Boulder is the home rule municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, United States. It is the state's 11th most populous municipality; the city is 25 miles northwest of Denver. The population of the City of Boulder was 97,385 people at the 2010 U. S. Census, while the population of the Boulder, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area was 294,567. Boulder is known for its association with American frontier history and for being the home of the main campus of the University of Colorado, the state's largest university; the city receives high rankings in art, well-being, quality of life, education. Boulder City was a part of the Nebraska Territory until February 28, 1861, when the Territory of Colorado was created by the US Congress, it developed as a supply base for miners going into the mountains. Residents of Boulder City provided these miners with equipment, agricultural products and drinking establishments. On November 7, 1861, legislation was passed making way for the state university to be located in Boulder, on September 20, 1875, the first cornerstone was laid for the first building on the CU campus.
The university opened on September 5, 1877. Boulder adopted an anti-saloon ordinance in 1907. Statewide prohibition started in Colorado in 1916 and ended with the repeal of national prohibition in 1933; as of the 2010 census, there were 97,385 people, 41,302 households, 16,694 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,942.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 43,479 housing units at an average density of 1,760.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.0% White, 0.9% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 4.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.2% some other race, 2.6% from two or more races. 8.7% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 41,302 households, out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% were headed by married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 59.6% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.1% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.16, the average family size was 2.84. Boulder's population is younger than the national average due to the presence of university students; the median age at the 2010 census was 28.7 years compared to the U. S. median of 37.2 years. In Boulder, 13.9% of the residents were younger than the age of 18, 29.1% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 8.9% were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females, there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and older, there were 106.2 males. In 2011 the estimated median household income in Boulder was $57,112, the median family income was $113,681. Male full-time workers had a median income of $71,993 versus $47,574 for females; the per capita income for the city was $37,600. 24.8% of the population and 7.6% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 17.4% of those under the age of 18 and 6.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Boulder housing tends to be priced higher than surrounding areas.
For the 2nd quarter of 2006, the median single-family home in Boulder sold for $548,000 and the median attached dwelling sold for $262,000. According to the National Association of Realtors, during the same period the median value of one-family homes nationwide was $227,500; the median price of a home exceeded $1 million in July 2016. The city of Boulder is in Boulder Valley. West of the city are slabs of sedimentary stone tilted up on the foothills, known as the Flatirons; the Flatirons are a recognized symbol of Boulder. The primary water flow through the city is Boulder Creek; the creek was named well ahead of the city's founding, for all of the large granite boulders that have cascaded into the creek over the eons. It is from Boulder Creek. Boulder Creek has significant water flow, derived from snow melt and minor springs west of the city; the creek is a tributary of the South Platte River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.7 square miles. 24.7 square miles of it is land and 1.0 square mile of it is water.
The 40th parallel runs through Boulder and can be recognized as Baseline Road today. Boulder lies in a wide basin beneath Flagstaff Mountain just a few miles east of the continental divide and about 25 miles northwest of Denver. Arapahoe Glacier provides water for the city, along with Boulder Creek, which flows through the center of the city. Denver International Airport is located 45 miles southeast of Boulder. Boulder has a temperate climate typical for much of the state and receives many sunny or sunny days each year. Under the Köppen climate classification, the city has a semi-arid climate. Winter conditions range from mild to the occasional bitterly cold, with highs averaging in the mid to upper 40s °F. There are 4.6 nights annually when the temperature reaches 0 °F. Because of orographic lift, the mountains to the west dry out the air passing over the Front Range shielding the city from precipitation in winter, though heavy falls may occur. Snowfall averages 88 inches per season, but snow depth is shallow.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, the atmosphere. NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, conducts research to provide understanding and improve stewardship of the environment. NOAA was formed in 1970 and in 2017 had over 11,000 civilian employees, its research and operations are further supported by 321 uniformed service members who make up the NOAA Commissioned Corps. Since October 2017, NOAA has been headed by Timothy Gallaudet, as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA interim administrator. NOAA plays several specific roles in society, the benefits of which extend beyond the US economy and into the larger global community: A Supplier of Environmental Information Products. NOAA supplies to its customers and partners information pertaining to the state of the oceans and the atmosphere.
This is clear through the production of weather warnings and forecasts via the National Weather Service, but NOAA's information products extend to climate and commerce as well. A Provider of Environmental Stewardship Services. NOAA is a steward of U. S. coastal and marine environments. In coordination with federal, local and international authorities, NOAA manages the use of these environments, regulating fisheries and marine sanctuaries as well as protecting threatened and endangered marine species. A Leader in Applied Scientific Research. NOAA is intended to be a source of accurate and objective scientific information in the four particular areas of national and global importance identified above: ecosystems, climate and water, commerce and transportation; the five "fundamental activities" are: Monitoring and observing Earth systems with instruments and data collection networks. Understanding and describing Earth systems through research and analysis of that data. Assessing and predicting the changes of these systems over time.
Engaging and informing the public and partner organizations with important information. Managing resources for the betterment of society and environment. NOAA traces its history back to multiple agencies, some of which were among the oldest in the federal government: United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, formed in 1807 Weather Bureau of the United States, formed in 1870 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, formed in 1871 Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, formed in 1917Another direct predecessor of NOAA was the Environmental Science Services Administration, into which several existing scientific agencies such as the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Weather Bureau and the uniformed Corps were absorbed in 1965. NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No. 4 and formed on October 3, 1970 after U. S. President Richard Nixon proposed creating a new agency to serve a national need for "better protection of life and property from natural hazards …for a better understanding of the total environment… for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources."
In 2007, NOAA celebrated 200 years of service in its role as successor to the United States Survey of the Coast. In 2013, NOAA closed 600 weather stations. Since October 25, 2017 Timothy Gallaudet, Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, has served as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere at the US Department of Commerce and NOAA's interim administrator. Gallaudet succeeded Benjamin Friedman, who served as NOAA's interim administrator since the end of the Obama Administration on January 20, 2017. In October 2017, Barry Lee Myers, CEO of AccuWeather, was proposed to be the agency's administrator by the Trump Administration. NOAA works toward its mission through six major line offices, the National Environmental Satellite and Information Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the National Ocean Service, the National Weather Service, the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research and the Office of Marine & Aviation Operations, and in addition more than a dozen staff offices, including the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, the NOAA Central Library, the Office of Program Planning and Integration.
The National Weather Service is tasked with providing "weather and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy." This is done through a collection of national and regional centers, 13 river forecast centers, more than 120 local weather forecast offices. They are charged with issuing weather and river forecasts, advisories and warnings on a daily basis, they issue more than 734,000 weather and 850,000 river forecasts, more than 45,000 severe weather warnings annually. NOAA data is relevant to the issues of global warming and ozone depletion; the NWS operates NEXRAD, a nationwide network of Doppler weather radars which can detect precipitation and their velocities. Many of their products are broadcast on NOAA Weather Radio, a network of radio transmitters that broadcasts weather forecasts, severe weather statements and warnings 24 hours a day; the National Ocean Service focuses on ensuring that ocean and coastal areas are safe and productive.
NOS scientists, natural resource managers, specialists serve America by ensuring safe and efficient marine transportation, promoting innovative solutions to protect coastal communities, conserving mari
Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research
Oceanic and Atmospheric Research is a division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. OAR is referred to as NOAA Research. NOAA Research is the research and development arm of NOAA and is the driving force behind NOAA environmental products and services aimed at protecting life and property and promoting sustainable economic growth. Research, conducted by programs within NOAA and through collaborations outside NOAA, focuses on enhancing the understanding of environmental phenomena such as tornadoes, climate variability, changes in the ozone layer, El Niño/La Niña events, fisheries productivity, ocean currents, deep sea thermal vents, coastal ecosystem health; the origins of NOAA Research date back more than 200 years with the creation of the Survey of the Coast in 1807 by Thomas Jefferson. The Coast Survey, which became the U. S. Lake Survey office in 1841, was developed to undertake "a hydrographic survey of northwestern lakes." Research executed by the scientists of this group was innovative and holistic: the first current meters were developed to understand water flow rates, forecasting techniques were enhanced to predict water levels and the relationship to lakefront property.
The same traits of world class, long-term research continue to define NOAA Research today. The science and technology that NOAA Research produces is not only relevant to society, it anticipates and responds to partners’ needs to demonstrates the value of technologies so that partners can deploy them into their applications. OAR works with end-users to integrate mature technologies into larger systems, either in NOAA operations or partner applications, via testbeds, etc. NOAA Research is an open research network consisting of seven federal research laboratories, six program offices, sixteen Cooperative Institutes, 33 university based Sea Grant programs. OAR relies on work performed at numerous public and academic institutions. Through its laboratories and external partners, OAR seeks to balance the activities that benefit from the long-term, dedicated capabilities of federal facilities with those that require the diverse expertise of our university partners; the components and programs of NOAA Research are: 7 NOAA laboratories 16 Cooperative Institutes NOAA Climate Program Office Office of Weather and Air Quality NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research NOAA National Sea Grant Program NOAA Unmanned Aircraft Systems NOAA Ocean Acidification Program Working under the broad themes of Climate and Oceans, NOAA scientists study the ocean's depths and the highest reaches of space.
NOAA's long-term commitment to conducting preeminent research includes engaging in-house and external talent to: Continue to conduct experiments to understand natural processes Build predictive models for use in weather, solar and coastal assessments and predictions. Develop and deploy new observing technologies to provide data to support predictive models and to document natural variability. Develop new analytical and forecast tools to improve weather services and earlier warnings for natural disasters. Use new information technology to share information with other federal and academic scientists. Prepare scientific assessments and information products to enhance public education and guide governmental action. Research plans and products are developed in partnership with academia and other federal agencies, are peer-reviewed and distributed. A high premium is placed on external collaboration both domestically and internationally. NOAA Research has three primary research areas: Climate and Air Chemistry, Oceans, Coasts & the Great Lakes.
NOAA's research laboratories, the Climate Program Office, research partners conduct research into complex climate systems and how they work. The aim of this research is to predict climate variation in the shorter term, for example, cold spells or periods of drought, over longer terms, such as centuries and beyond. NOAA scientists are at the forefront of studying climate change and modeling what the effects will be on the Earth. Researchers at NOAA’s Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory have developed the Coupled Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Research Model to enable a valid assessment of the impact of how climate change might affect the climate and ecology of the Great Lakes; the CHARM model provides a realistic surface-atmosphere feedback portrayal, accounts for runoff from land surfaces. It allows researchers to predict that global warming will bring higher temperatures and increased precipitation to the Great Lakes. Development of a second generation of CHARM is underway to help answer questions about greenhouse warming effects on Great Lakes water quantity.
NOAA researchers monitor the Earth's atmosphere searching for clues about long-term changes in the global climate. The data collected worldwide by NOAA researchers contributes to the understanding of complex climatic systems and the ability to forecast changes. NOAA Research organizations conduct research on the upper and lower atmosphere as well as the space environment, their findings form the basis for NOAA's contributions to major national and international environmental programs and agreements. For instance, improvements in forecast and warning services provided by the National Weather Service are a direct result of NOAA research. Improvements in numerical modeling, observations gathered by satellites and Doppler weather radars, sophisticated weather warning and information processing and communications systems, have collectively led to imp
Air Resources Laboratory
The Air Resources Laboratory is an air quality and climate laboratory in the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, an operating unit within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the United States. It is one of seven NOAA Research Laboratories. In October 2005, the Surface Radiation Research Branch of the ARL was merged with five other NOAA labs to form the Earth System Research Laboratory; the Air Resources Laboratory studies processes and develops models relating to climate and air quality, including the transport, dispersion and removal of pollutants from the ambient atmosphere. The emphasis of the ARL's work is on technology development and transfer; the specific goal of ARL research is to improve and to institutionalize prediction of trends, dispersion of air pollutant plumes, air quality, atmospheric deposition, related variables. ARL provides scientific and technical advice to elements of NOAA and other Government agencies on atmospheric science, environmental problems, emergency assistance, climate change.
ARL's stated goal is to improve the Nation's ability to protect human and ecosystem health while maintaining a vibrant economy. ARL's headquarters is located in Silver Spring and the current director is Dr. Steve Fine; the headquarters group develops products to augment the operational product suites of the NOAA service-oriented line offices. This includes the research and development of improved dispersion models for emergency response and air quality forecast models; the headquarters group improves the understanding of climate variability and trends, the exchange of pollutants between the air and land, the sources of mercury that influence sensitive ecosystems. As depicted in the adjacent organization diagram, the ARL operates with four research divisions in Idaho Falls, Idaho. ATDD concentrates on air quality and climate-related research directed toward issues of national and global importance. In their air quality research, ATDD develops better methods for predicting transport and air-surface exchange of air pollutants.
ATDD's climate-related research includes reference-grade measurement of climate change and related physical and chemical processes. The Field Research Division is located in Idaho Falls, ID. FRD conducts experiments to better understand atmospheric transport and dispersion, improves both the theory and models of air-surface exchange processes, develops new technologies and instrumentation to carry out its mission. In a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy, the Division supports the Idaho National Laboratory with meteorological forecasts and emergency response capabilities; the Special Operations & Research Division is located in Las Vegas, NV. SORD conducts basic and applied research in atmospheric dispersion, particle re-suspension, particle deposition, the effects of airborne particles on atmospheric opacity; the Division supports issues of mutual interest to NOAA and the Department of Energy that relate to the Nevada Test Site, its atmospheric environment, its emergency preparedness and emergency response activities.
The Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division develops and evaluates predictive atmospheric models on all spatial and temporal scales for forecasting air quality and for assessing changes in air quality and air pollutant exposures. It was established in 1955 to collaborate with the Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor agencies in developing advanced air quality models; the ASMD works in a partnership with the EPA and is located in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Accidental release source terms Bibliography of atmospheric dispersion modeling Air Quality Modeling Group AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors Atmospheric dispersion modeling List of atmospheric dispersion models Met Office UK Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling Liaison Committee UK Dispersion Modelling Bureau Turner, D. B.. Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling. CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-023-X. Www.crcpress.com Beychok, M. R.. Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion.
Self-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2. Www.air-dispersion.com Air Resources Laboratory UK Dispersion Modelling Bureau web site UK ADMLC web site Met Office web site Error propagation in air dispersion modeling
A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research and measurement may be performed. Laboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength. A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist's laboratory might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, such as those used by computer scientists, computers are used for either simulations or the analysis of data. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Engineers use laboratories as well to design and test technological devices. Scientific laboratories can be found as research room and learning spaces in schools and universities, government, or military facilities, aboard ships and spacecraft.
Despite the underlying notion of the lab as a confined space for experts, the term "laboratory" is increasingly applied to workshop spaces such as Living Labs, Fab Labs, or Hackerspaces, in which people meet to work on societal problems or make prototypes, working collaboratively or sharing resources. This development is inspired by new, participatory approaches to science and innovation and relies on user-centred design methods and concepts like Open innovation or User innovation. One distinctive feature of work in Open Labs is phenomena of translation, driven by the different backgrounds and levels of expertise of the people involved. Early instances of "laboratories" recorded in English involved alchemy and the preparation of medicines; the emergence of Big Science during World War II increased the size of laboratories and scientific equipment, introducing particle accelerators and similar devices. The earliest laboratory according to the present evidence is a home laboratory of Pythagoras of Samos, the well-known Greek philosopher and scientist.
This laboratory was created when Pythagoras conducted an experiment about tones of sound and vibration of string. In the painting of Louis Pasteur by Albert Edelfelt in 1885, Louis Pasteur is shown comparing a note in his left hand with a bottle filled with a solid in his right hand, not wearing any personal protective equipment. Researching in teams started in the 19th century, many new kinds of equipment were developed in the 20th century. A 16th century underground alchemical laboratory was accidentally discovered in the year 2002. Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor was believed to be the owner; the laboratory is preserved as a museum in Prague. Laboratory techniques are the set of procedures used on natural sciences such as chemistry, physics to conduct an experiment, all of them follow the scientific method. Laboratory equipment refers to the various tools and equipment used by scientists working in a laboratory: The classical equipment includes tools such as Bunsen burners and microscopes as well as specialty equipment such as operant conditioning chambers, spectrophotometers and calorimeters.
Chemical laboratorieslaboratory glassware such as the beaker or reagent bottle Analytical devices as HPLC or spectrophotometersMolecular biology laboratories + Life science laboratoriesAutoclave Microscope Centrifuges Shakers & mixers Pipette Thermal cyclers Photometer Refrigerators and Freezers Universal testing machine ULT Freezers Incubators Bioreactor Biological safety cabinets Sequencing instruments Fume hoods Environmental chamber Humidifier Weighing scale Reagents Pipettes tips Polymer consumables for small volumes sterileLaboratory equipment is used to either perform an experiment or to take measurements and gather data. Larger or more sophisticated equipment is called a scientific instrument; the title of laboratory is used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories. These notably include: Film laboratory or Darkroom Clandestine lab for the production of illegal drugs Computer lab Crime lab used to process crime scene evidence Language laboratory Medical laboratory Public health laboratory Industrial laboratory In many laboratories, hazards are present.
Laboratory hazards might include poisons. Therefore, safety precautions are vitally important. Rules exist to minimize the individual's risk, safety equipment is used to protect the lab users from injury or to assist in responding to an emergency; the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the United States, recognizing the unique characteristics of the laboratory workplace, has tailored a standard for occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. This standard is referred to as the "Laboratory Standard". Under this standard, a laboratory is required to produce a Chemical Hygiene Plan which addresses the specific hazards found in its location, its approach to them. In determining the proper Chemical Hygiene Plan for a particular business or laboratory, it is necessary to understand the requirements of the standard, evaluation of the current safety and environmental practi
Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere, a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. There are springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events in addition to these stratospheric events; the main cause of ozone depletion and the ozone hole is manufactured chemicals manufactured halocarbon refrigerants, solvents and foam-blowing agents, referred to as ozone-depleting substances. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere by turbulent mixing after being emitted from the surface, mixing much faster than the molecules can settle. Once in the stratosphere, they release halogen atoms through photodissociation, which catalyze the breakdown of ozone into oxygen. Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase. Ozone depletion and the ozone hole have generated worldwide concern over increased cancer risks and other negative effects.
The ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths of ultraviolet light from passing through the Earth's atmosphere. These wavelengths cause skin cancer and cataracts, which were projected to increase as a result of thinning ozone, as well as harming plants and animals; these concerns led to the adoption of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which bans the production of CFCs, halons and other ozone-depleting chemicals. The ban came into effect in 1989. Ozone levels began to recover in the 2000s. Recovery is projected to continue over the next century, the ozone hole is expected to reach pre-1980 levels by around 2075; the Montreal Protocol is considered the most successful international environmental agreement to date. Three forms of oxygen are involved in the ozone-oxygen cycle: oxygen atoms, oxygen gas, ozone gas. Ozone is formed in the stratosphere when oxygen molecules photodissociate after absorbing ultraviolet photons; this converts a single O2 into two atomic oxygen radicals. The atomic oxygen radicals combine with separate O2 molecules to create two O3 molecules.
These ozone molecules absorb ultraviolet light, following which ozone splits into a molecule of O2 and an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom joins up with an oxygen molecule to regenerate ozone; this is a continuing process that terminates when an oxygen atom recombines with an ozone molecule to make two O2 molecules. O + O3 → 2 O2 The total amount of ozone in the stratosphere is determined by a balance between photochemical production and recombination. Ozone can be destroyed by a number of free radical catalysts; the dot is a notation to indicate that each species has an unpaired electron and is thus reactive. All of these have both man-made sources; these elements are found in stable organic compounds chlorofluorocarbons, which can travel to the stratosphere without being destroyed in the troposphere due to their low reactivity. Once in the stratosphere, the Cl and Br atoms are released from the parent compounds by the action of ultraviolet light, e.g. CFCl3 + electromagnetic radiation → Cl· + ·CFCl2 Ozone is a reactive molecule that reduces to the more stable oxygen form with the assistance of a catalyst.
Cl and Br atoms destroy ozone molecules through a variety of catalytic cycles. In the simplest example of such a cycle, a chlorine atom reacts with an ozone molecule, taking an oxygen atom to form chlorine monoxide and leaving an oxygen molecule; the ClO can react with a second molecule of ozone, releasing the chlorine atom and yielding two molecules of oxygen. The chemical shorthand for these gas-phase reactions is: Cl· + O3 → ClO + O2 A chlorine atom removes an oxygen atom from an ozone molecule to make a ClO molecule ClO + O3 → Cl· + 2 O2 This ClO can remove an oxygen atom from another ozone molecule. More complicated mechanisms have been discovered that lead to ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere. A single chlorine atom would continuously destroy ozone for up to two years were it not for reactions that remove them from this cycle by forming reservoir species such as hydrogen chloride and chlorine nitrate. Bromine is more efficient than chlorine at destroying ozone on a per atom basis, but there is much less bromine in the atmosphere at present.
Both chlorine and bromine contribute to overall ozone depletion. Laboratory studies have shown that fluorine and iodine atoms participate in analogous catalytic cycles. However, fluorine atoms react with water and methane to form bound HF in the Earth's stratosphere, while organic molecules containing iodine react so in the lower atmosphere that they do not reach the stratosphere in significant quantities. A single chlorine atom is able to react with an average of 100,000 ozone molecules before it is removed from the catalytic cycle; this fact plus the amount of chlorine released into the atmosphe
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere. It may cause diseases and death to humans. Both human activity and natural processes can generate air pollution. Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report. According to the 2014 World Health Organization report, air pollution in 2012 caused the deaths of around 7 million people worldwide, an estimate echoed by one from the International Energy Agency. An air pollutant is a material in the air that can have adverse effects on the ecosystem; the substance can be liquid droplets, or gases. A pollutant can be of man-made. Pollutants are classified as secondary. Primary pollutants are produced by processes such as ash from a volcanic eruption. Other examples include carbon monoxide gas from motor vehicle exhausts or sulphur dioxide released from the factories.
Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants interact. Ground level ozone is a prominent example of secondary pollutants; some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants. Substances emitted into the atmosphere by human activity include: Carbon dioxide – Because of its role as a greenhouse gas it has been described as "the leading pollutant" and "the worst climate pollution". Carbon dioxide is a natural component of the atmosphere, essential for plant life and given off by the human respiratory system; this question of terminology has practical effects, for example as determining whether the U. S. Clean Air Act is deemed to regulate CO2 emissions. CO2 forms about 410 parts per million of earth's atmosphere, compared to about 280 ppm in pre-industrial times, billions of metric tons of CO2 are emitted annually by burning of fossil fuels. CO2 increase in earth's atmosphere has been accelerating.
Sulfur oxides – sulphur dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula SO2. SO2 is produced in various industrial processes. Coal and petroleum contain sulphur compounds, their combustion generates sulphur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO2 in the presence of a catalyst such as NO2, forms H2SO4, thus acid rain; this is one of the causes for concern over the environmental impact of the use of these fuels as power sources. Nitrogen oxides – Nitrogen oxides nitrogen dioxide, are expelled from high temperature combustion, are produced during thunderstorms by electric discharge, they can be seen as a plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula NO2, it is one of several nitrogen oxides. One of the most prominent air pollutants, this reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. Carbon monoxide – CO is a colorless, toxic yet non-irritating gas, it is a product of combustion of fuel such as natural coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust contributes to the majority of carbon monoxide let into our atmosphere.
It creates a smog type formation in the air, linked to many lung diseases and disruptions to the natural environment and animals. In 2013, more than half of the carbon monoxide emitted into our atmosphere was from vehicle traffic and burning one gallon of gas will emit over 20 pounds of carbon monoxide into the air. Volatile organic compounds – VOCs are a well-known outdoor air pollutant, they are categorized as either non-methane. Methane is an efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming. Other hydrocarbon VOCs are significant greenhouse gases because of their role in creating ozone and prolonging the life of methane in the atmosphere; this effect varies depending on local air quality. The aromatic NMVOCs benzene and xylene are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia with prolonged exposure. 1,3-butadiene is another dangerous compound associated with industrial use. Particulate matter / particles, alternatively referred to as particulate matter, atmospheric particulate matter, or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas.
In contrast, aerosol refers to gas. Some particulates occur originating from volcanoes, dust storms and grassland fires, living vegetation, sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes generate significant amounts of aerosols. Averaged worldwide, anthropogenic aerosols—those made by human activities—currently account for 10 percent of our atmosphere. Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart disease, altered lung function and lung cancer. Particulates are related to respiratory infections and can be harmful to those suffering from conditions like asthma. Persistent free radicals connected to airborne fine particles are linked to cardiopulmonary disease. Toxic metals, such as lead and mercury their compounds. Chlorofluorocarbons – harmful to the ozone layer; these are gases which are released from air conditioners, aerosol sprays, etc. On release into the air, CFCs rise to the stratosphere.
Here they come in contact with other gases and