The term Eastern world refers to various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems depending on the context, most including at least part of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe, the Mediterranean Region and Arab world in historical contexts, in modern times in the context of Orientalism. The term is not used by people in this region itself, since this Eastern world is a varied and dynamic region, hard to generalize, although these countries and regions have many common threads running through them they never needed to define themselves collectively against another entity, real or superficial; the term had a literal geographic meaning, referring to the eastern part of the Old World, contrasting the cultures and civilizations of Asia with those of Europe. Traditionally, this includes all of Central and East Asia, Greater Middle East, Southeast Asia and South Asia. Conceptually, the boundary between east and west is cultural, rather than geographical, as a result of which Australia is grouped in the West, while Islamic nations and much of the former Soviet Union are, regardless of location, grouped in the East.
Other than Asia and some parts of Africa, Europe has absorbed all of the societies of Oceania, the Americas into the Western world, the Philippines and Japan, which are geographically located in the Eastern world, are considered at least westernized due to the cultural influence of Europe. Although the concept of a united Asian people and not mean Asian race is more debatable due to the fact that most of the world link the identity of Asian only to the people of South and Southeast Asia and so regions like Western Asia that who though see themselves as part of the Eastern world such as the Arab nations of Western Asia, Turkey and the ethnic groups that come along with these countries do not identify as Asian. Another reason why a Pan-Asian identity is a flawed work in progress concept compared to the mass unity found in the continents of Europe and Africa is the fact that Asia is the most racially and ethnically diverse continent in the world that differs widely among and within its regions with many different cultures, economics, historical ties and government systems whose people have an further pan-continental belief of nationalistic and ethnic individualism many of whom believe came out of the imperialistic colonization of the continent by foreign Western powers back in colonial times and because of this overt sense individualism across the continent once a specific group is labeled something many groups within Asia will have a hard time identifying with the same label.
Most of the people of Asia prefer to identify with their individual nations rather than with their continent, region, or each other and these attitudes can be found throughout the continent. The division between'East' and'West' is a product of European cultural history, of the distinction between European Christendom and the cultures beyond it to the East. With the European colonization of the Americas the East/West distinction became global; the concept of an Eastern, "Indian" or "Oriental" sphere was emphasized by ideas of racial as well as religious and cultural differences. Such distinctions were articulated by Westerners in the scholarly tradition known as Orientalism and Indology. An intriguing fact to be noted is that Orientalism has been the only Western concept, about a unified Eastern world and not about any specific region, but rather all of Asia together. During the Cold War, the term "Eastern world" was sometimes used as an extension of Eastern bloc, connoting the Soviet Union and their communist allies, while the term "Western world" connoted the United States and its NATO allies such as the United Kingdom.
The concept is another term for the Far East – a region that bears considerable cultural and religious commonality. Eastern philosophy, art and other traditions, are found throughout the region in places of high importance, such as popular culture and traditional literature; the spread of Buddhism and Hindu Yoga is responsible for this. Eastern culture has developed many traditions; some important ones are: Abrahamic religions Christianity — the majority of the modern world adheres to this faith although it isn't practiced in its native continent of Asia anymore and since the faith had spread to the Western World the notion of "Europe" and the "Western World" has been intimately connected with the concept of "Christianity and Christendom" many attribute Christianity for being the link that created a unified European identity. Nonetheless, vibrant indigenous minorities in the Levant have preserved their ancient beliefs, adhering to Syriac Christianity, an Eastern Christian sect. Islam — the majority of the world Muslim population have always lived in Asia, due to Islam spreading and becoming the dominant religion of these areas.
Judaism — the national religion of the Israelites/Hebrews of the Fertile Crescent, or what is now Israel, Jordan and Lebanon. They evolved into the Jews and Samaritans of today. Zoroastrianism — the monotheistic state religion of Sassanid Iran Eastern religions / Eastern philosophy Indian religions Buddhism — the path of liberation attained through insight into the ultimate nature of reality. Hinduism Jainism Sikhism — a religion that developed in the warring plains of Punjab in an atmosphere of ideol
The Intermediate Region is an established geopolitical model set forth in the 1970s by the Greek historian Dimitri Kitsikis, professor at the University of Ottawa in Canada. According to this model, the Eurasian continent is composed of three regions, it covers Eastern Europe and the Middle East and North Africa. The lands between the Adriatic Sea and the Indus River form the Intermediate Region and are considered a bridge between Western and Eastern civilisations; the vast area extends from the eastern half of Europe to the western half of Asia. Its significance is that there is neither a uniform Asia. Europe and Asia denote geographical regions, not civilisations. Demographically, the region's dominant religions are Orthodox Christianity and Sunni Islam, Shiite Islam, with Alevism and Judaism to a lesser extent. In contrast and Protestantism dominate in the West, Hinduism and Buddhism dominate in the East; the Intermediate Region had, for 2500 years, been dominated by an ecumenical empire whose centre lay by the Turkish Straits and the Aegean Sea.
It was fundamentally the same empire throughout history, its successive leaders sought to unify its respective peoples. From the Persian Empire of Darius the Great, it fell into the hands of Alexander the Great to the Hellenistic Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the Sunni Ottoman Empire until 1923–1924 though the Ottoman Dynasty was Alevo; that is. This Central Empire had been subject to attempts by other empires to seize succession, situated along its periphery, the Caliphate, the Persian Empire and the Russian Empire; the dynamic between the Central Empire and the Peripheral Empires constitutes an internal conflict in the Intermediate Region. Each of the main peoples in this area struggled to seize control of its centre of influence, that is, Byzantium-Constantinople-Istanbul, which remained the undisputed focal point for nearly 2000 years; the Arabs, in the 8th century, the Russians, in the 20th century succeeded in doing so but were not able to take control of the ecumenical empire. Western intervention, since the 18th century, is considered to be an external conflict, which sought not succession but the destruction of the ecumenical empire and its dismemberment and its subjection to the stranglehold of Westernisation.
Kitsikis concludes that “due to historical events spanning thousands of years, the Eurasian continent, of which Europe is but one of its peninsulas, comprises three civilisational areas: a) the West, which today includes the United States, Canada and New Zealand, as well as Western Europe. Afro-Eurasia Eurasianism Geographical midpoint of Europe The Great Game The Clash of Civilizations The Geographical Pivot of History Intermarium Arno Peters Ralph Peters P. Davarinos, Geschichtsschreibung und Politik, Düsseldorf, 1995.. P. Davarinos, "Die Historische Theorie der Zwischenregion in Osten und Westen", Journal of Oriental and African Studies, vol. 10, pp. 131–143. Dimitri Kitsikis, L'Empire ottoman, Paris, PUF, 3e éd. 1994. Société Royale du Canada, Académie des lettres et des sciences humaines, Géopolitique de la Région intermédiaire, vol.52, 1999. Dimitri Kitsikis, «Une vision géopolitique: la Région intermédiaire», Relations internationales, Paris, no.109, 2002. Dimitri Kitsikis, «Géopolitique d'un Proche-Orient à venir», Diplomatie, no.
24, 2007. E. Konstantinides, "He Geopolitike kai he historia tes mesa apo chartes", Trito Mati, vol.153, 2007 Geopolitike kai Hellada, Esoptron, 2001. Endiamese Perioche, quarterly journal on geopolitics, published in Athens since 1996. Dimitri Kitsikis, Türk-Yunan İmparatorluğu. Arabölge gerçeği ışığında Osmanlı tarihine bakış, Iletişim, 1996. José Pedro Teixeira Fernandes, «A Grécia Moderna e o Ocidente - Entre a Regiao Intermédia e o Ocidente», Historia, no.87, Junho 2006. Georgios K. Filis and Turkey in the Geopolitics of Eurasia & the Theory of Median Space: Thesis-Synthesis-Antithesis, Durham University, United Kingdom, 2008.. Georges Prevelakis, Les Balkans: cultures et géopolitique, Nathan, 1994. Georges Prevelakis, Géopolitique de la Grèce, Editions Complexe, 1997. Geopolitics of the Intermediate Region - Dimitri Kitsikis lecturing in English - Moscow 2011 Geopolitics of the Intermediate Region - Alexandr Dugin lecturing in Russian - Moscow 2011 Dimitri Kitsikis - Intermediate Region - Article - Moscow 14 December 2011 Dimitri Kitsikis - Intermediate Region - Article - Moscow - 19 December 2011 Kitsikis & Dugin parallel approaches
Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes; as the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian and West Saxon.
It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century. Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German: nouns, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, word order is much freer; the oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 9th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet. Englisc, which the term English is derived from, means'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from Angles.
During the 9th century, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as Englisc. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland resembled a fishhook. Proto-Germanic *anguz had the meaning of'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast; that word goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- meaning'narrow'. Another theory is that the derivation of'narrow' is the more connection to angling, which itself stems from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning bend, angle; the semantic link is the fishing hook, curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, therefore England would mean'land of the fishermen', English would be'the fishermen's language'. Old English was not static, its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language.
Around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary. Old English is a West Germanic language, it came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall and in adjacent parts of Devon, while Cumbric survived to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria, Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century.
The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmon's Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts date to the 8th century; the Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, had many works translated into the English language. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great chiefly inspired the growth of prose. A literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. Th
Easting and northing
The terms easting and northing are geographic Cartesian coordinates for a point. Easting refers to the eastward-measured distance, while northing refers to the northward-measured distance; when using common projections such as the transverse Mercator projection, these are distances projected on an imaginary surface similar to a bent sheet of paper, are not the same as distances measured on the curved surface of the Earth. Easting and northing coordinates are measured in metres from the axes of some horizontal datum. However, other units are used; the coordinates are most associated with the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system, which has unique zones that cover the Earth to provide detailed referencing. Locations can be found using easting/northing pairs; the pair is represented conventionally with easting first, northing second. For example, the peak of Mount Assiniboine in UTM Zone 11 is represented by 11U 594934 5636174. Other conventions can be used, such as a truncated grid reference, which would shorten the example coordinates to 949-361.
Negative northing and easting values indicate a position due south and west of the origin, respectively. Associated with a map projection is a natural origin, e.g. at which the ellipsoid and flat map surfaces coincide. To ensure that the northing and easting coordinates on a map are not negative, map projections may set up a false origin, specified in terms of false northing and false easting values, that offset the true origin. East north up Horizontal plane
Merriam-Webster, Inc. is an American company that publishes reference books and is known for its dictionaries. In 1828, George and Charles Merriam founded the company as G & C Merriam Co. in Springfield, Massachusetts. In 1843, after Noah Webster died, the company bought the rights to An American Dictionary of the English Language from Webster's estate. All Merriam-Webster dictionaries trace their lineage to this source. In 1964, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. acquired Inc. as a subsidiary. The company adopted its current name in 1982. In 1806, Webster published A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. In 1807 Webster started two decades of intensive work to expand his publication into a comprehensive dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language. To help him trace the etymology of words, Webster learned 26 languages. Webster hoped to standardize American speech, since Americans in different parts of the country used somewhat different vocabularies and spelled and used words differently.
Webster completed his dictionary during his year abroad in 1825 in Paris, at the University of Cambridge. His 1820s book contained 70,000 words, of which about 12,000 had never appeared in a dictionary before; as a spelling reformer, Webster believed that English spelling rules were unnecessarily complex, so his dictionary introduced American English spellings, replacing colour with color, waggon with wagon, centre with center. He added American words, including skunk and squash, that did not appear in British dictionaries. At the age of 70 in 1828, Webster published his dictionary. However, in 1840, he published the second edition in two volumes with much greater success. In 1843, after Webster's death, George Merriam and Charles Merriam secured publishing and revision rights to the 1840 edition of the dictionary, they published a revision in 1847, which did not change any of the main text but added new sections, a second update with illustrations in 1859. In 1864, Merriam published a expanded edition, the first version to change Webster's text overhauling his work yet retaining many of his definitions and the title "An American Dictionary".
This began a series of revisions. In 1884 it contained 118,000 words, "3000 more than any other English dictionary". With the edition of 1890, the dictionary was retitled Webster's International; the vocabulary was vastly expanded in Webster's New International editions of 1909 and 1934, totaling over half a million words, with the 1934 edition retrospectively called Webster's Second International or "The Second Edition" of the New International. The Collegiate Dictionary was introduced in 1898 and the series is now in its eleventh edition. Following the publication of Webster's International in 1890, two Collegiate editions were issued as abridgments of each of their Unabridged editions. With the ninth edition, the Collegiate adopted changes which distinguish it as a separate entity rather than an abridgment of the Third New International; some proper names were returned including names of Knights of the Round Table. The most notable change was the inclusion of the date of the first known citation of each word, to document its entry into the English language.
The eleventh edition includes more than 225,000 definitions, more than 165,000 entries. A CD-ROM of the text is sometimes included; this dictionary is preferred as a source "for general matters of spelling" by the influential The Chicago Manual of Style, followed by many book publishers and magazines in the United States. The Chicago Manual states. Merriam overhauled the dictionary again with the 1961 Webster's Third New International under the direction of Philip B. Gove, making changes that sparked public controversy. Many of these changes were in formatting, omitting needless punctuation, or avoiding complete sentences when a phrase was sufficient. Others, more controversial, signaled a shift from linguistic prescriptivism and towards describing American English as it was used at that time. Since the 1940s, the company has added many specialized dictionaries, language aides, other references to its repertoire; the G. & C. Merriam Company lost its right to exclusive use of the name "Webster" after a series of lawsuits placed that name in public domain.
Its name was changed to "Merriam-Webster, Incorporated", with the publication of Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary in 1983. Previous publications had used "A Merriam-Webster Dictionary" as a subtitle for many years and will be found on older editions; the company has been a subsidiary of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. since 1964. In 1996, Merriam-Webster launched its first website, which provided free access to an online dictionary and thesaurus. Merriam-Webster has published dictionaries of synonyms, English usage, biography, proper names, medical terms, sports terms, Spanish/English, numerous others. Non-dictionary publications include Collegiate Thesaurus, Secretarial Handbook, Manual for Writers and Editors, Collegiate Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia of Literature, Encyclopedia of World Religions. On February 16, 2007, Merriam-Webster announced the launch of a mobile dictionary and thesaurus service developed with mobile search-and-information provider AskMeNow. Consumers use the service to access definitions and synonyms via text message.
Services include Merr
The mistral is a strong, northwesterly wind that blows from southern France into the Gulf of Lion in the northern Mediterranean. It produces sustained winds exceeding 66 km/h, sometimes reaching 185 km/h, it is most common in the winter and spring, strongest in the transition between the two seasons. Periods of the wind exceeding 30 km/h for more than sixty-five hours have been reported. In France, it refers to a violent, north or northwest wind that accelerates when it passes through the valleys of the Rhône and the Durance Rivers to the coast of the Mediterranean around the Camargue region, it affects the northeast of the plain of Languedoc and Provence to the east of Toulon, where it is felt as a strong west wind. It has a major influence all along the Mediterranean coast of France, causes sudden storms in the Mediterranean between Corsica and the Balearic Islands; the name mistral comes from the Languedoc dialect of the Occitan and means "masterly". The same wind is called mistrau in the Provençal variant of Occitan, mestral in Catalan, maestrale in Italian and Corsican, maistràle or bentu maestru in Sardinian, majjistral in Maltese.
The mistral is accompanied by clear, fresh weather, it plays an important role in creating the climate of Provence. It can reach speeds of more than 90 km/h in the Rhône Valley, its average speed during the day can reach about 50 km/h, calming noticeably at night. The mistral blows in winter or spring, though it occurs in all seasons, it sometimes lasts only one or two days lasts several days, sometimes lasts more than a week. The mistral takes place each time there is an anticyclone, or area of high pressure, in the Bay of Biscay, an area of low pressure around the Gulf of Genoa; when this happens, the flow of air between the high and low pressure areas draws in a current of cold air from the north which accelerates through the lower elevations between the foothills of the Alps and the Cevennes. The conditions for a mistral are more favorable when a cold rainy front has crossed France from the northwest to the southeast as far as the Mediterranean; this cold, dry wind causes a period of cloudless skies and luminous sunshine, which gives the mistral its reputation for making the sky clear.
There is however, the mistral noir, which brings clouds and rain. The mistral noir occurs when the Azores High is extended and draws in unusually moist air from the northwest; the long and enclosed shape of the Rhône Valley, the Venturi effect of funnelling the air through a narrowing space, is cited as the reason for the speed and force of the mistral, but the reasons are more complex. The mistral reaches its maximum speed not at the narrowest part of the Rhône Valley, south of Valence, but much farther south, where the Valley has widened; the wind occurs not just in the Valley, but high above in the atmosphere, up to the troposphere, 3 km above the earth. The mistral is strong at the summit of Mont Ventoux, 1900 meters in elevation, though the plain below is wide. Other contributing factors to the strength of the mistral are the accumulation of masses of cold air, whose volume is greater, pouring down the mountains and valleys to the lower elevations; this is similar to a foehn wind, but unlike a foehn wind the descent in altitude does not warm the mistral.
The causes and characteristics of the mistral are similar to those of the Tramontane, another wind of the French Mediterranean region. In France, the mistral affects Provence, Languedoc east of Montpellier, as well as all of the Rhône Valley from Lyon to Marseille, as far southeast as Corsica and Sardinia; the mistral blows from the north or northwest, but in certain pre-alpine valleys and along the Côte d'Azur, the wind is channelled by the mountains so that it blows from east to west. Sometimes it blows from the north-north-east toward the east of Languedoc as far as Cap Béar; the mistral will affect only one part of the region. In the Languedoc area, where the tramontane is the strongest wind, the mistral and the tramontane blow together onto the Gulf of Lion and the northwest of the western Mediterranean, can be felt to the east of the Balearic Islands, in Sardinia, sometimes as far as the coast of Africa; when the mistral blows from the west, the mass of air is not so cold and the wind only affects the plain of the Rhône delta and the Côte d'Azur.
The good weather is confined to the coast of the Mediterranean. The Côte d'Azur has a clear sky and warmer temperatures; this type of mistral blows for no more than one to three days. The mistral originating from the northeast has a different character. In the winter this is by far the coldest form of the mistral; the wind can blow for more than a week. This kind of mistral is connected with a low pressure area in the Gulf of Genoa, it can bring unstable weather to the Côte d'Azur and the east of Provence, sometimes bringing heavy snow to low altitudes in winter; when the flow of air comes from the northeast due to a widespread low pressure area over the Atlantic and atmospheric disturbances over France, the air is colder at both high altitudes and ground level, the mistral is stronger, the weather worse, with the creation of cumulus clouds bringing weak storms. This kind of mistral is weaker in the east of the Côte d'Azur; the mistral is not alw
Norms are regarded as collective representations of acceptable group conduct as well as individual perceptions of particular group conduct. They can be viewed as cultural products which represent individuals' basic knowledge of what others do and think that they should do. From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society. Social psychology recognizes smaller group units may endorse norms separately or in addition to cultural or societal expectations. In the field of social psychology, the roles of norms are emphasized—which can guide behavior in a certain situation or environment as "mental representations of appropriate behavior", it has been shown that normative messages can promote pro-social behavior, including decreasing alcohol use and increasing voter turnout. According to the psychological definition of social norms' behavioral component, norms have two dimensions: how much a behavior is exhibited, how much the group approves of that behavior.
These dimensions can be used in normative messages to alter norms. A message can target the former dimension by describing high levels of voter turnout in order to encourage more turnout. Norms can be changed contingent on the observed behavior of others. Social norms can be thought of as: "rules that prescribe what people should and should not do given their social surroundings" and circumstances. Examination of norms is "scattered across disciplines and research traditions, with no clear consensus on how the term should be used." Through rulemaking, humans simplify actions/social practices. Everyday there are new rules put into place, as well as old rules that are more structured whether it be for a group or an individual. Yet, not only do humans make rules, they strive on finding the rules that come eye to eye about how the world works; these rules, once accepted by an individual or a group after trial and error become a norm. Groups may adopt norms through a variety of ways. Norms can arise formally, where groups explicitly implement behavioral expectations.
Laws or club rules serve as an example of this. A large number of these norms we follow'naturally' such as driving on the right side of the road in the US and on the left side in the UK, or not speeding in order to avoid a ticket. Many formal norms serve to provide safety to the general public. However, social norms are much more to develop informally, emerging as a result of repeated use of discretionary stimuli to control behavior. Not laws set in writing, informal norms represent accepted and sanctioned routines that people follow in everyday life; these informal norms, if broken, may not invite formal legal punishments or sanctions, but instead encourage reprimands, warnings, or othering. Individuals may import norms from a previous organization to their new group, which can get adopted over time. Without a clear indication of how to act, people rely on their past history to determine the best course forward. In a group, individuals may all import different scripts about appropriate behaviors.
Under the importation paradigm, norm formation occurs subtly and swiftly whereas with formal or informal development of norms may take longer. Groups internalize norms by accepting them as reasonable and proper standards for behaviour within the group. Once established, a norm becomes a part of the group's operational structure and hence more difficult to change. While possible for newcomers to a group to change its norms, it is much more that the new individual will adopt the group's norms and perspectives, rather than the other way around. Deviance is defined as "nonconformity to a set of norms that are accepted by a significant number of people in a community or society." More put, if group members do not follow a norm, they become labeled as a deviant. In the sociological literature, this can lead to them being considered outcasts of society. Yet, deviant behavior amongst children is somewhat expected. Except the idea of this deviance manifesting as a criminal action, the social tolerance given in the example of the child is withdrawn against the criminal.
Crime is considered one of the most extreme forms of deviancy according to scholar Clifford R. Shaw. What is considered "normal" is relative to the location of the culture in which the social interaction is taking place. In psychology, an individual who disobeys group norms runs the risk of turning into the "institutionalized deviant." Similar to the sociological definition, institutionalized deviants may be judged by other group members for their failure to adhere to norms. At first, group members may increase pressure on a non-conformist, attempting to engage the individual in conversation or explicate why he or she should follow their behavioral expectations; the role in which one decides on whether or not to behave is determined on how their actions will affect others. With new members who do not know any better, groups may use discretionary stimuli to bring an individual's behavior back into line. Over time, however, if a member continues to disobey, the group will give up on him as a lost cause.