Sotol is a distilled spirit sourced from Dasylirion wheeleri, Asparagaceae, a plant that grows in northern Mexico, New Mexico, west Texas, the Texas Hill Country. It is known as the state drink of Chihuahua and Coahuila, is currently produced in Central Texas. There are few commercial examples available, it is produced in a manner similar to the more common artisanal mezcals of central Mexico. The flowering stem of sotol is one of the best materials for making a friction fire, as it is straight, light in weight, strong; as it is straight, the stem requiring little to no straightening prior to use, it was used as a lance and spear, the latter with an attached stone or metal point. At the Fate Bell Shelter, a 150-yard-long opening in a large rock face on the U. S. side of the Rio Grande, sotol is depicted in paintings on the rock walls. Sandals, ropes and many other items of sotol fiber show that the resource was important to Ancient Pueblo Peoples of the Basketmaker culture; these artifacts date to around 7000 BCE.
The base of a cooked sotol stem may be eaten rather like an artichoke leaf. This remnant, called a "quid", can be used as one. Archaeological sites where "Desert Spoon" was eaten in this way are full of discarded quids thousands of years old. A Sotol and lechuguilla flower-stalks used. Sotol may have been affiliated with fire. A humanoid figure with a spray of spiky leaves for a head and a black stripe down the middle of its body may represent the magical spirit of sotol. Sometimes it appears in connection with hunting scenes, at others it appears surrounded by orange ochre flames and black smoke; the presence in these rock shelters of troughs a half-meter long and four centimeters deep, along with mounds of quids, suggests the production of beverages with sotol as far back as 9000 years ago. The murals depicting sotol-related images may, in part, be a tribute to the remarkable usefulness of the plant at sites like the Fate Bell Shelter; the Chihuahuan indigenous, Rarámuri, fermented sotol juice into a beer-like alcoholic beverage as early as 800 years ago.
In the 16th century, Spanish colonists introduced European distillation techniques to produce a spirit. Sotol is now beginning to achieve international recognition like its cousins and tequila; the Desert Spoon takes 15 years to mature and yields only one bottle of sotol per plant. It grows on rocky slopes in the Chihuahuan desert grassland between 3,000 and 6,500 feet above sea level. Unlike agave, which flowers only once in its lifetime, sotols produce a flower stalk every few years. Once the plant matures, it is harvested like agave plants when tequila are to be made; the outer leaves are removed to reveal the center core, taken back to the distillery. The core can be cooked and/or steamed, shredded and distilled. Age classifications: Plata – Un-aged, straight from distillation to the bottle. Reposado – Aged several months to a year. Añejo – Aged for at least one year Reviews of several commercially produced brands of Sotol. Presence in American Market
Barbacoa is a form of cooking meat that originated in the Caribbean with the Taíno people, from which the term “barbecue” derives. In contemporary Mexico, it refers to meats or whole sheep or whole goats slow-cooked over an open fire, or more traditionally, in a hole dug in the ground covered with maguey leaves, although the interpretation is loose, in the present day may refer to meat steamed until tender; this meat is known for its high fat content and strong flavor accompanied with onions and cilantro. In the U. S. barbacoa is prepared with parts from the heads of cattle, such as the cheeks. In northern Mexico, it is sometimes made from beef head, but more it is prepared from goat meat. In central Mexico, the meat of choice is lamb, in the Yucatan, their traditional version, cochinita pibil, is prepared with pork. Barbacoa was adopted into the cuisine of the southwestern United States by way of Texas; the word transformed in time to "barbecue", as well as many other words related to ranching and Tex-Mex cowboy or vaquero life.
Considered a specialty meat, barbacoa is only sold on weekends or holidays in certain parts of South Texas and in all of Mexico. Barbacoa is popular in Florida, as many Mexican immigrants living there have introduced this dish. Barbacoa is well known in Honduras. A traditional Mexican way of eating barbacoa is having it served on warm corn tortillas with salsa for added flavor; the word barbacoa is believed to have come from the mainland Taino Indians, as in this source: Birria Carne asada Pozole Mandi List of meat dishes List of Mexican dishes
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Curanto is a traditional food of Chiloé Archipelago that has spread to the southern areas of Chile and Argentina, whose remains dated back about 11,525 ± 90 uncalibrated years before present. It consists of seafood, meat and vegetables and is traditionally prepared in a hole, about a meter and a half deep, dug in the ground; the bottom is covered with stones, heated in a bonfire until red. The ingredients consist of shellfish, potatoes, milcao and vegetables. Curanto sometimes includes specific types of fish; the varieties of shellfish vary but almejas and picorocos are essential. The quantities are not fixed; each layer of ingredients is covered with nalca leaves, or in their absence, with fig leaves or white cabbage leaves. All this is covered with wet sacks, with dirt and grass chunks, creating the effect of a giant pressure cooker in which the food cooks for one hour. Curanto can be prepared in a large stew pot, heated over a bonfire or grill or in a pressure cooker; this stewed curanto is called "curanto en olla" or "pulmay" in the central region of Chile.
It is believed that this form of preparing foods was native to the "chono" countryside and that, with the arrival of the southern peoples and the Spanish conquistadors, new ingredients were added until it came to be the curanto, known today. Earth oven Pachamanca Hangi Kalua Clam bake
Samoa the Independent State of Samoa and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a country consisting of two main islands, Savai'i and Upolu, four smaller islands. The capital city is Apia; the Lapita people settled the Samoan Islands around 3,500 years ago. They developed Samoan cultural identity. Samoa is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions; the country is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Western Samoa was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1976; the entire island group, which includes American Samoa, was called "Navigator Islands" by European explorers before the 20th century because of the Samoans' seafaring skills. New Zealand scientists have dated remains in Samoa to about 2900 years ago; these were found at a Lapita site at Mulifanua and the findings were published in 1974. The origins of the Samoans are studied in modern research about Polynesia in various scientific disciplines such as genetics and anthropology. Scientific research is ongoing.
Intimate sociocultural and genetic ties were maintained between Samoa and Tonga, the archaeological record supports oral tradition and native genealogies that indicate inter-island voyaging and intermarriage between pre-colonial Samoans and Tongans. Notable figures in Samoan history included Queen Salamasina. Nafanua was a famous woman warrior, deified in ancient Samoan religion. Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century. Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman, was the first known European to sight the Samoan islands in 1722; this visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768. Contact was limited before the 1830s, when English missionaries and traders began arriving. Visits by American trading and whaling vessels were important in the early economic development of Samoa; the Salem brig Roscoe, in October 1821, was the first American trading vessel known to have called, the Maro of Nantucket, in 1824, was the first recorded United States whaler at Samoa.
The whalers came for fresh drinking water and provisions, they recruited local men to serve as crewmen on their ships. Christian missionary work in Samoa began in 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived in Sapapali'i from the Cook Islands and Tahiti. According to Barbara A. West, "The Samoans were known to engage in ‘headhunting', a ritual of war in which a warrior took the head of his slain opponent to give to his leader, thus proving his bravery." However, Robert Louis Stevenson, who lived in Samoa from 1889 until his death in 1894, wrote in A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa, "… the Samoans are gentle people." The Germans, in particular, began to show great commercial interest in the Samoan Islands on the island of Upolu, where German firms monopolised copra and cocoa bean processing. The United States laid its own claim, based on commercial shipping interests in Pearl River in Hawaii and Pago Pago Bay in Eastern Samoa, forced alliances, most conspicuously on the islands of Tutuila and Manu'a which became American Samoa.
Britain sent troops to protect British business enterprise, harbour rights, consulate office. This was followed by an eight-year civil war, during which each of the three powers supplied arms, training and in some cases combat troops to the warring Samoan parties; the Samoan crisis came to a critical juncture in March 1889 when all three colonial contenders sent warships into Apia harbour, a larger-scale war seemed imminent. A massive storm on 15 March 1889 destroyed the warships, ending the military conflict; the Second Samoan Civil War reached a head in 1898 when Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States were locked in dispute over who should control the Samoa Islands. The Siege of Apia occurred in March 1899. Samoan forces loyal to Prince Tanu were besieged by a larger force of Samoan rebels loyal to Mata'afa Iosefo. Supporting Prince Tanu were landing parties from four American warships. After several days of fighting, the Samoan rebels were defeated. American and British warships shelled Apia on 15 March 1899, including the USS Philadelphia.
Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States resolved to end the hostilities and divided the island chain at the Tripartite Convention of 1899, signed at Washington on 2 December 1899 with ratifications exchanged on 16 February 1900. The eastern island-group was known as American Samoa; the western islands, by far the greater landmass, became German Samoa. The United Kingdom had vacated all claims in Samoa and in return received termination of German rights in Tonga, all of the Solomon Islands south of Bougainville, territorial alignments in West Africa; the German Empire governed the western Samoan islands from 1900 to 1914. Wilhelm Solf was appointed the colony's first governor. In 1908, when the non-violent Mau a Pule resistance movement arose, Solf did not hesitate to banish the Mau leader Lauaki Namulau'ulu Mamoe to Saipan in the German Northern Mariana Islands; the German colonial administration governed on the principle that "there was only one government in the islands." Thus, there was no Samoan Tupu
Milcao or Melcao is a traditional dish originating from the Chiloé Archipelago in Chile. The dish is a type of potato pancake prepared with raw grated potatoes and cooked mashed potatoes mixed with other ingredients, it forms an important part of the Chiloé dishes curanto and reitimiento, is mentioned in folklore as part of Chilote songs and riddles. The dish spread to the south of Chile and Argentina with the migration of many Chilote families to Patagonia during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century; the most important ingredient is Chilotan potatoes, several different varieties of which are used to prepare milcao. Half the potatoes are cooked and mashed and the other half are grated, sometimes using the traditional Chilote tool of a volcanic pumice stone. One of two methods may be employed; the most common method produces milcaos colados, strained milcaos, sometimes pronounced as the rhyming milcaos colaos with a silent “d”, as is common in Chilean Spanish.
Here, the grated potatoes are strained to extract most of the water by folding in a dish cloth or pressing in a sieve or against a hard surface. Alternatively, the grated potato can be folded directly into the mash. In the straining method, the juice from the strained potatoes is saved and decanted to produce es:chuño, a kind of potato starch; the chuño can later be used to make milcao de chuño, milcaos made with a base of potato starch. The strained or grated potatoes are kneaded into the cooked potatoes and seasoning and lard are added to form a dough; this is shaped and pressed by hand into flat, round pancakes. The pancakes can be eaten with the curanto. Most milcaos are savory, with chicharrones added before cooking. However, there are a number of neutral variations. Milcao al horno o frito: The most common methods of preparing milcaos, they may contain chicharron, either mixed in with the dough or stuffed into the pancakes like a pie. They have a pale center. Milcaos de curanto: The traditional Chilote method of steaming the pancakes in an upper layer of the curanto, spread with hazel and nalca branches.
Cooked in this way, the milcaos gain a dark crust and retain an essence of the leaves in their flavor. This preparation method is less common because of the complexity of preparing a curanto. Milcados pelados or Baemes: Milcaos that are boiled and eaten sweetened with honey or sugar. Milcaos chuño: Instead of using grated potatoes, dried potato starch from previous preparations is used to make the milcaos, they have a golden crust and a pale center. If they are boiled they can be eaten sweetened, like the milcaos pelados. Potatoes or Chilote potatoes Lard Salt Vegetable oil for frying Chicharrones
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages some time between 1250 and 1300. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture, with their own language, a rich mythology, distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups based on organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants; the arrival of Europeans to New Zealand, starting in the 17th century, brought enormous changes to the Māori way of life. Māori people adopted many aspects of Western society and culture. Initial relations between Māori and Europeans were amicable, with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the two cultures coexisted as part of a new British colony. Rising tensions over disputed land sales led to conflict in the 1860s. Social upheaval, decades of conflict and epidemics of introduced disease took a devastating toll on the Māori population, which fell dramatically.
By the start of the 20th century, the Māori population had begun to recover, efforts have been made to increase their standing in wider New Zealand society and achieve social justice. Traditional Māori culture has thereby enjoyed a significant revival, further bolstered by a Māori protest movement that emerged in the 1960s. In the 2013 census, there were 600,000 people in New Zealand identifying as Māori, making up 15 percent of the national population, they are the second-largest ethnic group in New Zealand, after European New Zealanders. In addition, more than 140,000 Māori live in Australia; the Māori language is spoken to some extent by about a fifth of all Māori, representing 3 per cent of the total population. Māori are active in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, with independent representation in areas such as media and sport. Disproportionate numbers of Māori face significant economic and social obstacles, have lower life expectancies and incomes compared with other New Zealand ethnic groups.
They suffer higher levels of crime, health problems, educational under-achievement. A number of socioeconomic initiatives have been instigated with the aim of "closing the gap" between Māori and other New Zealanders. Political and economic redress for historical grievances is ongoing. In the Māori language, the word māori means "normal", "natural" or "ordinary". In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary mortal human beings—tāngata māori—from deities and spirits. Wai māori denotes "fresh water", as opposed to salt water. There are cognate words in most Polynesian languages, all deriving from Proto-Polynesian *maqoli, which has the reconstructed meaning "true, genuine"; the spelling of "Māori" with or without the macron is inconsistent in general-interest English-language media in New Zealand, although some newspapers and websites have adopted the standard Māori-language spelling. Early visitors from Europe to New Zealand referred to the indigenous inhabitants as "New Zealanders" or as "natives".
The Māori used the term Māori to describe themselves in a pan-tribal sense. Māori people use the term tangata whenua to identify in a way that expresses their relationship with a particular area of land; the term can refer to the Māori people as a whole in relation to New Zealand as a whole. The Māori Purposes Act of 1947 required the use of the term "Māori" rather than "Native" in official usage; the Department of Native Affairs was renamed as the Department of Māori Affairs. Before 1974, the government required documented ancestry to determine the legal definition of "a Māori person". For example, bloodlines or percentage of Māori ancestry was used to determine whether a person should enroll on the general electoral roll or the separate Māori roll. In 1947, the authorities determined that a man, five-eighths Māori had improperly voted in the general parliamentary electorate of Raglan; the Māori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 changed the definition, allowing individuals to self-identify as to their cultural identity.
In matters involving financial benefits provided by the government to people of Māori ethnicity—scholarships, for example, or Waitangi Tribunal settlements—authorities require some documentation of ancestry or continuing cultural connection but no minimum "blood" requirement exists as determined by the government. The most current reliable evidence indicates that the initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around 1280 CE, at the end of the medieval warm period. Previous dating of some kiore bones at 50–150 has now been shown to have been unreliable. Māori oral history describes the arrival of ancestors from Hawaiki, in large ocean-going waka. Migration accounts vary among tribes, whose members may identify with several waka in their genealogies. In the last few decades, mitochondrial-DNA research has allowed an estimate to be made of the number of women in the founding population—between 50 and 100. Evidence fro