Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon sequestration involves long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming and it has been proposed as a way to slow the atmospheric and marine accumulation of greenhouse gases, which are released by burning fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide is captured from the atmosphere through biological, chemical. When carried out deliberately, this may be referred to as carbon dioxide removal, Carbon capture and storage, where carbon dioxide is removed from flue gases before being stored in underground reservoirs. Natural biogeochemical cycling of carbon between the atmosphere and reservoirs, such as by chemical weathering of rocks, Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid dangerous climate change. It has been proposed as a way to slow the atmospheric and marine accumulation of greenhouse gases, Carbon dioxide is naturally captured from the atmosphere through biological, chemical or physical processes.
Some anthropogenic sequestration techniques exploit these natural processes, while some use entirely artificial processes, Carbon dioxide may be captured as a pure by-product in processes related to petroleum refining or from flue gases from power generation. Biosequestration or carbon sequestration through biological processes affects the global carbon cycle, examples include major climatic fluctuations, such as the Azolla event, which created the current Arctic climate. Such processes created fossil fuels, as well as clathrate and limestone, by manipulating such processes, geoengineers seek to enhance sequestration. Peat bogs are an important carbon store. Peat bogs act as a sink for carbon due to the accumulation of partially decayed biomass that would continue to decay completely. There is a variance on how much the act as a carbon sink or carbon source that can be linked to varying climates in different areas of the world. By creating new bogs, or enhancing existing ones, the amount of carbon that is sequestered by bogs would increase, reforestation is the replanting of trees on marginal crop and pasture lands to incorporate carbon from atmospheric CO2 into biomass.
For this process to succeed the carbon must not return to the atmosphere from burning or rotting when the trees die. To this end, land allotted to the trees must not be converted to other uses, the wood from them must itself be sequestered, e. g. via biochar, bio-energy with carbon storage, landfill or stored by use in e. g. construction. Urban Forestry increases the amount of carbon taken up in cities by adding new tree sites and it is generally practiced and maintained on smaller scales, like in cities. The results of urban forestry can have different results depending on the type of vegetation that is being used, so it can function as a sink but can function as a source of emissions. Wetland soil is an important carbon sink,14. 5% of the soil carbon is found in wetlands
Renewable resources are a part of Earths natural environment and the largest components of its ecosphere. A positive life cycle assessment is a key indicator of a resources sustainability, definitions of renewable resources may include agricultural production, as in sustainable agriculture and to an extent water resources. In 1962 Paul Alfred Weiss defined Renewable Resources as, The total range of living organisms providing man with food, drugs, another type of renewable resources is renewable energy resources. Common sources of energy include solar and wind power. Water can be considered a material when carefully controlled usage, treatment. If not, it would become a resource at that location. For example, groundwater is removed from an aquifer at a rate much greater than its very slow natural recharge. Removal of water from the spaces may cause permanent compaction that cannot be renewed. 97. 5% of the water on the Earth is salt water, the remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater, with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air.
Water pollution is one of the concerns regarding water resources. It is estimated that 22% of worldwide water is used in industry, major industrial users include hydroelectric dams, thermoelectric power plants and oil refineries and manufacturing plants. Food is any substance consumed to provide support for the body. Most food has its origin in renewable resources, Food is obtained directly from plants and animals. Wild berries and other fruits, plants and naturally growing edible resources, still represent a source of nutrition in many countries. In fact many wild animals are dependent on plants and fruits as a source of food. Hunting may not be the first source of meat in the modernised world and it is the sole source of feeding for wild carnivores. The phrase sustainable agriculture was coined by Australian agricultural scientist Gordon McClymont and it has been defined as an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will last over the long term.
Expansion of agricultural land reduces biodiversity and contributes to deforestation, although air and sunlight are available everywhere on Earth, crops depend on soil nutrients and the availability of water
Indoor air quality
Indoor air quality is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. IAQ can be affected by gases, microbial contaminants, source control and the use of ventilation to dilute contaminants are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings. Residential units can further improve air quality by routine cleaning of carpets. Determination of IAQ involves the collection of air samples, monitoring human exposure to pollutants, collection of samples on building surfaces, IAQ is part of indoor environmental quality, which includes IAQ as well as other physical and psychological aspects of life indoors. Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a health hazard. A major source of air pollution in developing countries is the burning of biomass for heating and cooking. The resulting exposure to high levels of particulate matter resulted in between 1.5 million and 2 million deaths in 2000, second-hand smoke is tobacco smoke which affects other people other than the active smoker.
The only certain method to improve air quality as regards second-hand smoke is the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free laws. Radon is an invisible, radioactive gas that results from the radioactive decay of radium. Radon is probably the most pervasive serious hazard for air in the United States and Europe. There are relatively simple test kits for do-it-yourself radon gas testing, radon gas enters buildings as a soil gas and is a heavy gas and thus will tend to accumulate at the lowest level. Radon may be introduced into a building through drinking water particularly from bathroom showers, the half life for radon is 3.8 days, indicating that once the source is removed, the hazard will be greatly reduced within a few weeks. Radon mitigation methods include sealing concrete slab floors, basement foundations, water drainage systems and they are usually cost effective and can greatly reduce or even eliminate the contamination and the associated health risks. Mold is always associated with moisture, and its growth can be inhibited by keeping humidity levels below 50%, in areas where cellulosic materials become moist and fail to dry within 48 hours, mold mildew can propagate and release allergenic spores into the air.
In many cases, if materials have failed to dry out several days after the suspected water event, through a mold investigation, which may include destructive inspection, one should be able to determine the presence or absence of mold. In a situation there is visible mold and the indoor air quality may have been compromised. There are some varieties of mold that contain toxic compounds, exposure to hazardous levels of mycotoxin via inhalation is not possible in most cases, as toxins are produced by the fungal body and are not at significant levels in the released spores. The primary hazard of mold growth, as it relates to air quality
An ecological footprint is a measure of human impact on Earths ecosystems. Its typically measured in area of wilderness or amount of natural capital consumed each year, at a global scale, it is used to estimate how rapidly we are depleting natural capital. The Global Footprint Network calculates the global ecological footprint from UN and they estimate that as of 2007 our planet has been using natural capital 1.6 times as fast as nature can renew it. Ecological footprint analysis is used around the Earth as an indicator of environmental sustainability. Since 2006, a first set of ecological footprint standards exist that detail both communication and calculation procedures, Ecological footprints can be calculated at any scale, for an activity, a person, a community, a city, a region, a nation or humanity as a whole. Cities, due to concentration, have large ecological footprints and have become ground zero for footprint reduction. However, there has been some convergence of metrics and standards since 2006, City Ecological Footprints, are being measured.
There are two types of measurements in use, the first measures ecosystem displacement which is defined as City Area minus remaining green spaces. This is a measurement that does not include human or other biological activity. The Second attempts to quantify surviving ecosystem health, specifically, it attempts to quantify both area and biological health of ecosystems surviving inside city areas such as nature reserves, other green spaces. City footprints are being calculated and ranked with city ecological indexes, the first academic publication about ecological footprints was by William Rees in 1992. Originally and Rees called the concept appropriated carrying capacity, to make the idea more accessible, Rees came up with the term ecological footprint, inspired by a computer technician who praised his new computers small footprint on the desk. In early 1996, Wackernagel and Rees published the book Our Ecological Footprint and this approach can be applied to an activity such as the manufacturing of a product or driving of a car.
Per capita ecological footprint, or ecological footprint analysis, is a means of comparing consumption and lifestyles, the tool can inform policy by examining to what extent a nation uses more than is available within its territory, or to what extent the nations lifestyle would be replicable worldwide. The footprint can be a tool to educate people about carrying capacity and overconsumption. Ecological footprints may be used to argue that many current lifestyles are not sustainable, such a global comparison clearly shows the inequalities of resource use on this planet at the beginning of the twenty-first century. In 2007, the biologically productive area per person worldwide was approximately 1.8 global hectares per capita. The U. S. footprint per capita was 9.0 gha, the WWF claims that the human footprint has exceeded the biocapacity of the planet by 20%
Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere
Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earths atmosphere. Currently it constitutes about 0. 04% by volume of the atmosphere, despite its relatively small concentration CO2 is a potent greenhouse gas and plays a vital role in regulating Earths surface temperature through radiative forcing and the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide is an part of the carbon cycle, a biogeochemical cycle in which carbon is exchanged between the Earths oceans, soil and the biosphere. Plants and other photoautotrophs use solar energy to produce carbohydrate from atmospheric carbon dioxide, almost all other organisms depend on carbohydrate derived from photosynthesis as their primary source of energy and carbon compounds. The current episode of global warming is attributed to increasing emissions of CO2, the present concentration is the highest in at least the past 800,000 years and likely the highest in the past 20 million years. The increase has been caused by anthropogenic sources, particularly the burning of fossil fuels, the daily average concentration of atmospheric CO2 at Mauna Loa Observatory first exceeded 400 ppm on 10 May 2013.
It is currently rising at a rate of approximately 2 ppm/year, an estimated 30–40% of the CO2 released by humans into the atmosphere dissolves into oceans and lakes, which contributes to ocean acidification. Each part per million by volume represents approximately 2.13 gigatonnes of carbon in the atmosphere as a whole, following the start of the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric CO2 concentration has increased to 400 parts per million and continues to increase. This has caused the phenomenon of global warming, the global average concentration of CO2 in Earths atmosphere is currently about 0. 04%, or 400 parts per million by volume. There is a fluctuation of about 3–9 ppm which is negatively correlated with the Northern Hemispheres growing season. The Northern Hemisphere dominates the annual cycle of CO2 concentration because it has much greater land area, concentrations reach a peak in May as the Northern Hemisphere spring greenup begins, and decline to a minimum in October, near the end of the growing season.
At the scientific recording station in Mauna Loa, the concentration reached 400 ppm for the first time in May 2013, the current concentration may be the highest in the last 20 million years. Carbon dioxide concentrations have varied widely over the Earths 4.54 billion year history, Carbon dioxide is believed to have been present in Earths first atmosphere, shortly after Earths formation. On long timescales, atmospheric CO2 concentration is determined by the balance among geochemical processes including organic carbon burial in sediments, silicate rock weathering, the net effect of slight imbalances in the carbon cycle over tens to hundreds of millions of years has been to reduce atmospheric CO2. On a timescale of billions of years, such downward trend appears bound to continue indefinitely as occasional massive historical releases of buried carbon due to volcanism will become less frequent. The rates of processes are extremely slow, hence they are of no relevance to the atmospheric CO2 concentration over the next hundreds or thousands of years.
The loss of plant life would result in the loss of oxygen. The most direct method for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations for periods before instrumental sampling is to measure bubbles of air trapped in the Antarctic or Greenland ice sheets
Clean Air Act (United States)
The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It is one of the United States first and most influential environmental laws. As with many other major U. S. federal environmental statutes, it is administered by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, in coordination with state and its implementing regulations are codified at 40 C. F. R. The 1955 Air Pollution Control Act was the first U. S federal legislation that pertained to air pollution, the first federal legislation to actually pertain to controlling air pollution was the Clean Air Act of 1963. The 1963 act accomplished this by establishing a program within the U. S. Public Health Service and authorizing research into techniques for monitoring and controlling air pollution, the 1967 act authorized expanded studies of air pollutant emission inventories, ambient monitoring techniques, and control techniques. Major amendments to the law, requiring regulatory controls for air pollution, the 1970 amendments greatly expanded the federal mandate, requiring comprehensive federal and state regulations for both stationary pollution sources and mobile sources.
It significantly expanded federal enforcement, the 1990 amendments addressed acid rain, ozone depletion, and toxic air pollution, established a national permits program for stationary sources, and increased enforcement authority. Reviewing his tenure as EPA Administrator under President George H. Bush, the Clean Air Act was the first major environmental law in the United States to include a provision for citizen suits. Numerous state and local governments have enacted legislation, either implementing federal programs or filling in locally important gaps in federal programs. This section of the act declares that protecting and enhancing the nations air quality promotes public health, the law encourages prevention of regional air pollution and control programs. It provides technical and financial assistance for air pollution prevention at both state and local governments, additional subchapters cover of cooperation, investigation and other activities. Grants for air pollution planning and control programs, and interstate air quality agencies, the act mandates air quality control regions, designated as attainment vs non-attainment.
Non-attainment areas do not meet standards for primary or secondary ambient air quality. Attainment areas meet these standards, while unclassifiable areas cannot be classified on the basis of the information that is available, Air quality criteria, national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards, state implementation plans and performance standards for new stationary sources are covered in Part A. The list of air pollutants established by the act includes acetaldehyde, chloroform, phenols. The list includes mineral fiber emissions from manufacturing or processing glass, the list periodically can be modified. The remaining subchapters cover smokestack heights, state plan adequacy, and estimating emissions of carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, measures to prevent unemployment or other economic disruption include using local coal or coal derivatives to comply with implementation requirements
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II in order to prevent another such conflict, at its founding, the UN had 51 member states, there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, further main offices are situated in Geneva and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, the UNs mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies. The organization participated in actions in Korea and the Congo. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military, the UN has six principal organs, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Trusteeship Council.
UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, the UNs most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese António Guterres since 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UNs work, the organization won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001, and a number of its officers and agencies have been awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UNs effectiveness have been mixed, some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased. Following the catastrophic loss of life in the First World War, the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. It incorporated Soviet suggestions, but left no role for France, four Policemen was coined to refer to four major Allied countries, United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China, which emerged in the Declaration by United Nations.
Roosevelt first coined the term United Nations to describe the Allied countries, the term United Nations was first officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. One major change from the Atlantic Charter was the addition of a provision for religious freedom, by 1 March 1945,21 additional states had signed. Each Government pledges itself to cooperate with the Governments signatory hereto, the foregoing declaration may be adhered to by other nations which are, or which may be, rendering material assistance and contributions in the struggle for victory over Hitlerism. During the war, the United Nations became the term for the Allies. To join, countries had to sign the Declaration and declare war on the Axis, at the meetings, Lord Halifax deputized for Mr. Eden, Wellington Koo for T. V. Soong, and Mr Gromyko for Mr. Molotov. The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, the General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the UN, and the facility was completed in 1952.
Its site—like UN headquarters buildings in Geneva and Nairobi—is designated as international territory, the Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-General
Indoor air pollution in developing nations
Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution that is little known to those in the developed world. Three billion people in developing nations across the globe rely on biomass, in the form of wood, charcoal and crop residue, as their domestic cooking fuel. Because much of the cooking is carried out indoors in environments that lack proper ventilation, millions of people, globally,4.3 million deaths were attributed to exposure to IAP in developing countries in 2012, almost all in low and middle income countries. The South East Asian and Western Pacific regions bear most of the burden with 1.69 and 1.62 million deaths, respectively. Almost 600,000 deaths occur in Africa,200,000 in the Eastern Mediterranean region,99,000 in Europe and 81,000 in the Americas, the remaining 19,000 deaths occur in high income countries. Even though the rate of dependence on biomass fuel is declining and this is due to the poor combustion efficiency of the combustion devices and the elevated nature of the emissions.
In addition, they are released directly into living areas. In a typical solid fuel stove, about 6–20% of the fuel is converted into toxic emissions. The exact quantity and relative composition is determined by such as the fuel type and moisture content, stove type. Indoor PM2.5 exposure levels have been reported to be in the range of hundreds to thousands of micrograms per cubic meter. Similarly, CO exposure levels have been measured to be as high as hundreds to greater than 1000 milligrams per cubic meter. Rural Kenya has been the site of various applied research projects to determine the intensity of emissions that occur from use of biomass fuels, particularly wood, dung. Smoke is the result of the combustion of solid fuel which women and children are exposed to up to seven hours each day in closed environments. These emissions vary from day to day, season to season, exposure in poor homes far exceeds accepted safety levels by as much as one hundred times over. Because many Kenyan women utilize a three-stone fire, the worst offender, one kilogram of burning wood produces tiny particles of soot which can clog, the smoke contains various poisonous gases such as aldehydes and carbon monoxide.
Exposure to IAP from combustion of solid fuels has been implicated, with varying degrees of evidence, acute lower respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are the leading causes of disease and death from exposure to smoke. Cataracts and blindness, lung cancer, premature births and this time could be spent in more productive ways such as attending school or income production. The use of biomass coupled with inefficient cooking apparatus leads to a web of social and environmental concerns which directly links to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, for example, some improved stove designs in Kenya significantly reduced particulate emissions but produced higher CO2 and SO2 emissions
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind. This includes all valued characteristics such as magnetic, gravitational, on earth it includes, atmosphere, land along with all vegetation and animal life that naturally subsists upon or within the heretofore identified characteristics and substances. Particular areas such as the rainforest in Fatu-Hiva are often characterized by the biodiversity and geodiversity existent in their ecosystems, Natural resources may be further classified in different ways. Natural resources are materials and components that can be found within the environment, every man-made product is composed of natural resources. Some natural resources such as sunlight and air can be found everywhere, most resources only occur in small sporadic areas, and are referred to as localised resources. There are very few resources that are considered inexhaustible – these are solar radiation, geothermal energy, the vast majority of resources are theoretically exhaustible, which means they have a finite quantity and can be depleted if managed improperly.
There are various methods of categorizing natural resources, these include source of origin, stage of development, fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum are included in this category because they are formed from decayed organic matter. Abiotic – Abiotic resources are those that come from non-living, non-organic material, examples of abiotic resources include land, fresh water and heavy metals including ores such as gold, copper, etc. For example, petroleum occurs with sedimentary rocks in various regions, Actual resources — Actual resources are those that have been surveyed, their quantity and quality determined and are being used in present times. The development of a resource, such as wood processing depends upon the technology available. Reserve resources — The part of a resource which can be developed profitably in the future is called a reserve resource. Stock resources — Stock resources are those that have been surveyed, renewability is a very popular topic and many natural resources can be categorized as either renewable or non-renewable, Renewable resources — Renewable resources can be replenished naturally.
Some of these resources, like sunlight, wind, etc. are continuously available, though many renewable resources do not have such a rapid recovery rate, these resources are susceptible to depletion by over-use. Non-renewable resources – Non-renewable resources either form slowly or do not naturally form in the environment, minerals are the most common resource included in this category. Some resources actually naturally deplete in amount without human interference, the most notable of these being radio-active elements such as uranium, of these, the metallic minerals can be re-used by recycling them, but coal and petroleum cannot be recycled. Once they are used they take millions of years to replenish. Resource extraction involves any activity that withdraws resources from nature and this can range in scale from the traditional use of preindustrial societies, to global industry. Extractive industries are, along with agriculture, the basis of the sector of the economy
Atmosphere of Earth
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earths gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by absorbing solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention. By volume, dry air contains 78. 09% nitrogen,20. 95% oxygen,0. 93% argon,0. 04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air contains an amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level. The atmosphere has a mass of about 5. 15×1018 kg, the atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. The Kármán line, at 100 km, or 1. 57% of Earths radius, is used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km, several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition. The study of Earths atmosphere and its processes is called atmospheric science, early pioneers in the field include Léon Teisserenc de Bort and Richard Assmann.
The three major constituents of air, and therefore of Earths atmosphere, are nitrogen, water vapor accounts for roughly 0. 25% of the atmosphere by mass. The remaining gases are often referred to as gases, among which are the greenhouse gases, principally carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide. Filtered air includes trace amounts of other chemical compounds. Various industrial pollutants may be present as gases or aerosols, such as chlorine, fluorine compounds, sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide may be derived from natural sources or from industrial air pollution. In general, air pressure and density decrease with altitude in the atmosphere, temperature has a more complicated profile with altitude, and may remain relatively constant or even increase with altitude in some regions. In this way, Earths atmosphere can be divided into five main layers, excluding the exosphere, Earth has four primary layers, which are the troposphere, stratosphere and thermosphere. It extends from the exobase, which is located at the top of the thermosphere at an altitude of about 700 km above sea level, to about 10,000 km where it merges into the solar wind.
This layer is composed of extremely low densities of hydrogen and several heavier molecules including nitrogen, oxygen. The atoms and molecules are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding with one another, the exosphere no longer behaves like a gas, and the particles constantly escape into space. These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate in and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind, the exosphere is located too far above Earth for any meteorological phenomena to be possible
Emissions trading or cap and trade is a government-mandated, market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. Various countries and groups of companies have adopted such trading systems, a central authority allocates or sells a limited number of permits to discharge specific quantities of a specific pollutant per time period. Polluters are required to hold permits in amount equal to their emissions, polluters that want to increase their emissions must buy permits from others willing to sell them. Financial derivatives of permits can be traded on secondary markets, in theory, polluters who can reduce emissions most cheaply will do so, achieving the emission reduction at the lowest cost to society. Cap and trade is meant to provide the private sector with the flexibility required to reduce emissions while stimulating technological innovation, there are active trading programs in several air pollutants. For greenhouse gases, which climate change, permit units are often called carbon credits.
The United States has a market to reduce acid rain. Pollution is the example of a market externality. An externality is an effect of some activity on an entity that is not party to a market related to that activity. Emissions trading is an approach, among others, to address pollution. The overall goal of an emissions trading plan is to minimize the cost of meeting a set emissions target. In an emissions trading system, the government sets a limit on emissions. The government may sell the permits, but in many existing schemes, the baseline is determined by reference to the participants historical emissions. To demonstrate compliance, a participant must hold permits at least equal to the quantity of pollution it actually emitted during the time period, if every participant complies, the total pollution emitted will be at most equal to the sum of individual limits. In effect, the buyer pays a charge for polluting, while the seller gains a reward for having reduced emissions, in many schemes, organizations which do not pollute may trade permits and financial derivatives of permits.
In some schemes, participants can bank allowances to use in future periods, in some schemes, a proportion of all traded permits must be retired periodically, causing a net reduction in emissions over time. Thus, environmental groups may buy and retire permits, driving up the price of the remaining permits according to the law of demand, in most schemes, permit owners can donate permits to a nonprofit entity and receive a tax deduction. Usually, the government lowers the overall limit over time, with an aim towards an emissions reduction target
Ecology is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment. It is a field that includes biology, geography. Ecology includes the study of interactions that organisms have with other, other organisms. Ecosystems are composed of dynamically interacting parts including organisms, the communities make up. Ecosystem processes, such as production, nutrient cycling. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits, which refers to the varieties of species and ecosystems, enhances certain ecosystem services. Ecology is not synonymous with environment, natural history and it is closely related to evolutionary biology and ethology. An important focus for ecologists is to improve the understanding of how biodiversity affects ecological function, Ecology is a human science as well. For example, the Circles of Sustainability approach treats ecology as more than the environment out there and it is not treated as separate from humans. Organisms and resources compose ecosystems which, in turn, maintain biophysical feedback mechanisms that moderate processes acting on living and non-living components of the planet, the word ecology was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel.
Ecological thought is derivative of established currents in philosophy, particularly from ethics and politics, ancient Greek philosophers such as Hippocrates and Aristotle laid the foundations of ecology in their studies on natural history. Modern ecology became a more rigorous science in the late 19th century. Evolutionary concepts relating to adaptation and natural selection became the cornerstones of modern ecological theory, the scope of ecology contains a wide array of interacting levels of organization spanning micro-level to a planetary scale phenomena. Ecosystems, for example, contain abiotic resources and interacting life forms, an ecosystems area can vary greatly, from tiny to vast. A single tree is of consequence to the classification of a forest ecosystem. Several generations of a population can exist over the lifespan of a single leaf. Each of those aphids, in turn, support diverse bacterial communities, biodiversity describes the diversity of life from genes to ecosystems and spans every level of biological organization.
The term has several interpretations, and there are ways to index, characterize