TBS (U.S. TV channel)
TBS is an American subscription television network, owned by the Turner Broadcasting System unit of AT&T-controlled WarnerMedia. It carries a variety of programming, with a focus on comedy, along with some sports events, including Major League Baseball and the NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament; as of September 2018, TBS was received by 90.391 million households that subscribe to a pay television service throughout the United States. TBS was established on December 17, 1976 as the national feed of Turner's Atlanta, independent television station, WTCG; the decision to begin offering WTCG via satellite transmission to cable and satellite subscribers throughout the United States expanded the small station into the first nationally distributed "superstation". With the assignment of WTBS as the broadcast station's call letters in 1979, the national feed became known as SuperStation WTBS, SuperStation TBS, TBS Superstation, or TBS; the channel broadcast a variety of programming during this era, including films, syndicated series, sports.
WTBS maintained a nearly identical program schedule as the national feed, aside from FCC-mandated public affairs and educational programming that only aired on the local signal. By the early 2000s, TBS had begun to focus more intensively on comedic programming, including sitcoms and other series. On October 1, 2007, TBS was converted by Turner into a conventional basic cable network, at which time it began to be carried within the Atlanta market on area cable providers alongside its existing local carriage on satellite providers DirecTV and Dish Network; the former parent station in Atlanta was concurrently relaunched as WPCH and reformatted as a traditional independent station with a separate schedule catering to the Atlanta market. TBS originated as a terrestrial television station in Atlanta, Georgia that began operating on UHF channel 17 on September 1, 1967, under the WJRJ-TV call letters; that station – which its original parent filed to transmit UHF channel 46, before modifying it to assign channel 17 as its frequency in February 1966 – was founded by Rice Broadcasting Inc..
Under Rice, WJRJ – the first independent station to begin operation in the Atlanta market since WQXI-TV ceased operations on May 31, 1955 – operated on a shoestring budget, general entertainment format with a schedule consisting of a few off-network reruns and older feature films as well as a 15-minute news program. In July 1969, Rice Broadcasting reached an agreement to merge with the Turner Communications Corporation – an Atlanta-based group owned by entrepreneur Robert E. "Ted" Turner III, who ran his late father's billboard advertising business and had expanded his interests to include radio stations in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Under the sale terms, Rice would acquire Turner in an exchange of stock and adopt the Turner Communications name; the Federal Communications Commission granted approval of the acquisition on December 10, 1969, giving Turner its first television property. Soon after Turner received approval of its purchase of WJRJ-TV in January 1970, Turner changed the station's call letters to WTCG.
The sale was formally completed four months on April 6, at which time Turner was assigned as licensee of WJRJ-TV. The channel 17 transmitter was located at 1018 West Peachtree Street Northwest, with the antenna located on a large self-supporting tower; the building at this site was once home to the studios of CBS affiliate WAGA-TV and channel 17, during its first three years as WJRJ-TV. Soon after being purchased by Turner, the station moved to new studio facilities a few blocks west at the former site of the Progressive Club, after having had offices on Williams Street, across Interstate 75/85. Beginning in the early 1970s, WTCG was relayed by microwave link to many areas of the Southeastern United States through cable television providers which picked up the UHF signal off-air and microwaved the signal back to their headends. Early programming included movies from the 1930s and 1940s, Japanese animated series; the station carried sports, such as Atlanta Braves baseball, Atlanta Hawks basketball, Atlanta Flames hockey, Georgia
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
The Longshots is a 2008 American comedy-drama sports film directed by Limp Bizkit frontman Fred Durst, based on the real life events of Jasmine Plummer, the first female to participate in the Pop Warner football tournament. The film stars Ice Cube and Keke Palmer, their second film together after Barbershop 2: Back in Business, was released on August 22, 2008. Minden, Illinois, is a former factory town with a pathetic football team. Curtis Plummer, a down-and-out former football player is going nowhere, until he meets his niece Jasmine, the daughter of his no-good brother. Jasmine has worn her father's watch since he left five years ago, in the hopes that he will return, her mother Claire asks Curtis to take care of Jasmine after school, because Claire has to work at the town diner. Curtis realizes Jasmine has a talent for throwing a football, which he nurtures into a passion for the game, he persuades her to try out for the town's Pop Warner football team, the Minden Browns, because he thinks it would be good for her and the team.
The team, including the coach, are against it. However, the coach keeps her on the bench. In the fourth game, after much prodding from Curtis, the coach puts Jasmine in the game, although they lose, everyone said they could have won if she had played from the beginning. Jasmine becomes the Minden Browns become a winning team. Everything is going great, until Coach Fisher has a heart attack, the assistant coach asks Curtis to help coach the team through the last two games, he hesitates at first, but is talked into it. They are able to go to the Pop Warner Super Bowl in Miami Beach. Jasmine's father, Roy shows up after he sees her on TV. Claire and Curtis are both unhappy about his returning; the Browns are able to go to the Super Bowl after raising the money for the trip, including Curtis' donation of his life savings. Jasmine plays poorly in the first half. Curtis talks her through her feelings for her Minden rallies for the second half, they lose the game. They are glad. After they get back, Jasmine gives.
She accepts her Uncle Curtis as a father figure. Ice Cube as Curtis Plummer Keke Palmer as Jasmine Plummer Matt Craven as Coach Fisher Dash Mihok as Cyrus Tasha Smith as Claire Plummer Malcolm Goodwin as Roy Debby Ryan as Edith Smith Chloe Bridges as Tammy Anderson Jill Marie Jones as Ronnie Macer Kofi Siriboe as Javy Hall Garret Morris as Reverend Pratt Alan Aisenberg as "Feather" Michael Colyar as Ennis Earthquake as Karl Glenn Plummer as Winston Wayne Dehart as Mr Peppers Dean Delray as Andrew Kosowski The Longshots received mixed reviews. Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an approval rating of 41% based on 71 reviews, with an average rating of 5.2/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "The Longshots means well, but it's a formulaic affair deviating from the inspirational sports movie playbook." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 52 out of 100, based on 19 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale.
Ruthe Stein of San Francisco Chronicle opined that Keke Palmer's "winning manner and incandescent smile" made her "a perfect fit" for her role in the film. The Longshots grossed $4,080,687 in its opening week, it flopped at the box office, grossing $11,767,866 worldwide, on a $23 million budget. The Longshots was released on DVD on December 2, 2008, it opened at #18 at the DVD sales chart, selling 143,000 units for revenue of $2,858,950. By January 2009, 471,000 DVD units had been sold; the film was shot in northwestern Louisiana, with the majority being in the small city of Minden. It was filmed at the Webster Parish Alternative School; the "Super Bowl" was filmed in Louisiana at Calvary Baptist Academy. The Longshots on IMDb The Longshots at Box Office Mojo
African-American culture known as Black American culture, refers to the contributions of African Americans to the culture of the United States, either as part of or distinct from mainstream American culture. The distinct identity of African-American culture is rooted in the historical experience of the African-American people, including the Middle Passage; the culture is both distinct and enormously influential on American and global worldwide culture as a whole. African-American culture is rooted in the blend between the cultures of West and Central Africa and the Anglo-Celtic culture that has influenced and modified its development in the American South. Understanding its identity within the culture of the United States it is, in the anthropological sense, conscious of its origins as a blend of West and Central African cultures. Although slavery restricted the ability of African Americans to practice their original cultural traditions, many practices and beliefs survived, over time have modified and/or blended with European cultures and other cultures such as that of Native Americans.
African-American identity was established during the slavery period, producing a dynamic culture that has had and continues to have a profound impact on American culture as a whole, as well as that of the broader world. Elaborate rituals and ceremonies were a significant part of African-Americans' ancestral culture. Many West African societies traditionally believed. From this disposition, they treated their environment with mindful care, they generally believed that a spiritual life source existed after death, that ancestors in this spiritual realm could mediate between the supreme creator and the living. Honor and prayer was displayed to the spirit of those past. West Africans believed in spiritual possession. In the beginning of the 18th century, Christianity began to spread across North Africa; the enslaved Africans brought this complex religious dynamic within their culture to America. This fusion of traditional African beliefs with Christianity provided a common place for those practicing religion in Africa and America.
After emancipation, unique African-American traditions continued to flourish, as distinctive traditions or radical innovations in music, literature, religion and other fields. 20th-century sociologists, such as Gunnar Myrdal, believed that African Americans had lost most of their cultural ties with Africa. But, anthropological field research by Melville Herskovits and others demonstrated that there has been a continuum of African traditions among Africans of the diaspora; the greatest influence of African cultural practices on European culture is found below the Mason-Dixon line in the American South. For many years African-American culture developed separately from European-American culture, both because of slavery and the persistence of racial discrimination in America, as well as African-American slave descendants' desire to create and maintain their own traditions. Today, African-American culture has become a significant part of American culture and yet, at the same time, remains a distinct cultural body.
From the earliest days of American slavery in the 17th century, slave owners sought to exercise control over their slaves by attempting to strip them of their African culture. The physical isolation and societal marginalization of African slaves and of their free progeny, facilitated the retention of significant elements of traditional culture among Africans in the New World and in the United States in particular. Slave owners deliberately tried to repress independent political or cultural organization in order to deal with the many slave rebellions or acts of resistance that took place in the United States, Brazil and the Dutch Guyanas. African cultures, slave rebellions, the civil rights movement have shaped African-American religious, familial and economic behaviors; the imprint of Africa is evident in a myriad of ways: in politics, language, hairstyles, dance, religion and worldview. In turn, African-American culture has had a pervasive, transformative impact on many elements of mainstream American culture.
This process of mutual creative exchange is called creolization. Over time, the culture of African slaves and their descendants has been ubiquitous in its impact on not only the dominant American culture, but on world culture as well. Slaveholders limited or prohibited education of enslaved African Americans because they feared it might empower their chattel and inspire or enable emancipatory ambitions. In the United States, the legislation that denied slaves formal education contributed to their maintaining a strong oral tradition, a common feature of indigenous African cultures. African-based oral traditions became the primary means of preserving history and other cultural information among the people; this was consistent with the griot practices of oral history in many African and other cultures that did not rely on the written word. Many of these cultural elements have been passed from generation to generation through storytelling; the folktales provided African Americans the opportunity to educate one another.
Examples of African-American folktales include trickster tales of Br'er Rabbit and heroic tales such as that of John Henry. The Uncle Remus stories by Joel Chandler Harris helped to bring African-American folk tales into mainstream adoption. Harris did not appreciate the complexity of the stories nor their potential for a lasting impact on society. Other narratives that appear as important, recurring motifs in African-American cu
Improvisational theatre called improvisation or improv, is the form of theatre comedy, in which most or all of what is performed is unplanned or unscripted: created spontaneously by the performers. In its purest form, the dialogue, action and characters are created collaboratively by the players as the improvisation unfolds in present time, without use of an prepared, written script. Improvisational theatre exists in performance as a range of styles of improvisational comedy as well as some non-comedic theatrical performances, it is sometimes used in film and television, both to develop characters and scripts and as part of the final product. Improvisational techniques are used extensively in drama programs to train actors for stage and television and can be an important part of the rehearsal process. However, the skills and processes of improvisation are used outside the context of performing arts - Applied Improvisation, it is used in classrooms as an educational tool and in businesses as a way to develop communication skills, creative problem solving, supportive team-work abilities that are used by improvisational, ensemble players.
It is sometimes used in psychotherapy as a tool to gain insight into a person's thoughts and relationships. The earliest well documented use of improvisational theatre in Western history is found in the Atellan Farce of 391 BC. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, commedia dell'arte performers improvised based on a broad outline in the streets of Italy. In the 1890s, theatrical theorists and directors such as the Russian Konstantin Stanislavski and the French Jacques Copeau, founders of two major streams of acting theory, both utilized improvisation in acting training and rehearsal. Modern theatrical improvisation games began as drama exercises for children, which were a staple of drama education in the early 20th century thanks in part to the progressive education movement initiated by John Dewey in 1916; some people credit American Dudley Riggs as the first vaudevillian to use audience suggestions to create improvised sketches on stage. Improvisation exercises were developed further by Viola Spolin in the 1940s, 50s, 60s, codified in her book Improvisation For The Theater, the first book that gave specific techniques for learning to do and teach improvisational theater.
In the 1970s in Canada, British playwright and director Keith Johnstone wrote Impro: Improvisation and the Theatre, a book outlining his ideas on improvisation, invented Theatresports, which has become a staple of modern improvisational comedy and is the inspiration for the popular television show Whose Line Is It Anyway? Spolin influenced the first generation of modern American improvisers at The Compass Players in Chicago, which led to The Second City, her son, Paul Sills, along with David Shepherd, started The Compass Players. Following the demise of the Compass Players, Paul Sills began The Second City, they were the first organized troupes in Chicago, the modern Chicago improvisational comedy movement grew from their success. Many of the current "rules" of comedic improv were first formalized in Chicago in the late 1950s and early 1960s among The Compass Players troupe, directed by Paul Sills. From most accounts, David Shepherd provided the philosophical vision of the Compass Players, while Elaine May was central to the development of the premises for its improvisations.
Mike Nichols, Ted Flicker, Del Close were her most frequent collaborators in this regard. When The Second City opened its doors on December 16, 1959, directed by Paul Sills, his mother Viola Spolin began training new improvisers through a series of classes and exercises which became the cornerstone of modern improv training. By the mid-1960s, Viola Spolin's classes were handed over to her protégé, Jo Forsberg, who further developed Spolin's methods into a one-year course, which became The Players Workshop, the first official school of improvisation in the USA. During this time, Forsberg trained many of the performers who went on to star on The Second City stage. Many of the original cast of Saturday Night Live came from The Second City, the franchise has produced such comedy stars as Mike Myers, Tina Fey, Bob Odenkirk, Amy Sedaris, Stephen Colbert, Eugene Levy, Jack McBrayer, Steve Carell, Chris Farley, Dan Aykroyd, John Belushi. Keith Johnstone's group The Theatre Machine, which originated in London, was touring Europe.
This work gave birth to Theatresports, at first secretly in Johnstone's workshops, in public when he moved to Canada. Toronto has been home to a rich improv tradition. In 1984, Dick Chudnow founded ComedySportz in Milwaukee, WI. Expansion began with the addition of ComedySportz-Madison, in 1985; the first Comedy League of America National Tournament was held in 1988, with 10 teams participating. The league boasts a roster of 29 international cities. In San Francisco, The Committee theater was active in North Beach during the 1960s, it was founded by Alan Myerson and his wife Jessica. When The Committee disbanded in 1972, three major companies were formed: The Pitchell Players, The Wing, Improvisation Inc; the only company that continued to perform Close's Harold was the latter one. Its two former members, Michael Bossier and John Elk, formed Spaghetti Jam in San Francisco's Old Spaghetti Factory in 1976, where shortform improv and Harolds were performed through 1983. Stand-up comedians performing down the street at the Intersection for the Arts would drop by and sit in.
In 1979, Elk brought shortform to England, teaching workshops at Jacksons Lane Theatre, he was the first American to perform at The Comedy Store, above
An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship that involves physical or emotional intimacy. Although an intimate relationship is a sexual relationship, it may be a non-sexual relationship involving family, friends, or acquaintances. Emotional intimacy involves feelings of liking or loving one or more people, may result in physical intimacy. Physical intimacy is characterized by romantic love, sexual activity, or other passionate attachment; these relationships play a central role in the overall human experience. Humans have a general desire to belong and to love, satisfied within an intimate relationship; such relationships allow a social network for people to form strong emotional attachments. Intimacy involves the feeling of belonging together, it is a familiar and close affective connection with another as a result of a bond, formed through knowledge and experience of the other. Genuine intimacy in human relationships requires dialogue, transparency and reciprocity. Dalton discussed how anthropologists and ethnographic researchers access "inside information" from within a particular cultural setting by establishing networks of intimates capable to provide information unobtainable through formal channels.
In human relationships, the meaning and level of intimacy varies between relationships. In anthropological research, intimacy is considered the product of a successful seduction, a process of rapport building that enables parties to confidently disclose hidden thoughts and feelings. Intimate conversations become the basis for "confidences". Sustaining intimacy for a length of time involves well-developed emotional and interpersonal awareness. Intimacy involves the ability to be both separate and together participants in an intimate relationship. Murray Bowen called this "self-differentiation," which results in a connection in which there is an emotional range involving both robust conflict and intense loyalty. Lacking the ability to differentiate oneself from the other is a form of symbiosis, a state, different from intimacy if feelings of closeness are similar. Intimate behavior joins close friends, as well as those in love, it evolves through reciprocal candor. Poor skills in developing intimacy can lead to getting too close too quickly.
Psychological consequences of intimacy problems are found in adults who have difficulty in forming and maintaining intimate relationships. Individuals experience the human limitations of their partners, develop a fear of adverse consequences of disrupted intimate relationships. Studies show that fear of intimacy is negatively related to comfort with emotional closeness and with relationship satisfaction, positively related to loneliness and trait anxiety. Scholars distinguish between different forms of intimacy, including physical, cognitive, or spiritual intimacy. Physical intimacy may include being inside someone's personal space, holding hands, kissing, heavy petting or other sexual activity. Emotional intimacy in sexual relationships develops after a certain level of trust has been reached and personal bonds have been established; the emotional connection of "falling in love", has both a biochemical dimension driven through reactions in the body stimulated by sexual attraction, a social dimension driven by "talk" that follows from regular physical closeness or sexual union.
Love is an important factor in emotional intimacy. It is qualitatively and quantitatively different from liking, not only based on the presence or absence of sexual attraction. There are three types of love in a relationship: passionate love, companionate love, sacrificial love. Sacrificial love reflects the subsumption of the individual self will within a union. Companionate love involves diminished potent feelings of attachment, an authentic and enduring bond, a sense of mutual commitment, the profound feeling of mutual caring, feeling proud of a mate's accomplishment, the satisfaction that comes from sharing goals and perspective. In contrast, passionate love is marked by infatuation, intense preoccupation with the partner, throes of ecstasy, feelings of exhilaration that come from being reunited with the partner. Cognitive or intellectual intimacy takes place when two people exchange thoughts, share ideas and enjoy similarities and differences between their opinions. Spiritual intimacy involves bonding over spirituality.
The use of empirical investigations in 1898 was a major revolution in social analysis. A study conducted by Monroe examined the habits of children in selecting a friend; some of the attributes included in the study were kindness and honesty. Monroe asked 2336 children aged 7 to 16 to identify "what kind of chum do you like best?" The results of the study indicate that children preferred a friend, their own age, of the same sex, of the same physical size, a friend with light features, friends that did not engage in conflict, someone, kind to animals and humans, that they were honest. Two characteristics that children reported as least important included religion; the study by Monroe was the first to mark the significant shift in the study of intimate relationships from analysis, philosophical to those with empirical validity. This study is said to have marked the beginning of relationship science. In the years foll