Maryland Heights, Missouri
Maryland Heights is a middle-class, second-ring west-central suburb of St. Louis, located in St. Louis County, United States; the population was 27,472 at the 2010 census. The city was incorporated in 1985. Edwin L. Dirck was appointed the city's first mayor by County Executive Gene McNary. Mark M. Levin served as City Administrator from August 1985 to 2015. Maryland Heights is located at 38°43′10″N 90°26′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.35 square miles, of which 21.83 square miles is land and 1.52 square miles is water. The City of Maryland Heights is a third-class statutory city, it is governed by a mayor who serves a city council made up of eight members. The city is divided into four wards. Two council-people are elected from each ward to serve on a city council for two-year terms; the city has offered internships in public administration since 1986. As of the census of 2010, there were 27,472 people, 12,180 households, 6,766 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,258.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,092 housing units at an average density of 599.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 63.2% White, 21.9% African American, 0.2% Native American, 9.8% Asian, 2.3% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.5% of the population. There were 12,180 households of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.4% were non-families. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 35 years. 20.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.7% male and 51.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 25,756 people, 11,302 households, 6,419 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,204.4 people per square mile. There were 11,846 housing units at an average density of 553.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.35% White, 5.58% African American, 0.20% Native American, 7.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.71% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.33% of the population. There were 11,302 households out of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.2% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 37.2% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $48,689, the median income for a family was $58,487. Males had a median income of $40,700 versus $30,613 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,918. About 3.8% of families and 5.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Maryland Heights is served by Pattonville public school districts. Edward Jones Investments operates its North Campus office in Maryland Heights. At one time, Express Scripts had its headquarters in Maryland Heights. Express Scripts built a new headquarters on the grounds of the University of Missouri-St. Louis in 2007. Central Midland Railway, a division of Progressive Rail Inc. of Minnesota, provides regular freight rail service to several businesses located in Maryland Heights. CMR operates the far eastern segment of the former Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway's St. Louis to Kansas City main line, constructed in 1870.
The active portion of the former CRI&P line runs from the north side of St. Louis, where it connects with the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis and Union Pacific Railroad, now terminates in Union. According to the city's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: The city of Maryland Heights operates four parks as well as Aquaport, a waterpark. Creve Coeur Lake Memorial Park is operated by St. Louis County and was a summer resort in the early 1900s, it features a 320-acre lake as well as the picturesque "Dripping Springs" waterfall. It was St. Louis County's first park. Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum is located at the Creve Coeur Airport and has a large collection of 1920s and 1930s aircraft. Vago Park is a 20-acre park located at the intersection of Fee Fee Midland Avenue, it features three playgrounds, a splash pad play area, a paved walking trail, a sand volleyball court, three pavilions, a gazebo and picnic areas outfitted with barbecue grills.
Visitors will want to be sure to note the "Veterans Memorial Walk," a sidewalk made of bricks imprinted with the names of Maryland Heights residents who have served in the Armed Forces of the United States. Eise Park is located at the intersection of Glenview Drive and Bourbon Street, near Rose Acres Elementary
Beverly Hills, Missouri
Beverly Hills is a city in St. Louis County, United States; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 574. Beverly Hills is located at 38°41′52″N 90°17′26″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.09 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 574 people, 243 households, 149 families residing in the city; the population density was 6,377.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 288 housing units at an average density of 3,200.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 4.2% White, 92.7% African American, 0.2% Asian, 1.4% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.8% of the population. There were 243 households of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 19.3% were married couples living together, 35.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.7% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the city was 40.6 years. 21.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 45.6% male and 54.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 603 people, 256 households, 162 families residing in the city; the population density was 6,882.0 people per square mile. There were 291 housing units at an average density of 3,321.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 4.64% White, 94.53% African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.17% of the population. There were 256 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.2% were married couples living together, 30.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.99.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 76.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 69.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,060, the median income for a family was $32,411. Males had a median income of $28,333 versus $26,635 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,411. About 14.2% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over. For the fiscal year ending April 30, 2014, Beverly Hills had General Revenue of $794,975, $402,636 or 51% of which came from fines and fees collected by its Municipal Court. Using its population of 574 people from the 2010 Census, the Municipal Court collected $701.45 per person. In May 2015, press reports indicated that the town makes arrests for minor offenses at twice the national average
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
United Parcel Service
United Parcel Service is an American multinational package delivery and supply chain management company. Along with the central package delivery operation, the UPS brand name is used to denote many of its divisions and subsidiaries, including its cargo airline, freight-based trucking operation, retail-based packing and shipping centers; the global logistics company is headquartered in the U. S. city of Sandy Springs, a part of the Greater Atlanta metropolitan area. On August 28, 1907, James Casey founded the American Messenger Company with Claude Ryan in Seattle, capitalized with $100 in debt. Most deliveries at this time were made on foot and bicycles were used for longer trips; the American Messenger Company focused on package delivery to retail stores with special delivery mail delivered for its largest client the United States Postal Service. In 1913, the company acquired a Model T Ford as its first delivery vehicle. Casey and Ryan merged with a competitor, Evert McCabe, formed Merchants Parcel Delivery.
Consolidated delivery was introduced, combining packages addressed to a certain neighborhood onto one delivery vehicle. In 1916, Charlie Soderstrom joined Merchants Parcel Delivery bringing in more vehicles for the growing delivery business. In 1919, the company expanded for the first time outside of Seattle to Oakland and changed its name to United Parcel Service; the name change to United Parcel Service was to remind the company expansion that operations were still United under the same organisation and Parcel identified the type of business offered as part of its Service. Common carrier service was acquired in 1922 from a company in California. UPS became one of the only companies in the United States to offer common carrier service. At first common carrier was only limited to a small area around Los Angeles but by 1927 expanded to areas up to 125 miles outside the city. In 1924, a conveyor belt system was debuted for the handling of packages for UPS operations. In 1930, a consolidated service began in New York City, soon after in other major cities in the East and the Midwest.
The use of common carrier for delivery between all customers placed UPS in direct competition with the United States Postal Service and the Interstate Commerce Commission. The common carrier service was applied in cities where UPS could use the service without the authority of the ICC and state commerce commissions; the first city for UPS to use common carrier status outside California was Chicago, Illinois in 1953. Air service through UPS was first used in 1929 through private airlines. However, The Great Depression and a lack of volume ended the air service. In 1953, UPS resumed air service called UPS Blue Label Air with two-day service to major cities along the East Coast and West Coast. In 1975, UPS moved its headquarters to Greenwich and began serving all of the 48 contiguous states of the United States; the expanded operations to all 48 states made UPS the first package delivery company to serve every address in the Continental United States. UPS went international in 1975 establishing operations in Canada and in 1976 operations were established in Germany.
On February 28, UPS Ltd. began operations in Ontario. UPS Canada's head office is located in Ontario. In 1976, UPS established a domestic operation in West Germany. UPS Next Day Air Service was launched in 1985 for all 48 states plus Puerto Rico. In 1988, UPS Airlines was launched with authorization from the Federal Aviation Administration. UPS Airlines became the fastest-growing airline in FAA history and today is the 10th largest airline in the United States. Domestic air service was added to Germany in 1989. In 1991, UPS moved its headquarters to Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta. In 1992, UPS rebranded them UPS Supply Chain Solutions. Haulfast provided the pallet trucking network for the CarryFast group of companies. By 1993, UPS was delivering up to documents per day; the large volume of UPS customers in the 1990s made UPS develop new technology for better efficiency. A handheld device called Delivery Information Acquisition Device was created to record and upload delivery information to the UPS network upon pickup by every UPS driver.
In 1992, UPS began tracking all ground shipments electronically. In 1994, UPS.com debuted, provided the perfect interface to make what was internal operational information available for customer access. In 1995, UPS acquired SonicAir to compete with Choice Logistics. In the same year, UPS launched UPS Logistics Group to facilitate global supply chain management solutions and consulting for customer needs. In 1997, a walkout by the 185,000 members of the Teamsters shut down UPS for 16 days. In 1998, UPS Capital was established to enable companies to grow their business through a comprehensive menu of integrated financial services through UPS. UPS acquired Challenge Air in 1999 to expand its operations in Latin America. On November 10, 1999, UPS became a public company in the largest initial public offering of the century. In 2001, UPS acquired. Mail Boxes Etc. Inc. In 2003 3,000 Mail Boxes Etc. Inc. were rebranded as The UPS Store. In 2004, UPS entered the heavy freight business with purchase of Menlo Worldwide Forwarding, a former subsidiary of Menlo Worldwide.
UPS rebranded it as UPS Supply Chain Solutions. The purchase price was the assumption of US$110 million in long-term debt. On August 5, 2005, UPS announced that it has completed its acqui
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
A grocery store or grocer's shop is a retail shop that sells food. A grocer is a bulk seller of food. Grocery stores offer non-perishable foods that are packaged in bottles and cans. Large grocery stores that stock significant amounts of non-food products, such as clothing and household items, are called supermarkets; some large supermarkets include a pharmacy, customer service and electronics sections. In Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States and convenience shops are sometimes described as grocery businesses, groceries or grocers. Small grocery stores that sell fruits and vegetables are known as greengrocers or produce markets, small grocery stores that predominantly sell prepared food, such as candy and snacks, are known as convenience shops or delicatessens; some grocery stores form the centerpiece of a larger complex that includes other facilities, such as gas stations, which will operate under the store's name. Some groceries specialize in the foods of a certain nationality or culture, such as Chinese, Middle-Eastern, or Polish.
These stores are known as ethnic markets and may serve as gathering places for immigrants. In many cases, the wide range of products carried by larger supermarkets has reduced the need for such specialty stores; the variety and availability of food is no longer restricted by the diversity of locally grown food or the limitations of the local growing season. Beginning as early as the 14th century, a grocer was a dealer in comestible dry goods such as spices, peppers and cocoa, coffee; because these items were bought in bulk, they were named after the french word for wholesaler, or "grossier". This, in turn, is derived from the Medieval Latin term "grossarius", from which the term "gross" is derived; as increasing numbers of staple food-stuffs became available in cans and other less-perishable packaging, the trade expanded its province. Today, grocers deal in a wide range of staple food-stuffs including such perishables as dairy products and produce; such goods are, called groceries. Many rural areas still contain general stores that sell goods ranging from tobacco products to imported napkins.
Traditionally, general stores have offered credit to their customers, a system of payment that works on trust rather than modern credit cards. This allowed farm families to buy staples; the first self-service grocery store, Piggly Wiggly, was opened in 1916 in Memphis, Tennessee, by Clarence Saunders, an inventor and entrepreneur. Prior to this innovation, grocery stores operated "over the counter," with customers asking a grocer to retrieve items from inventory. Saunders' invention allowed a much smaller number of clerks to service the customers, proving successful "partly because of its novelty because neat packages and large advertising appropriations have made retail grocery selling an automatic procedure." The early supermarkets began as chains of grocer's shops. The development of supermarkets and other large grocery stores has meant that smaller grocery stores must create a niche market by selling unique, premium quality, or ethnic foods that are not found in supermarkets. A small grocery store may compete by locating in a mixed commercial-residential area close to, convenient for, its customers.
Organic foods are becoming a more popular niche market for the smaller stores. Grocery stores operate in many different styles ranging from rural family-owned operations, such as IGAs, to boutique chains, such as Whole Foods Market and Trader Joe's, to larger supermarket chain stores. In some places, food cooperatives, or "co-op" markets, owned by their own shoppers, have been popular. However, there has been a trend towards larger stores serving larger geographic areas. Large "all-in-one" hypermarkets such as Walmart and Meijer have forced consolidation of the grocery businesses in some areas, the entry of variety stores such as Dollar General into rural areas has undercut many traditional grocery stores; the global buying power of such efficient companies has put an increased financial burden on traditional local grocery stores as well as the national supermarket chains, many have been caught up in the retail apocalypse of the 2010s. However, many European cities are so dense in population and buildings, large supermarkets, in the American sense, may not replace the neighbourhood grocer's shop.
However, "Metro" shops have been appearing in town and city centres in many countries, leading to the decline of independent smaller shops. Large out-of-town supermarkets and hypermarkets, such as Tesco and Sainsbury's in the United Kingdom, have been weakening trade from smaller shops. Many grocery chains like Spar or Mace are taking over the regular family business model. Larger grocer complexes that include other facilities, such as petrol stations, is common in the United Kingdom, where major chains such as Sainsbury's and Tesco have many locations operating under this format. Traditional shops throughout Europe have been preserved because of their history and their classic appearance, they are sometimes still found in rural areas, although they are disappearing. Grocery stores in Latin America have been growing fast since the early 1980s. A large percentage of food sales and other articles take place in grocery stores today; some examples are the Chilean chains Cencosud, Walmart (Lid