Colin Luther Powell is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army. During his military career, Powell served as National Security Advisor, as Commander of the U. S. Army Forces Command and as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, holding the latter position during the Persian Gulf War. Powell was the first, so far the only, Jamaican American to serve on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving under U. S. President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005, the first black person to serve in that position. Powell was raised in the South Bronx, his parents and Maud Powell, immigrated to the United States from Jamaica. Powell was educated in the New York City public schools, graduating from the City College of New York, where he earned a bachelor's degree in geology, he participated in ROTC at CCNY and received a commission as an Army second lieutenant upon graduation in June 1958. His further academic achievements include a Master of Business Administration degree from George Washington University.
Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, during which time he held myriad command and staff positions and rose to the rank of 4-star General. His last assignment, from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1993, was as the 12th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military position in the Department of Defense. During this time, he oversaw 28 crises, including Operation Desert Storm in the 1991 Persian Gulf War, he formulated the Powell Doctrine. Following his military retirement, Powell wrote My American Journey. In addition, he pursued a career as a public speaker, addressing audiences across the country and abroad. Prior to his appointment as Secretary of State, Powell was the chairman of America's Promise – The Alliance for Youth, a national nonprofit organization dedicated to mobilizing people from every sector of American life to build the character and competence of young people, he was nominated by President Bush on December 2000 as Secretary of State. After being unanimously confirmed by the U.
S. Senate, he was sworn in as the 65th Secretary of State on January 20, 2001. Powell is the recipient of numerous U. S. and foreign military awards and decorations. Powell's civilian awards include two Presidential Medal of Freedom, the President's Citizens Medal, the Congressional Gold Medal, the Secretary of State Distinguished Service Medal, the Secretary of Energy Distinguished Service Medal. Several schools and other institutions have been named in his honor and he holds honorary degrees from universities and colleges across the country. Powell is married to the former Alma Vivian Johnson of Alabama; the Powell family includes son Michael. In 2016, while not a candidate for that year's election, Powell received three electoral votes for the office of President of the United States. Powell was born on April 5, 1937, in Harlem, a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, to Jamaican immigrants, Maud Arial and Luther Theophilus Powell, his parents were both of mixed Scottish ancestry.
Luther worked as Maud as a seamstress. Powell was raised in the South Bronx and attended Morris High School, from which he graduated in 1954. While at school, Powell worked at a local baby furniture store, where he picked up Yiddish from the eastern European Jewish shopkeepers and some of the customers, he served as a Shabbos goy, helping Orthodox families with needed tasks on the Sabbath. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Geology from the City College of New York in 1958 and has said he was a'C average' student, he earned an MBA degree from the George Washington University in 1971, after his second tour in Vietnam. Despite his parents' pronunciation of his name as, Powell has pronounced his name since childhood, after the World War II flyer Colin P. Kelly Jr. Public officials and radio and television reporters have used Powell's preferred pronunciation. Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, holding a variety of command and staff positions and rising to the rank of General.
Powell described joining the Reserve Officers' Training Corps during college as one of the happiest experiences of his life. According to Powell: It was only once I was in college, about six months into college when I found something that I liked, and, ROTC, Reserve Officer Training Corps in the military, and I not only liked it. That's what you have to look for in life, something that you like, something that you think you're pretty good at, and if you can put those two things together you're on the right track, just drive on. Cadet Powell joined the Pershing Rifles, the ROTC fraternal organization and drill team begun by General John Pershing. After he had become a general, Powell kept on his desk a pen set he had won for a drill team competition. Upon graduation, he received a commission as an Army second lieutenant. After attending basic training at Fort Benning, Powell was assigned to the 48th Infantry, in West Germany, as a platoon leader. In his autobiography, Powell said he is haunted by the nightmare of the Vietnam War and felt that the leadership was ineffective.
Captain Powell served a tour in Vietnam as a South Vietnamese Army advisor from 1962 to 1963. While on patrol in a Viet Cong-held area, he was wounded by stepping on a punji stake; the large infection
Simple living encompasses a number of different voluntary practices to simplify one's lifestyle. These may include, for example, reducing one's possessions referred to as minimalism, or increasing self-sufficiency. Simple living may be characterized by individuals being satisfied with what they have rather than want. Although asceticism promotes living and refraining from luxury and indulgence, not all proponents of simple living are ascetics. Simple living is distinct from those living in forced poverty, as it is a voluntary lifestyle choice. Adherents may choose simple living for a variety of personal reasons, such as spirituality, increase in quality time for family and friends, work–life balance, personal taste, financial sustainability, frugality, or reducing stress. Simple living can be a reaction to materialism and conspicuous consumption; some cite socio-political goals aligned with the environmentalist, anti-consumerist or anti-war movements, including conservation, social justice, tax resistance.
A number of religious and spiritual traditions encourage simple living. Early examples include the Śramaṇa traditions of Iron Age India, Gautama Buddha, biblical Nazirites; the biblical figure. He is said to have encouraged his disciples "to take nothing for their journey except a staff—no bread, no bag, no money in their belts—but to wear sandals and not put on two tunics." Various notable individuals have claimed that spiritual inspiration led them to a simple living lifestyle, such as Benedict of Nursia, Francis of Assisi, Ammon Hennacy, Leo Tolstoy, Rabindranath Tagore, Albert Schweitzer, Mahatma Gandhi. Traditions of simple living stretch back to antiquity, finding resonance with leaders such as Zarathustra, Buddha and Confucius and was stressed in both Greco-Roman culture and Judeo-Christian ethics. Diogenes, a major figure in the ancient Greek philosophy of Cynicism, claimed that a simple life was necessary for virtue, was said to have lived in a wine jar. Plain people are Christian groups who have for centuries practiced lifestyles in which some forms of wealth or technology are excluded for religious or philosophical reasons.
Groups include the Shakers, Amish, Amana Colonies, Old German Baptist Brethren, Harmony Society, some Quakers. There is a Quaker belief called Testimony of simplicity that a person ought to live her or his life simply. Jean-Jacques Rousseau praised the simple life in many of his writings in his Discourse on the Arts and Sciences and Discourse on Inequality. Epicureanism, based on the teachings of the Athens-based philosopher Epicurus, flourished from about the fourth century BC to the third century AD. Epicureanism upheld the untroubled life as the paradigm of happiness, made possible by considered choices. Epicurus pointed out that troubles entailed by maintaining an extravagant lifestyle tend to outweigh the pleasure of partaking in it, he therefore concluded that what is necessary for happiness, bodily comfort, life itself should be maintained at minimal cost, while all things beyond what is necessary for these should either be tempered by moderation or avoided. Henry David Thoreau, an American naturalist and author, is considered to have made the classic secular statement advocating a life of simple and sustainable living in his book Walden.
Thoreau conducted a two-year experiment living a simple life on the shores of Walden Pond. In Victorian Britain, Henry Stephens Salt, an admirer of Thoreau, popularised the idea of "Simplification, the saner method of living". Other British advocates of the simple life included Edward Carpenter, William Morris, the members of the "Fellowship of the New Life". Carpenter popularised the phrase the "Simple Life" in his essay Simplification of Life in his England's Ideal. C. R. Ashbee and his followers practiced some of these ideas, thus linking simplicity with the Arts and Crafts movement. British novelist John Cowper Powys advocated the simple life in his 1933 book A Philosophy of Solitude. John Middleton Murry and Max Plowman practised a simple lifestyle at their Adelphi Centre in Essex in the 1930s. Irish poet Patrick Kavanagh championed a "right simplicity" philosophy based on ruralism in some of his work. George Lorenzo Noyes, a naturalist, development critic and artist, is known as the Thoreau of Maine.
He lived a wilderness lifestyle, advocating through his creative work a simple life and reverence for nature. During the 1920s and 1930s, the Vanderbilt Agrarians of the Southern United States advocated a lifestyle and culture centered upon traditional and sustainable agrarian values as opposed to the progressive urban industrialism which dominated the Western world at that time. Thorstein Veblen warned against the conspicuous consumption of the materialistic society with The Theory of the Leisure Class. From the 1920s, a number of modern authors articulated both the theory and practice of living among them Gandhian Richard Gregg, economists Ralph Borsodi and Scott Nearing, anthropologist-poet Gary Snyder, utopian fiction writer Ernest Callenbach. E. F. Schumacher argued against the notion; the Australian academic Ted Trainer practices and writes about simplicity, established The Simplicity Institute at Pigface Point, some 20 km from the University of New South Wales to which it is attached.
A secular set of nine values was developed
Sustainability is the process of maintaining change in a balanced environment, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. For many in the field, sustainability is defined through the following interconnected domains or pillars: environment and social, which according to Fritjof Capra is based on the principles of Systems Thinking. Sub-domains of sustainable development have been considered also: cultural and political. While sustainable development may be the organizing principle for sustainability for some, for others, the two terms are paradoxical. Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Brundtland Report for the World Commission on Environment and Development introduced the term of sustainable development.
Sustainability can be defined as a socio-ecological process characterized by the pursuit of a common ideal. An ideal is by definition unattainable in space. However, by persistently and dynamically approaching it, the process results in a sustainable system. Healthy ecosystems and environments are necessary to the survival of other organisms. Ways of reducing negative human impact are environmentally-friendly chemical engineering, environmental resources management and environmental protection. Information is gained from green computing, green chemistry, earth science, environmental science and conservation biology. Ecological economics studies the fields of academic research that aim to address human economies and natural ecosystems. Moving towards sustainability is a social challenge that entails international and national law, urban planning and transport, supply chain management and individual lifestyles and ethical consumerism. Ways of living more sustainably can take many forms from reorganizing living conditions, reappraising economic sectors, or work practices, using science to develop new technologies, or designing systems in a flexible and reversible manner, adjusting individual lifestyles that conserve natural resources."The term'sustainability' should be viewed as humanity's target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium, while'sustainable development' refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability."
Despite the increased popularity of the use of the term "sustainability", the possibility that human societies will achieve environmental sustainability has been, continues to be, questioned—in light of environmental degradation, climate change, population growth and societies' pursuit of unlimited economic growth in a closed system. The name sustainability is derived from the Latin sustinere. Sustain can mean "maintain", "support", or "endure". Since the 1980s sustainability has been used more in the sense of human sustainability on planet Earth and this has resulted in the most quoted definition of sustainability as a part of the concept sustainable development, that of the Brundtland Commission of the United Nations on March 20, 1987: "sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"; the 2005 World Summit on Social Development identified sustainable development goals, such as economic development, social development and environmental protection.
This view has been expressed as an illustration using three overlapping ellipses indicating that the three pillars of sustainability are not mutually exclusive and can be mutually reinforcing. In fact, the three pillars are interdependent, in the long run none can exist without the others; the three pillars have served as a common ground for numerous sustainability standards and certification systems in recent years, in particular in the food industry. Standards which today explicitly refer to the triple bottom line include Rainforest Alliance, Fairtrade and UTZ Certified; some sustainability experts and practitioners have illustrated four pillars of sustainability, or a quadruple bottom line. One such pillar is future generations, which emphasizes the long-term thinking associated with sustainability. There is an opinion that considers resource use and financial sustainability as two additional pillars of sustainability. Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global efforts to meet basic human needs without destroying or degrading the natural environment.
The question becomes how to represent the relationship between those needs and the environment. A study from 2005 pointed out. Ecological economist Herman Daly asked, "what use is a sawmill without a forest?" From this perspective, the economy is a subsystem of human society, itself a subsystem of the biosphere, a gain in one sector is a loss from another. This perspective led to the nested circles figure of'economics' inside'society' inside the'environment'; the simple definition that sustainability is something that improves "the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting eco-systems", though vague, conveys the idea of sustainability having quantifiable limits. But sustainability is a call to action, a task in progress or "journe
South African National Conference on Environment and Development
The first National Conference on Environment and Development in South Africa was held at the University of the Western Cape during June/July 1991. It saw at least 231 representatives from a wide range of organisations discussing the links between environmental degradation and the political situation in Southern Africa; the three-day conference, hosted by the Cape Town Ecology Group and the Western Cape branch of the World Conference on Religion and Peace and the Call of Islam aimed to "ecologise politics and politicise ecology". According to conference organiser, Phakamile Tshazibane, the conference represented a "breakthrough", since this was the "first time groups such as the Congress of South African Trade Unions, the National Council of Trade Unions, the Pan Africanist Congress and the African National Congress found common ground around the issue of the environment." There were a wide range of religious groupings represented, from Hinduism to Judaism, as well as many people from rural areas such as Kuruman and Tuang.
Although the conference opening was marred by the last-minute withdrawal of key international speaker Vandana Shiva due to ill-health, other international environmentalists filled the gap. Bert von Pixteren of Friends of the Earth in the Netherlands told the conference that international environmental groupings had been wary of engaging with South African environmental organisations. However, political changes in the country had made participation possible, he cautioned against the attitude that environmentalists could continue their work without assisting the democratic process in the country. Thobeka Thamage of the South African Women's Environmental Collective in London focused on environmental abuses affecting women around the world, on the fact that many contraceptive methods endangered women's health, she drew particular attention to environmental problems facing rural women in Africa, to the fact that development programmes in the Southern African region had ignored the extra burden carried by women as a result of the migrant labour system employed by South African industry.
The need for "greater grassroots participation in the development decisions affecting people" was the message conveyed by Yemi Katare of the Zimbabwe Environmental Research Organisation, who spoke about development problems in general and the lessons to be learnt from the Zimbabwean experience. Debate at the conference centred on issues such as the land question, with many delegates feeling that a new constitution would alleviate the inequalities that had resulted in land degradation in the homelands. Solly Skosana of the PAC reiterated the view that land apartheid had not disappeared and that a constituent assembly was the only mechanism in which environmental concerns over land distribution would be able to be addressed. There was consensus among delegates that unequal land distribution was a major cause of environmental problems in South Africa and that the land itself needed protection under the law. Speaking on behalf of the ANC, Cheryl Carolus criticised the lack of political involvement by environmentalists in the past and made the point that her decision to get involved in politics had arisen out of a desire to empower herself and to regain control over her environment.
The issue of workers' involvement in environmental issues was taken up by Nosey Peterse of the Food and Allied Workers Union who told delegates: "You can talk about environmental degradation but while you talk workers are losing their jobs because of environmental degradation." "You cannot have a fishing industry without fish or agriculture without soil," said Peterse, who added that a sustainable environment would mean thousands of jobs in the future. He urged delegates not to intellectualise about workers but rather to do something practical about the problem. A statement adopted at the end of the conference declared: "A peaceful and just society can only be sustained if its ecological base is sound, this means working with the people of the country striving for a democratic government and justice in access to land and the common wealth." "Ecologically sound practices and projects can only succeed through grassroots participation where the people concerned retain control of those things that affect their lives."
Delegates agreed that full grassroots participation would have to involve a change in perception and values towards seeing "the interdependence of all living things". Inspiration for such values existed in "many religious and spiritual traditions, in particular African belief systems." CTEG spokesperson Henri Laurie said the conference was significant in that people from backgrounds that were divisive had shown a willingness to work together. "The amount of goodwill was remarkable and the delegates showed an enormous degree of solidarity on the environmental issue." World Summit on Sustainable Development
Planetary boundaries is a concept involving Earth system processes which contain environmental boundaries, proposed in 2009 by a group of Earth system and environmental scientists led by Johan Rockström from the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Will Steffen from the Australian National University. The group wanted to define a "safe operating space for humanity" for the international community, including governments at all levels, international organizations, civil society, the scientific community and the private sector, as a precondition for sustainable development; the framework is based on scientific evidence that human actions since the Industrial Revolution have become the main driver of global environmental change. According to the paradigm, "transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or catastrophic due to the risk of crossing thresholds that will trigger non-linear, abrupt environmental change within continental-to planetary-scale systems."The Earth system process boundaries mark the safe zone for the planet to the extent that they are not crossed.
As of 2009, two boundaries have been crossed, while others are in imminent danger of being crossed. In 2009, a group of Earth system and environmental scientists led by Johan Rockström from the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Will Steffen from the Australian National University collaborated with 26 leading academics, including Nobel laureate Paul Crutzen, Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate scientist James Hansen and the German Chancellor's chief climate adviser Hans Joachim Schellnhuber and identified nine "planetary life support systems" essential for human survival, attempting to quantify how far seven of these systems had been pushed already, they estimated. Estimates indicated that three of these boundaries—climate change, biodiversity loss, the biogeochemical flow boundary—appear to have been crossed; the boundaries were "rough, first estimates only, surrounded by large uncertainties and knowledge gaps" which interact in complex ways that are not yet well understood. Boundaries were defined to help define a "safe space for human development", an improvement on approaches aiming at minimizing human impacts on the planet.
The 2009 report was presented to the General Assembly of the Club of Rome in Amsterdam. An edited summary of the report was published as the featured article in a special 2009 edition of Nature. Alongside invited critical commentary from leading academics like Nobel laureate Mario J. Molina and biologist Cristián Samper. In 2015, a second paper was published in Science to update the Planetary Boundaries concept and findings were presented at the World Economic Forum in Davos, January 2015. A 2018 study, co-authored by Rockström, calls into question the international agreement to limit warming to 2 degrees above pre-industrial temperatures set forth in the Paris Agreement; the scientists raise the possibility that if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced to limit warming to 2 degrees, that might be the "threshold" at which self-reinforcing climate feedbacks add additional warming until the climate system stabilizes in a hothouse climate state. This would make parts of the world uninhabitable, raise sea levels by up to 60 metres, raise temperatures by 4–5 °C to levels that are higher than any interglacial period in the past 1.2 million years.
Rockström notes that whether this would occur "is one of the most existential questions in science." Study author Katherine Richardson stresses, "We note that the Earth has never in its history had a quasi-stable state, around 2 °C warmer than the preindustrial and suggest that there is substantial risk that the system, will ‘want’ to continue warming because of all of these other processes – if we stop emissions. This implies not only reducing emissions but much more.” The idea that our planet has limits, including the burden placed upon it by human activities, has been around for some time. In 1972, The Limits to Growth was published, it presented a model in which five variables: world population, industrialization, food production, resources depletion, are examined, considered to grow exponentially, whereas the ability of technology to increase resources availability is only linear. Subsequently, the report was dismissed by economists and businessmen, it has been claimed that history has proved the projections to be incorrect.
In 2008, Graham Turner from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation published "A comparison of The Limits to Growth with thirty years of reality". Turner found that the observed historical data from 1970 to 2000 matches the simulated results of the "standard run" limits of growth model for all the outputs reported. "The comparison is well within uncertainty bounds of nearly all the data in terms of both magnitude and the trends over time." Turner examined a number of reports by economists, which over the years have purported to discredit the limits-to-growth model. Turner says these reports are flawed, reflect misunderstandings about the model. In 2010, Nørgård, Peet and Ragnarsdóttir called the book a "pioneering report", said that it "has withstood the test of time and, has only become more relevant." Our Common Future was published in 1987 by United Nations' World Commission on Environment and Development. It tried to recapture the spirit of the Stockholm Conference.
Its aim was to interlock the concepts of development and environment for future political discussions. It introduced the famous definition for sustainable development: "Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of futur
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
American Enterprise Institute
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known as the American Enterprise Institute, is a Washington, D. C.-based conservative think tank that researches government, politics and social welfare. AEI is an independent nonprofit organization supported by grants and contributions from foundations and individuals. Founded in 1938, AEI's stated mission is "to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism—limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility and effective defense and foreign policies, political accountability, open debate". AEI is associated with conservatism and neoconservatism, although it is non-partisan. Arthur C. Brooks has served as president of AEI since January 2009. AEI current scholars and fellows include Kevin Hassett, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Michael Barone, Nicholas Eberstadt, Jonah Goldberg, Phil Gramm, Glenn Hubbard, Frederick Kagan, Leon Kass, Jon Kyl, Charles Murray, Norman Ornstein, Mark J. Perry, Danielle Pletka, Michael Rubin, Gary Schmitt, Christina Hoff Sommers, Jim Talent, Peter J. Wallison, Michael R. Strain, Bill Lenner, W. Bradford Wilcox.
Former AEI scholars or affiliates notably include President Gerald Ford, William J. Baroody Jr. William J. Baroody Sr. Robert Bork, Arthur F. Burns, Ronald Coase, Dinesh D'Souza, Alfred de Grazia, Christopher DeMuth, Martin Feldstein, Milton Friedman, David Frum, Reuel Marc Gerecht, David Gergen, Newt Gingrich, James K. Glassman, Jeane Kirkpatrick, Irving Kristol, Michael Ledeen, Seymour Martin Lipset, John Lott, James C. Miller III, Joshua Muravchik, Michael Novak, Richard Perle, Roscoe Pound, Laurence Silberman, Antonin Scalia, Ben Wattenberg, James Q. Wilson; some AEI staff members are considered to be among the leading architects of the Bush administration's public and foreign policy. More than twenty staff members served either in a Bush administration policy post or on one of the government's many panels and commissions. Among the prominent former government officials now affiliated with AEI are: AEI Board of Trustees member Dick Cheney, vice president of the United States under George W. Bush.
AEI describes itself as nonpartisan and its website includes a statement on political advocacy: "Legal requirements aside, AEI has important reasons of its own for abstaining from any form of policy advocacy as an institution... AEI takes no institutional positions on policy issues or on any other issues." This distinguishes AEI from other think tanks, such as The Heritage Foundation and the Center for American Progress. Although the institute is cited as a right-leaning counterpart to the left-leaning Brookings Institution, the two entities have collaborated. From 1998 to 2008, they co-sponsored the AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies, in 2006 they launched the AEI-Brookings Election Reform Project. In 2015, a working group consisting of members from both institutions coauthored a report entitled Opportunity and Security: A Consensus Plan for Reducing Poverty and Restoring the American Dream. AEI is the most prominent think tank associated with American neoconservatism, in both the domestic and international policy arenas.
Irving Kristol considered to be one of the founding fathers of neoconservatism, was a senior fellow at AEI and many prominent neoconservatives—including Jeane Kirkpatrick, Ben Wattenberg, Joshua Muravchik—spent the bulk of their careers at AEI. AEI staff member Norman J. Ornstein, a self-identified centrist, criticizes commentators who label him a "neocon" and says that "the intellectual openness and lack of orthodoxy at AEI exceeds what I have seen on any college campus... ven though my writings have ticked off conservative ideologues and business interests—especially my deep involvement in campaign finance reform—I have never once been told,'You can't say that' or'You better be careful'". AEI staff have taken strong stances against agricultural subsidies. A 2007 document authored by Bruce Gardner claimed that "There is no need for farm subsidies, it would not hurt anyone if we eliminated them". According to the 2011 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, AEI is number 17 in the "Top Thirty Worldwide Think Tanks" and number 10 in the "Top Fifty United States Think Tanks".
AEI grew out of the American Enterprise Association, founded in 1938 by a group of New York businessmen led by Lewis H. Brown. AEA's original mission was to promote a "greater public knowledge and understanding of the social and economic advantages accruing to the American people through the maintenance of the system of free, competitive enterprise". AEI's founders included executives from Eli Lilly, General Mills, Bristol-Myers, Chemical Bank and Paine Webber. In 1943, AEA's main offices were moved from New York City to Washington during a time when Congress's portfolio had vastly increased during World War II. AEA opposed the New Deal, aimed to propound classical liberal arguments for limited government. In 1944, AEA convened an Economic Advisory Board to set a high standard for research.