Earth (classical element)
Earth is one of the classical elements, in some systems numbering four along with air and water. Earth is one of the four classical elements in science, it was associated with qualities of heaviness and the terrestrial world. Due to the hero cults, chthonic underworld deities, the element of earth is associated with the sensual aspects of both life and death in occultism. Empedocles of Acragas proposed four archai by which to understand the cosmos: fire, air and earth. Plato believed the elements were geometric forms and he assigned the cube to the element of earth in his dialogue Timaeus. Aristotle believed earth was the heaviest element, his theory of natural place suggested that any earth–laden substances, would fall straight down, towards the center of the cosmos. In Classical Greek and Roman myth, various goddesses represented the Earth, seasons and fertility, including Demeter and Persephone. In ancient Greek medicine, each of the four humours became associated with an element. Black bile was the humor identified with earth, since both were dry.
Other things associated with earth and black bile in ancient and medieval medicine included the season of fall, since it increased the qualities of cold and aridity. In alchemy, earth was believed to be dry, secondarily cold. Beyond those classical attributes, the chemical substance salt, was associated with earth and its alchemical symbol was a downward-pointing triangle, bisected by a horizontal line. Prithvi is the Hindu mother goddess. According to one such tradition, she is the personification of the Earth itself; as Prithvi Mata, or "Mother Earth", she contrasts with Dyaus Pita, "father sky". In the Rigveda and sky are addressed as a duality indicated by the idea of two complementary "half-shells." In addition, the element Earth is associated with Budha or Mercury who represents communication, business and other practical matters. Earth and the other Greek classical elements were incorporated into the Golden Dawn system. Zelator is the elemental grade attributed to earth; the elemental weapon of earth is the Pentacle.
Each of the elements has several associated spiritual beings. The archangel of earth is Uriel, the angel is Phorlakh, the ruler is Kerub, the king is Ghob, the earth elementals are called gnomes. Earth is considered to be passive. Many of these associations have since spread throughout the occult community, it is sometimes represented by its Tattva or by a downward pointing triangle with a horizontal line through it. Earth is one of the five elements that appear in most Pagan traditions. Wicca in particular was influenced by the Golden Dawn system of magic, Aleister Crowley's mysticism, in turn inspired by the Golden Dawn. In East Asia, metal is sometimes seen as the equivalent of earth and is represented by the White Tiger, known as 白虎 in Chinese, Byakko in Japanese, Bạch Hổ in Vietnamese and Baekho in Korean. Earth is represented in the Aztec religion by a house. Gaia Mother goddess Mother nature Pherecydes of Syros Different versions of the classical elements
Fire (classical element)
Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization. It has been regarded in many different contexts throughout history, but as a metaphysical constant of the world. Fire is one of the four classical elements in science, it was associated with the qualities of energy and passion. In one Greek myth, Prometheus stole fire from the gods to protect the otherwise helpless humans, but was punished for this charity. Fire was one of many archai proposed by the Pre-socratics, most of whom sought to reduce the cosmos, or its creation, to a single substance. Heraclitus considered fire to be the most fundamental of all elements, he believed fire gave rise to the other three elements: "All things are an interchange for fire, fire for all things, just like goods for gold and gold for goods." He had a reputation for speaking in riddles. He described how fire gave rise to the other elements as the: "upward-downward path", a "hidden harmony" or series of transformations he called the "turnings of fire", first into sea, half that sea into earth, half that earth into rarefied air.
This is a concept that anticipates both the four classical elements of Empedocles and Aristotle's transmutation of the four elements into one another. This world, the same for all, no one of gods or men has made, but it always was and will be: an ever-living fire, with measures of it kindling, measures going out. Heraclitus regarded the soul as being a mixture of fire and water, with fire being the more noble part and water the ignoble aspect, he believed the goal of the soul is to be rid of water and become pure fire: the dry soul is the best and it is worldly pleasures that make the soul "moist". He was known as the "weeping philosopher" and died of hydropsy, a swelling due to abnormal accumulation of fluid beneath the skin. However, Empedocles of Acragas, is best known for having selected all elements as his archai and by the time of Plato, the four Empedoclian elements were well established. In the Timaeus, Plato's major cosmological dialogue, the Platonic solid he associated with fire was the tetrahedron, formed from four triangles and contains the least volume with the greatest surface area.
This makes fire the element with the smallest number of sides, Plato regarded it as appropriate for the heat of fire, which he felt is sharp and stabbing. Plato’s student Aristotle did not maintain his former teacher's geometric view of the elements, but rather preferred a somewhat more naturalistic explanation for the elements based on their traditional qualities. Fire the hot and dry element, like the other elements, was an abstract principle and not identical with the normal solids and combustion phenomena we experience: What we call fire, it is not fire, for fire is an excess of heat and a sort of ebullition. According to Aristotle, the four elements rise or fall toward their natural place in concentric layers surrounding the center of the earth and form the terrestrial or sublunary spheres. In ancient Greek medicine, each of the four humours became associated with an element. Yellow bile was the humor identified with fire, since both were dry. Other things associated with fire and yellow bile in ancient and medieval medicine included the season of summer, since it increased the qualities of heat and aridity.
In alchemy the chemical element of sulfur was associated with fire and its alchemical symbol and its symbol was an upward-pointing triangle. In alchemic tradition, metals are incubated by fire in the womb of the Earth and alchemists only accelerate their development. Agni is a Vedic deity; the word agni is Sanskrit for fire, cognate with Latin ignis, Russian огонь, pronounced agon. Agni has three forms: fire and the sun. Agni is one of the most important of the Vedic gods, he is the acceptor of sacrifices. The sacrifices made to Agni go to the deities because Agni is a messenger from and to the other gods, he is ever-young, because the fire is re-lit every day, yet he is immortal. In Indian tradition Fire is linked to Surya or the Sun and Mangala or Mars, with the south-east direction. Fire and the other Greek classical elements were incorporated into the Golden Dawn system. Philosophus is the elemental grade attributed to fire; the elemental weapon of fire is the Wand. Each of the elements has several associated spiritual beings.
The archangel of fire is Michael, the angel is Aral, the ruler is Seraph, the king is Djin, the fire elementals are called salamanders. Fire is considered to be active. Many of these associations have since spread throughout the occult community. Fire in Tarot symbolizes passion. Many references to fire in tarot are related to the usage of fire in the practice of alchemy, in which the application of fire is a prime method of conversion, everything that touches fire is changed beyond recognition; the symbol of
Agni is a Sanskrit word meaning fire, connotes the Vedic fire god of Hinduism. He is the guardian deity of the southeast direction, is found in southeast corners of Hindu temples. In the classical cosmology of the Indian religions, Agni as fire is one of the five inert impermanent constituents along with space, water and earth, the five combining to form the empirically perceived material existence. In Vedic literature, Agni is a oft-invoked god along with Indra and Soma. Agni is considered the mouth of the gods and goddesses, the medium that conveys offerings to them in a homa, he is conceptualized in ancient Hindu texts to exist at three levels, on earth as fire, in the atmosphere as lightning, in the sky as the sun. This triple presence connects him as the messenger between gods and human beings in the Vedic thought; the relative importance of Agni declined in the post-Vedic era, as he was internalized and his identity evolved to metaphorically represent all transformative energy and knowledge in the Upanishads and Hindu literature.
Agni remains an integral part of Hindu traditions, such as being the central witness of the rite-of-passage ritual in traditional Hindu weddings called Saptapadi or Agnipradakshinam, as well being part of Diya in festivals such as Divali and Aarti in Puja. Agni is a term that appears extensively in Buddhist texts, in the literature related to the Senika heresy debate within the Buddhist traditions. In the ancient Jainism thought, Agni contains soul and fire-bodied beings, additionally appears as Agni-kumara or "fire princes" in its theory of rebirth and a class of reincarnated beings, is discussed in its texts with the equivalent term Tejas; the Sanskrit word Agni means "fire". In the early Vedic literature, Agni connotes the fire as a god, one reflecting the primordial powers to consume and convey, yet the term is used with the meaning of a Mahabhuta, one of five that the earliest Vedic thinkers believed to constitute material existence, that Vedic thinkers such as Kanada and Kapila expanded namely Akasha, Vayu, Ap, Prithvi and Agni.
The word Agni is used in many contexts, ranging from the fire in stomach, the cooking fire in a home, the sacrificial fire in an altar, the fire of cremation, the fire of rebirth, the fire in the energetic saps concealed within plants, the atmospheric fire in lightning and the celestial fire in the sun. In the Brahmanas layer of the Vedas, such as in section 5.2.3 of Shatapatha Brahmana, Agni represents all the gods, all concepts of spiritual energy that permeates everything in the universe. In the Upanishads and post-Vedic literature, Agni additionally became a metaphor for immortal principle in man, any energy or knowledge that consumes and dispels a state of darkness and procreates an enlightened state of existence; the etymology of Agni is uncertain and contested. Significant proposals include: from agnir, which means "leader, going in front", based on the Vedic premise that fire leads and is the chaplain of the gods, he is the divine priest, who connects and brings the gods and men together, the first among all gods whose presence can be felt and who attends a ceremony, the first among all priests around whom other priests gather, he is the one who leads and guides all men.
From agri, the root of which means "first", referring to "that first in the universe to arise" or "fire" according to Shatapatha Brahmana section 6.1.1. According to the 5th-century BCE Sanskrit text Nirukta-Nighantu in section 7.14, sage Śakapūṇi states the word Agni is derived from three verbs – from'going', from'shining or burning', from'leading'. From Indo-European root Ag or "to move", with the cognates Latin ignis, Sclavonian ogni. There are many theories about the origins of the god Agni, some tracing it to Indo-European mythologies, others tracing to mythologies within the Indian tradition; the origin myth found in many Indo-European cultures is one of a bird, or bird like being, that carries or brings fire from the gods to mankind. Alternatively, this messenger brings an elixir of immortality from heaven to earth. In either case, the bird returns everyday with sacrificial offerings for the gods, but sometimes the bird hides or disappears without trace. Agni is molded in similar mythical themes, in some hymns with the phrase the "heavenly bird that flies".
The earliest layers of the Vedic texts of Hinduism, such as section 6.1 of Kathaka Samhita and section 1.8.1 of Maitrayani Samhita state that the universe began with nothing, neither night nor day existed, what existed was just Prajapati. Agni originated from the forehead of Prajapati, assert these texts. With the creation of Agni came light, with that were created day and night. Agni, state these Samhitas, is the same as the Brahman, the truth, the eye of the manifested
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is known as quicksilver and was named hydrargyrum. A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element, liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world as cinnabar; the red pigment vermilion is obtained by synthetic mercuric sulfide. Mercury is used in thermometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, mercury switches, mercury relays, fluorescent lamps and other devices, though concerns about the element's toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being phased out in clinical environments in favor of alternatives such as alcohol- or galinstan-filled glass thermometers and thermistor- or infrared-based electronic instruments. Mechanical pressure gauges and electronic strain gauge sensors have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers. Mercury remains in use in scientific research applications and in amalgam for dental restoration in some locales.
It is used in fluorescent lighting. Electricity passed through mercury vapor in a fluorescent lamp produces short-wave ultraviolet light, which causes the phosphor in the tube to fluoresce, making visible light. Mercury poisoning can result from exposure to water-soluble forms of mercury, by inhalation of mercury vapor, or by ingesting any form of mercury. Mercury is a silvery-white liquid metal. Compared to other metals, it is a fair conductor of electricity, it has a freezing point of −38.83 °C and a boiling point of 356.73 °C, both the lowest of any stable metal, although preliminary experiments on copernicium and flerovium have indicated that they have lower boiling points. Upon freezing, the volume of mercury decreases by 3.59% and its density changes from 13.69 g/cm3 when liquid to 14.184 g/cm3 when solid. The coefficient of volume expansion is 181.59 × 10−6 at 0 °C, 181.71 × 10−6 at 20 °C and 182.50 × 10−6 at 100 °C. Solid mercury can be cut with a knife. A complete explanation of mercury's extreme volatility delves deep into the realm of quantum physics, but it can be summarized as follows: mercury has a unique electron configuration where electrons fill up all the available 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p, 5d, 6s subshells.
Because this configuration resists removal of an electron, mercury behaves to noble gases, which form weak bonds and hence melt at low temperatures. The stability of the 6s shell is due to the presence of a filled 4f shell. An f shell poorly screens the nuclear charge that increases the attractive Coulomb interaction of the 6s shell and the nucleus; the absence of a filled inner f shell is the reason for the somewhat higher melting temperature of cadmium and zinc, although both these metals still melt and, in addition, have unusually low boiling points. Mercury does not react with most acids, such as dilute sulfuric acid, although oxidizing acids such as concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid or aqua regia dissolve it to give sulfate and chloride. Like silver, mercury reacts with atmospheric hydrogen sulfide. Mercury reacts with solid sulfur flakes. Mercury dissolves many metals such as silver to form amalgams. Iron is an exception, iron flasks have traditionally been used to trade mercury.
Several other first row transition metals with the exception of manganese and zinc are resistant in forming amalgams. Other elements that do not form amalgams with mercury include platinum. Sodium amalgam is a common reducing agent in organic synthesis, is used in high-pressure sodium lamps. Mercury combines with aluminium to form a mercury-aluminium amalgam when the two pure metals come into contact. Since the amalgam destroys the aluminium oxide layer which protects metallic aluminium from oxidizing in-depth small amounts of mercury can corrode aluminium. For this reason, mercury is not allowed aboard an aircraft under most circumstances because of the risk of it forming an amalgam with exposed aluminium parts in the aircraft. Mercury embrittlement is the most common type of liquid metal embrittlement. There are seven stable isotopes of mercury, with 202Hg being the most abundant; the longest-lived radioisotopes are 194Hg with a half-life of 444 years, 203Hg with a half-life of 46.612 days. Most of the remaining radioisotopes have half-lives.
199Hg and 201Hg are the most studied NMR-active nuclei, having spins of 1⁄2 and 3⁄2 respectively. Hg is the modern chemical symbol for mercury, it comes from hydrargyrum, a Latinized form of the Greek word ὑδράργυρος, a compound word meaning "water-silver" – since it is liquid like water and shiny like silver. The element was named after the Roman god Mercury, known for his mobility, it is associated with the planet Mercury. Mercury is the only metal for which the al
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. Salts are composed of related numbers of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral; these component ions can be inorganic, such as organic, such as acetate. Salts can be classified in a variety of ways. Salts that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are called alkali salts. Salts that produce acidic solutions are acidic salts. Neutral salts are those salts that are neither basic. Zwitterions contain an anionic and a cationic centres in the same molecule, but are not considered to be salts. Examples of zwitterions include amino acids, many metabolites and proteins. Solid salts tend to be transparent. In many cases, the apparent opacity or transparency are only related to the difference in size of the individual monocrystals. Since light reflects from the grain boundaries, larger crystals tend to be transparent, while the polycrystalline aggregates look like white powders.
Salts exist in many different colors, which arise either from the cations. For example: sodium chromate is yellow by virtue of the chromate ion potassium dichromate is orange by virtue of the dichromate ion cobalt nitrate is red owing to the chromophore of hydrated cobalt. copper sulfate is blue because of the copper chromophore potassium permanganate has the violet color of permanganate anion. Nickel chloride is green of sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate are colorless or white because the constituent cations and anions do not absorb in the visible part of the spectrumFew minerals are salts because they would be solubilized by water. Inorganic pigments tend not to be salts, because insolubility is required for fastness; some organic dyes are salts, but they are insoluble in water. Different salts can elicit all five basic tastes, e.g. salty, sour and umami or savory. Salts of strong acids and strong bases are non-volatile and odorless, whereas salts of either weak acids or weak bases may smell like the conjugate acid or the conjugate base of the component ions.
That slow, partial decomposition is accelerated by the presence of water, since hydrolysis is the other half of the reversible reaction equation of formation of weak salts. Many ionic compounds exhibit significant solubility in water or other polar solvents. Unlike molecular compounds, salts dissociate in solution into cationic components; the lattice energy, the cohesive forces between these ions within a solid, determines the solubility. The solubility is dependent on how well each ion interacts with the solvent, so certain patterns become apparent. For example, salts of sodium and ammonium are soluble in water. Notable exceptions include potassium cobaltinitrite. Most nitrates and many sulfates are water-soluble. Exceptions include barium sulfate, calcium sulfate, lead sulfate, where the 2+/2− pairing leads to high lattice energies. For similar reasons, most alkali metal carbonates are not soluble in water; some soluble carbonate salts are: potassium carbonate and ammonium carbonate. Salts are characteristically insulators.
Molten salts or solutions of salts conduct electricity. For this reason, liquified salts and solutions containing dissolved salts are called electrolytes. Salts characteristically have high melting points. For example, sodium chloride melts at 801 °C; some salts with low lattice energies are liquid near room temperature. These include molten salts, which are mixtures of salts, ionic liquids, which contain organic cations; these liquids exhibit unusual properties as solvents. The name of a salt starts with the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion. Salts are referred to only by the name of the cation or by the name of the anion. Common salt-forming cations include: Ammonium NH+4 Calcium Ca2+ Iron Fe2+ and Fe3+ Magnesium Mg2+ Potassium K+ Pyridinium C5H5NH+ Quaternary ammonium NR+4, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group Sodium Na+ Copper Cu2+Common salt-forming anions include: Acetate CH3COO− Carbonate CO2−3 Chloride Cl− Citrate HOC2 Cyanide C≡N− Fluoride F− Nitrate NO−3 Nitrite NO−2 Oxide O2− Phosphate PO3−4 Sulfate SO2−4 Salts with varying number of hydrogen atoms, with respect to the parent acid, replaced by cations can be referred to as monobasic, dibasic or tribasic salts: Sodium phosphate monobasic Sodium phosphate dibasic Sodium phosphate tribasic Salts are formed by a chemical reaction between: A base and an acid, e.g. NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl A metal and an acid, e.g. Mg + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2 A metal and a non-metal, e.g. Ca + Cl2 → CaCl2 A base and an a
Jain philosophy explains that seven tattvas constitute reality. These are:— jīva- the soul, characterized by consciousness ajīva- the non-soul āsrava - inflow of auspicious and evil karmic matter into the soul. Bandha - mutual intermingling of the soul and karmas. Samvara - obstruction of the inflow of karmic matter into the soul. Nirjara - separation or falling-off of part of karmic matter from the soul. Mokṣha - complete annihilation of all karmic matter; the knowledge of these reals is said to be essential for the liberation of the soul. The first two are the two ontological categories of the soul jīva and the non-soul ajīva, namely the axiom that they exist; the third truth is that through the interaction, called yoga, between the two substances and non-soul, karmic matter flows into the soul, clings to it, becomes converted into karma and the fourth truth acts as a factor of bondage, restricting the manifestation of the consciousness intrinsic to it. The fifth truth states that a stoppage of new karma is possible through asceticism through practice of right conduct and knowledge.
An intensification of asceticism burns up the existing karma – this sixth truth is expressed by the word nirjarā. The final truth is that when the soul is freed from the influence of karma, it reaches the goal of Jaina teaching, liberation or mokṣa. In some texts punya or spiritual merit and papa or spiritual demerit are counted among the fundamental reals, but in major Jain texts like Tattvārthasūtra the number of tattvas is seven because both punya and papa are included in āsrava or bandha. According to the Jain text, Sarvārthasiddhi, translates S. A. Jain: Jainism believes that the souls exist as a reality, having a separate existence from the body that houses it. Jīva is characterised by upayoga. Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer to the disappearing of one state of soul and appearance of another state, these being the modes of the soul. Ajīva are the five non-living substances, they are: Pudgala –Matter is classified as solid, gaseous, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter or ultimate particles.
Paramānu or ultimate particles are considered the basic building block of all matter. One of the qualities of the Paramānu and Pudgala is that of indestructibility, it combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. According to Jainism, it destroyed. Dharma-tattva and Adharma-tattva – They are known as Dharmāstikāya and Adharmāstikāya, they are unique to Jain thought depicting the principles of rest. They are said to pervade the entire universe. Dharma-tattva and adharma-tattva are by themselves not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without dharmāstikāya motion is not possible and without adharmāstikāya rest is not possible in the universe. Ākāśa – Space is a substance that accommodates souls, the principle of motion, the principle of rest, time. It is all-pervading and made of infinite space-points. Kāla – Time is a real entity according to Jainism and all activities, changes or modifications can be achieved only through time. In Jainism, the time is likened to a wheel with twelve spokes divided into descending and ascending halves with six stages, each of immense duration estimated at billions of sagaropama or ocean years.
According to Jains, sorrow increases at each progressive descending stage and happiness and bliss increase in each progressive ascending stage. Asrava refers to the influence of mind causing the soul to generate karma, it occurs when the karmic particles are attracted to the soul on account of vibrations created by activities of mind and body. The āsrava, that is, the influx of karmic occurs when the karmic particles are attracted to the soul on account of vibrations created by activities of mind and body. Tattvārthasūtra, 6:1–2 states: "The activities of body and mind is called yoga; this three-fold action results in āsrava or influx of karma." The karmic inflow on account of yoga driven by passions and emotions cause a long term inflow of karma prolonging the cycle of reincarnations. On the other hand, the karmic inflows on account of actions that are not driven by passions and emotions have only a transient, short-lived karmic effect; the karmas have effect only. This binding of the karma to the consciousness is called bandha.
However, the yoga or the activities alone do not produce bondage. Out of the many causes of bondage, passion is considered as the main cause of bondage; the karmas are bound on account of the stickiness of the soul due to existence of various passions or mental dispositions. Saṃvara is stoppage of karma; the first step to emancipation or the realization of the self is to see that all channels through which karma has been flowing into the soul have been stopped, so that no additional karma can accumulate. This is referred to as the stoppage of the inflow of karma. There are two kinds of saṃvara: that, concerned with mental life, that which refers to the removal of karmic particles; this stoppage is possible by freedom from attachment. The practice of vows, self-control, observance of ten kinds of dharma and the removal of the various obstacles, such as hunger and passi
Cesare Ripa was an Italian iconographer who worked for Cardinal Anton Maria Salviati as a cook and butler. Little is known about his life, he was died in Rome. After the death of the cardinal, Ripa worked for his relatives, he was knighted after his successful Iconologia, which he wrote in his free time, was published. Iconologia di Cesare Ripa Perugino...: divisa in tre libri, by Cesare Ripa, Cristoforo Tomassini publisher, Venice, 1645. The Iconologia was a influential emblem book based on Egyptian and Roman emblematical representations; the book was used by orators, poets and "modern Italians" to give substance to qualities such as virtues, passions and sciences. The concepts were arranged after the fashion of the Renaissance. For each there was a verbal description of the allegorical figure proposed by Ripa to embody the concept, giving the type and color of its clothing and its varied symbolic paraphernalia, along with the reasons why these were chosen, reasons supported by references to literature.
The first edition of his Iconologia was published without illustrations in 1593 and dedicated to Anton Maria Salviati. A second edition was published in Rome in 1603 this time with 684 concepts and 151 woodcuts, dedicated to Lorenzo Salviati; the book was influential in the 17th and 18th centuries and was quoted extensively in various art forms. In particular, it influenced the painter his followers. Dutch painters like Gerard de Lairesse, Willem van Mieris based work on Ripa's emblems. Vermeer used the emblem for the muse Clio for his The Art of Painting, several others in his The Allegory of Faith. A large part of Vondel's work cannot be understood without this allegorical source, ornamentation of the Amsterdam townhall by Artus Quellinus, a sculptor, is dependent on Ripa. An English translation appeared in 1709 by Pierce Tempest; the baroque painter Antonio Cavallucci drew inspiration for his painting Origin of Music from the book. In 1779, the Scottish architect George Richardson's Iconology.
The drawings were by William Hamilton. In 1819, Filippo Pitrucci, a London-based artist, published his version of Iconologia. Andrea Alciato Pierio Valeriano Bolzani Media related to Cesare Ripa at Wikimedia Commons Velázquez, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Ripa