spend three years at the College, graduate as second lieutenants, a fourth year at the Central Military Hospital, after which they obtain their degree. One-year course for officers of the professional corps. For university graduates and private aviators. Graduate as either a lieutenant or second lieutenant in the relevant branch. Two-year course for band officers. For band NCOs with at least five years of service. Graduate as second lieutenant. A system of short courses for reserve officers was established in 2000, but was discontinued after a few years due to the poor performance of the graduates. Admission is on a competitive basis, consists of academic, medical and physical training examinations. For the four- and three-year courses, a high school diploma is the minimum previous education requirement, although a number of applicants have at least one year of college-level education.
Cadets are not referred to as freshmen, juniors, or seniors. Instead they are called fourth class, third class, second class, first class cadets. Unlike most academies the Regiment of Cadets marches on parade in the following order of precedence, in full dress uniforms: Infantry - with Mauser rifles and using the goose step the only military unit in Argentina to do so Cavalry, Artillery - with M4 or FN FAL slung rifles, marches on the high step Other arms and services - with FN FAL rifles, marches on the high step Cavalry Troop - with lances, using the cavalry walk or trot marchFormerly the College sported a horse artillery battery which used the walk or the trot march of the cavalry. Ernesto Luis Cardoso'Rumbo a la gloria Promoción 78 Colegio Militar de la Nación Buenos Aires' translation'Headed for glory 78 Promoting the National Military College of Buenos Aires' 1948 Official website
Juan Hipólito del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Yrigoyen was a two-time President of Argentina who served his first term from 1916 to 1922 and his second term from 1928 to 1930. His activism became the prime impetus behind the obtainment of universal suffrage in Argentina in 1912. Known as "the father of the poor," Yrigoyen presided over a rise in the standard of living of Argentina's working class together with the passage of a number of progressive social reforms, including improvements in factory conditions, regulation of working hours, compulsory pensions, the introduction of a universally accessible public education system, he was worked as a school teacher before entering politics. In 1882 he became a Freemason. In 1891 he co-founded the Radical Civic Union together with Leandro Alem. Yrigoyen was popularly known as "el peludo" due to his introverted character and aversion to being seen in public. Following Alem's suicide in 1896, Yrigoyen assumed sole leadership of the Radical Civic Union, it adopted a policy of intransigence, a position of total opposition to the regime known as "The Agreement".
Established by electoral fraud, this was an agreed formula among the political parties of that time for alternating in power. The Radical Civic Union took up arms in 1893 and again in 1905. However, Yrigoyen adopted a policy of nonviolence, pursuing instead the strategy of "revolutionary abstention", a total boycott of all polls until 1912, when President Roque Sáenz Peña was forced to agree to the passage of the Sáenz Peña Law, which established secret and compulsory male suffrage. Yrigoyen was elected President of Argentina in 1916, he found himself hemmed in, however, as the Argentine Senate was appointed by the legislatures of the provinces, most of which were controlled by the opposition. Several times, Yrigoyen resorted to federal intervention in numerous provinces by declaring a state of emergency, removing willful governors, deepening the confrontation with the landed establishment. Yrigoyen was popular, among middle and working class voters, who felt integrated for the first time in political process, the Argentinian economy prospered under his leadership.
Yrigoyen preserved Argentine neutrality during World War I, which turned out to be a boon, owing to higher beef prices and the opening up of many new markets to Argentina's primary exports. Yrigoyen promoted energy independence for the growing country, obtaining Congressional support for the establishment of the YPF state oil concern, appointing as its first director General Enrique Mosconi, the most prominent advocate for industrialization in the Argentine military at the time. Generous credit and subsidies were extended to small farmers, while Yrigoyen settled wage disputes in favour of the unions. Following four years of recession caused by war-related shortages of credit and supplies, the Argentine economy experienced significant economic growth, expanding by over 40% from 1917 to 1922. Argentina was known as "the granary of the world", its gross domestic product per capita placing it among the wealthiest nations on earth. Yrigoyen expanded the bureaucracy and increased public spending to support his urban constituents following an economic crisis in 1919, although the rise in urban living standards was gained at the cost of higher inflation, which adversely affected the export economy.
Constitutionally barred from re-election, Yrigoyen was succeeded by Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear. On the expiration of Alvear's term in 1928, Yrigoyen was overwhelmingly elected President for the second time. In December of that year, U. S. President-elect Herbert Hoover visited Argentina on a goodwill tour, meeting with President Yrigoyen on policies regarding trade and tariffs. Radical anarchist elements attempted to assassinate Hoover by attempting to place a bomb near his rail car, but the bomber was arrested before he could complete his work. President Yrigoyen accompanied Hoover thereafter as a personal guarantee of safety until he left the country. In his late seventies, he found himself surrounded by aides who censored his access to news reports, hiding from him the reality of the effects of the Great Depression, which hit towards the end of 1929. On 24 December of this year he survived an assassination attempt. Fascist and conservative sectors of the army plotted for a regime change, as did Standard Oil of New Jersey, who opposed both the president's efforts to curb oil smuggling from Salta Province to Bolivia, as well as the existence of YPF itself.
On 6 September 1930, Yrigoyen was deposed in a military coup led by General José Félix Uriburu. This was the first military coup since the adoption of the Argentine constitution. After the coup d'état Enrique Pérez Colman, Minister of Finance in the Yrigoyen cabinet; the new government of Uriburu adopted the most severe measures to prevent reprisals and counter-revolutionary tactics by friends of the ousted administration of ex–President Yrigoyen. The aforementioned Yrigoyenist personalities were released. After his overthrow, Yrigoyen was placed under house arrest and confined several times to Martín García Island, he was buried in La Recoleta Cemetery. Media related to Hipólito Yrigoyen at Wikimedia Commons Newspaper clippings about Hipólito Yrigoyen in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Military history of Germany
While German-speaking people have a long history, Germany as a nation state dates only from 1871. Earlier periods are subject to definition debates; the Franks, for instance, were a union of Germanic tribes. The capital of medieval ruler Charlemagne's empire was the city of Aachen, now part of Germany, yet he was a Frank. France was named after the Franks and the Dutch and Flemish people are the only ones to speak a language that descends from Frankish. Hence nearly all continental Western European historians can claim his victories as their heritage; the Holy Roman Empire he founded was but far from German speaking. The Kingdom of Prussia, which unified Germany in the 19th century, had significant territory in what is now Poland. In the early 19th century, the philosopher Schlegel referred to Germany as a Kulturnation, a nation of shared culture and political disunity, analogous to ancient Greece; until the unification of 1871, Austria was considered a part of Germany though much of its empire was not in the Holy Roman Empire and was non-German.
During the ancient and early medieval periods the Germanic tribes had no written language. What we know about their early military history comes from accounts written in Latin and from archaeology; this leaves important gaps. Germanic wars against the Romans are well documented from the Roman perspective, such as the infamous Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Germanic wars against the early Celts remain mysterious. Germanic tribes are thought to have originated during the Nordic Bronze Age in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia; the tribes spread south motivated by the deteriorating climate of that area. They crossed the River Elbe overrunning the territories of the Celtic Volcae in the Weser Basin; the Romans recorded one of these early migrations when the Cimbri and the Teutons tribes threatened the Republic itself around the late 2nd century BC. In the East, other tribes, such as Goths and Vandals, settled along the shores of the Baltic Sea pushing southward and settling as far away as Ukraine.
The Angles and Saxons migrated to England. The Germanic peoples had a fraught relationship with their neighbours, leading to a period of over two millennia of military conflict over various territorial, religious and economic concerns; the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation emerged from the eastern part of the Carolingian Empire after its division in the Treaty of Verdun of 843, lasted a millennium until its dissolution in 1806. It was never a unitary state, its unifying characteristic was its Carolingian heritage and strong religious connotations, its claim to "German-ness" the ethnicity of most of its subjects and rulers. The military history of Germany during the Middle Ages was full of siege warfare and the technological changes that come from fighting that kind of war. From the creation of the First German Empire in 843 until the creation of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg, the middles ages were fought in similar fashion to those of ancient times. Many changes were made due to the use of new military technologies.
During the Middle Ages, siege warfare was the primary way in which war was fought and territory taken through conquest. There were field battles fought, in which they employed a phalanx formation similar to what would have been studied in Vegetius’ De re militari. However, the vast majority of battles were fought in defense of or the attempt to take fortifications; the men required to partake in a siege came from different areas of society. There were some nobles, some knights, the kings personal men, as well as the vast majority being peasant farmers conscripted into fighting. Siege warfare in effect was the way. With the use of sieges as the primary means of middle age warfare, there were changes in military technology that facilitated fighting this differing kind of warfare; that being said, advances in technology did not mean that old technology became obsolete. One such advance was the trebuchet. There were advancements such as new helmets called Spangenhemle as well as some Carolingian developments in weapon production.
With the subsequent development in armor, there came advancements in handheld weaponry to deal with these developments. For example, swords became thinner and pointed on the tip in order to penetrate between gaps in plate armor. Crossbows as well became more used in the defense of castles during siege warfare. In order to attack castles, the Springald was created to launch spears in succession, but was used outside of Germany. Stirrups were developed, integral in the use of shock combat during the Middle Ages; the creation of greaves was important in protecting the shins. In Germany, Baronets Knights; these were a title of nobility bestowed on people by the local lord. Following this, the title of Ritter was passed in a hereditary fashion until the end of the noble line. After which, the title and its holdings would revert to the lord to give out to someone else. Ritter's were considered the elite of the German military as their entire goal was to practice for war, they did this by competing in tournaments to keep themselves practiced.
A Ritter would be considered of this