North Korea the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang the capital and the largest city in the country. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers. North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. Negotiations on reunification failed, in 1948, separate governments were formed: the socialist Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, the capitalist Republic of Korea in the south.
An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War. The Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire. North Korea describes itself as a "self-reliant" socialist state, formally holds elections, though said elections have been described by outside observers as sham elections. Outside observers generally view North Korea as a Stalinist totalitarian dictatorship noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family; the Workers' Party of Korea, led by a member of the ruling family, holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members. Juche, an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution in 1972; the means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services such as healthcare, education and food production are subsidized or state-funded. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, the population continues to suffer malnutrition.
North Korea follows "military-first" policy. It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active and paramilitary personnel, or 37% of its population, its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the United States and India. It possesses nuclear weapons; the UN inquiry into human rights in North Korea concluded that, "The gravity and nature of these violations reveal a state that does not have any parallel in the contemporary world". The North Korean regime denies most allegations, accusing international organizations of fabricating human rights abuses as part of a smear campaign with the covert intention of undermining the state, although they admit that there are human rights issues relating to living conditions which the regime is attempting to correct. In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, the sovereign state is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77 and the ASEAN Regional Forum.
The name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon in North Korea, Hanguk in South Korea. In 1948, North Korea adopted Democratic People's Republic of Korea as its new legal name. In the wider world, because the government controls the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, it is called North Korea to distinguish it from South Korea, called the Republic of Korea in English. Both governments consider themselves to be the legitimate government of the whole of Korea. For this reason, the people do not consider themselves as'North Koreans' but as Koreans in the same divided country as their compatriots in the South and foreign visitors are discouraged from using the former term.
After the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Korea was occupied by Japan from 1910 to 1945. Japan tried to suppress Korean traditions and culture and ran the economy for its own benefit. Korean resistance groups known as Dongnipgun operated along the Sino-Korean border, fighting guerrilla warfare against Japanese forces; some of them took part in parts of South East Asia. One of the guerrilla leaders was the communist Kim Il-sung, who became the first leader of North Korea. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Korean Peninsula was divided into two zones along the 38th parallel, with the northern half of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States; the drawing of the division was assigned to two American officers, diplomat Dean Rusk and Army officer Charles Bone
The Mongols are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and to China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They live as minorities in other regions of China, as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia and Kalmykia; the Mongols are bound together by ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language; the ancestors of the modern-day Mongols are referred to as Proto-Mongols. Broadly defined, the term includes the Mongols proper, Oirats, the Kalmyk people and the Southern Mongols; the latter comprises the Abaga Mongols, Aohans, Gorlos Mongols, Jaruud, Khuuchid and Onnigud. The designation "Mongol" appeared in 8th century records of Tang China to describe a tribe of Shiwei, it resurfaced in the late 11th century during the Khitan-ruled Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Liao in 1125, the Khamag Mongols became a leading tribe on the Mongolian Plateau.
However, their wars with the Jurchen-ruled Jin dynasty and the Tatar confederation had weakened them. In the thirteenth century, the word Mongol grew into an umbrella term for a large group of Mongolic-speaking tribes united under the rule of Genghis Khan. In various times Mongolic peoples have been equated with the Scythians, the Magog, the Tungusic peoples. Based on Chinese historical texts the ancestry of the Mongolic peoples can be traced back to the Donghu, a nomadic confederation occupying eastern Mongolia and Manchuria; the identity of the Xiongnu is still debated today. Although some scholars maintain that they were proto-Mongols, they were more a multi-ethnic group of Mongolic and Turkic tribes, it has been suggested that the language of the Huns was related to the Hünnü. The Donghu, can be much more labeled proto-Mongol since the Chinese histories trace only Mongolic tribes and kingdoms from them, although some historical texts claim a mixed Xiongnu-Donghu ancestry for some tribes. See Genetic history of East Asians The Donghu are mentioned by Sima Qian as existing in Inner Mongolia north of Yan in 699–632 BCE along with the Shanrong.
Mentions in the Yi Zhou Shu and the Classic of Mountains and Seas indicate the Donghu were active during the Shang dynasty. The Xianbei formed part of the Donghu confederation, but had earlier times of independence, as evidenced by a mention in the Guoyu, which states that during the reign of King Cheng of Zhou they came to participate at a meeting of Zhou subject-lords at Qiyang but were only allowed to perform the fire ceremony under the supervision of Chu since they were not vassals by covenant; the Xianbei chieftain was appointed joint guardian of the ritual torch along with Xiong Yi. These early Xianbei came from the nearby Zhukaigou culture in the Ordos Desert, where maternal DNA corresponds to the Mongol Daur people and the Tungusic Evenks; the Zhukaigou Xianbei had trade relations with the Shang. In the late 2nd century, the Han dynasty scholar Fu Qian wrote in his commentary "Jixie" that "Shanrong and Beidi are ancestors of the present-day Xianbei". Again in Inner Mongolia another connected core Mongolic Xianbei region was the Upper Xiajiadian culture where the Donghu confederation was centered.
After the Donghu were defeated by Xiongnu king Modu Chanyu, the Xianbei and Wuhuan survived as the main remnants of the confederation. Tadun Khan of the Wuhuan was the ancestor of the proto-Mongolic Kumo Xi; the Wuhuan are of the direct Donghu royal line and the New Book of Tang says that in 209 BCE, Modu Chanyu defeated the Wuhuan instead of using the word Donghu. The Xianbei, were of the lateral Donghu line and had a somewhat separate identity, although they shared the same language with the Wuhuan. In 49 CE the Xianbei ruler Bianhe raided and defeated the Xiongnu, killing 2000, after having received generous gifts from Emperor Guangwu of Han; the Xianbei reached their peak under Tanshihuai Khan who expanded the vast, but short lived, Xianbei state. Three prominent groups split from the Xianbei state as recorded by the Chinese histories: the Rouran, the Khitan people and the Shiwei. Besides these three Xianbei groups, there were others such as the Murong and Tuoba, their culture was nomadic, their religion shamanism or Buddhism and their military strength formidable.
There is still no direct evidence that the Rouran spoke Mongolic languages, although most scholars agree that they were Proto-Mongolic. The Khitan, had two scripts of their own and many Mongolic words are found in their half-deciphered writings. Geographically, the Tuoba Xianbei ruled the southern part of Inner Mongolia and northern China, the Rouran ruled eastern Mongolia, western Mongolia, the northern part of Inner Mongolia and northern Mongolia, the Khitan were concentrated in eastern part of Inner Mongolia north of Korea and the Shiwei were located to the north of the Khitan; these tribes and kingdoms were soon overshadowed by the rise of the Turkic Khaganate in 555, the Uyghur Khaganate in 745 and the Yenisei Kirghiz states in 840. The Tuoba were absorbed into China; the Rouran
Free area of the Republic of China
The Free area of the Republic of China is a term used by the government of the Republic of China to refer to the territories under its actual control. The area under the definition consists of the island groups of Taiwan, Kinmen and some minor islands; this term is used in the "Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China". As the island of Taiwan is the main component of the whole area, it is therefore referred to as the "Taiwan Area of the Republic of China" or the "Taiwan Area"; the term "Tai-Peng-Kin-Ma" is essentially equivalent except that it only refers to the four main islands of the region - Taiwan, Penghu and Matsu, to the exclusion of the South China Sea area possessions. The term is opposed to "Mainland Area", viewed synonymous to mainland China; the term "free area" or "Free China" was used during the Second Sino-Japanese War to describe the territories under the control of the Kuomintang led Nationalist Government in Chungking, as opposed to the parts of China under Japanese occupation, including Nanking the capital of the China until the Japanese invasion in 1937.
The Japanese occupation ended with the imperial surrender in 1945, but the term "Free China" was soon to acquire a new meaning in the context of the early Cold War. Following the Communist Party's victory in the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the newly inaugurated People's Republic of China solidified its control of mainland China, while the Kuomintang government retreated to Taiwan and selected Taipei to serve as the provisional capital of the Republic of China. Mainland China was considered to be in a state of "Communist Rebellion", furthermore all territories still under Nationalist administration were said to constitute the "Free Area" of China; this "Period of Communist Rebellion" was terminated by the government in May 1, 1991 with the implementation of the Additional Articles of the Constitution. Prior to the Battle of Dachen Archipelago in 1955, the Free Area encompassed a group of islands off Zhejiang, up to part of the ROC province of Chekiang; the islands have since been administered by the People's Republic of China.
Various names used to describe the geopolitical area include: The term "free area of the Republic of China" has persisted to the present day in the ROC legislation. The Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China delegates numerous rights to exercise the sovereignty of the state, including that of electing the President and Legislature, to citizens residing in the "free area of the Republic of China"; this term was first used in the Constitution with the promulgation of the first set of amendments to the Constitution in 1991 and has been retained in the most recent revision passed in 2005. The need to use the term "free area" in the Constitution arose out of the discrepancy between the notion that the Republic of China was the sole legitimate government of China and the pressures of the popular sovereignty movement. In the 1980s and 1990s, there were demands by the Tangwai movement and other groups opposed to one-party authoritarian KMT rule, to restructure the ROC government, long dominated by mainlanders, to be more representative of the Taiwanese people it governed.
For example, until 1991, members of the National Assembly and Legislative Yuan elected in 1948 to serve mainland constituencies remained in their posts indefinitely and the President of the Republic of China was to be elected by this same "ten thousand year parliament" dominated by aging KMT members. However, more conservative politicians, while acquiescing to the need for increased democracy, feared that constitutional changes granting localized sovereignty would jeopardize the ROC government's claims as the legitimate Chinese government and thereby promote Taiwan independence. According to the Constitution, promulgated in 1947 before the fall of mainland China to the Communists, the national borders of the Republic of China could only be changed through a vote by the National Assembly. In the absence of such constitutional changes, the Republic of China's official borders were to be regarded as all of mainland China in addition to the territories it controlled. While the 1991 revisions of the Constitution granted the sovereignty rights to the Taiwanese people, it did not explicitly name Taiwan and instead used the term "free area" to maintain the notion that the Republic of China encompassed more than Taiwan.
In ordinary legislation, the term "Taiwan Area" is used in contexts of trade and exchange. In contrast to the "free area" is the "mainland area", which the Act Governing Relations between the People of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area defines as "the territory of the Republic of China outside the Taiwan Area". However, on more practical grounds, the "mainland area" refers to mainland China. In addition, there are two other Acts defining other "area": the "Hong Kong and Macau Area"; the hand-over of these former European colonies to the People's Republic of China necessitated laws governing the relations of the Taiwan Area with them. The Acts are worded in a manner to avoid discussing whether the Republic of China claims sovereignty over Hong Kong and Macau. History of the Republic of China Politics of the Republic of China Constitution of the Republic of China Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China Kuomin
Koreans are an East Asian ethnic group native to Korea and southwestern Manchuria. Koreans live in the two Korean states, South Korea and North Korea, but are an recognized ethnic minority in China, Vietnam and the Philippines, plus a number of former Soviet states, such as Russia and Uzbekistan. Over the course of the 20th century, significant Korean communities have emerged in Oceania and North America; as of 2017, there were an estimated 7.4 million ethnic Koreans residing outside the Korean Peninsula. South Koreans refer to themselves as Hanguk-in, or Hanguk-saram, both of which mean "Korean nation people." When referring to members of the Korean diaspora, Koreans use the term Han-in. North Koreans refer to themselves as Joseon-in or Joseon-saram, both of which mean "Joseon people"; the term is derived from the Joseon dynasty, a Korean kingdom founded by Yi Seonggye that lasted for five centuries from 1392 to 1910. Using similar words, Koreans in China refer to themselves as Chaoxianzu in Chinese or Joseonjok, Joseonsaram in Korean, which are cognates that mean "Joseon ethnic group".
Zainichi Koreans refer to themselves as Zainichi Chousenjin, Chousenjin in Japanese or Jaeil Joseonin, Joseonin in Korean In the chorus of Aegukga, the national anthem of South Korea, the Koreans are referred to as Daehan-saram. Ethnic Koreans living in Russia and Central Asia refer to themselves as Koryo-saram, alluding to Goryeo, a Korean dynasty spanning from 918 to 1392. Koreans are the descendants or an admixture of the ancient people who settled in the Korean Peninsula said to be Siberian or paleo-Asian. Archaeological evidence suggests that proto-Koreans were migrants from Manchuria during the Bronze Age, it is noteworthy to mention that there were people living on the Korean peninsula from the Paleolithic age and Neolithic age, thus it is logical to assume that there was intermingling between these populations. Linguistic evidence indicates speakers of proto-Korean languages were established in southeastern Manchuria and northern Korean peninsula by the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, migrated from there to southern Korea during this period.
The largest concentration of dolmens in the world is found on the Korean Peninsula. In fact, with an estimated 35,000-100,000 dolmen, Korea accounts for nearly 70% of the world's total. Similar dolmens can be found in Manchuria, the Shandong Peninsula and the Kyushu island, yet it is unclear why this culture only flourished so extensively on the Korean Peninsula and its surroundings compared to the bigger remainder of Northeastern Asia. Stephen Pheasant, who taught anatomy and ergonomics at the Royal Free Hospital and the University College, said that Far Eastern people have proportionately shorter lower limbs than Europeans and Black Africans. Pheasant said that the proportionately short lower limbs of Far Eastern people is a difference, most characterized in Japanese people, less characterized in Korean and Chinese people, the least characterized in Vietnamese and Thai people. In a craniometric study, Pietrusewsky found that the Japanese series, a series that spanned from the Yayoi period to modern times, formed a single branch with Korea.
Pietrusewsky found, that Korean and Yayoi people were highly separated in the East Asian cluster, indicating that the connection that Japanese have with Korea would not have derived from Yayoi people. Park Dae-kyoon et al. said that distance analysis based on thirty-nine non-metric cranial traits showed that Koreans are closer craniometrically to Kazakhs and Mongols than Koreans are close craniometrically to the populations in China and Japan. Studies of polymorphisms in the human Y-chromosome have so far produced evidence to suggest that the Korean people have a long history as a distinct endogamous ethnic group, with successive waves of people moving to the peninsula and three major Y-chromosome haplogroups; the reference population for Koreans used in Geno 2.0 Next Generation is 94% Eastern Asia and 5% Southeast Asia & Oceania. Korea Foundation Associate Professor of History, Eugene Y. Park said that many Koreans seem to have a genealogical memory blackout before the twentieth century. Park said.
Park said that, through "inventing tradition" in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, families devised a kind of master narrative story that purports to explain a surname-ancestral seat combination's history to the extent where it is next to impossible to look beyond these master narrative stories. Park gave an example of what "inventing tradition" was like from his own family's genealogy where a document from 1873 recorded three children in a particular family and a 1920 document recorded an extra son in that same family. Park said that these master narratives connect the same surname and ancestral seat to a single, common ancestor. Park said that this trend became universal in the nineteenth century, but genealogies which were published in the seventeenth century admit that they did not know how the different lines of the same surname or ancestral seat are related at all. Park said that on
The Tujia, with a total population of over 8 million, is the eighth-largest ethnic minority in the People's Republic of China. They live in the Wuling Mountains, straddling the common borders of Hunan and Guizhou Provinces, Chongqing Municipality; the endonym Bizika means "native dwellers". In Chinese, Tujia means "local", as distinguished from the Hakka whose name implies wandering. Although there are different accounts of their origins, the Tujia may trace their history back over twelve centuries, beyond, to the ancient Ba people who occupied the area around modern-day Chongqing some 2,500 years ago; the Ba Kingdom reached the zenith of its power between 600 BC and 400 BC but was destroyed by the Qin in 316 BC. After being referred to by a long succession of different names in ancient documents, they appear in historical records as the Tujia from about 14th century onwards; the Tujia tusi chieftains reached the zenith of their power under the Ming Dynasty, when they were accorded comparatively high status by the imperial court.
They achieved this through their reputation as providers of fierce disciplined fighting men, who were employed by the emperor to suppress revolts by other minorities. On numerous occasions, they helped defend China against outside invaders, such as the wokou who ravaged the coast during the 16th century; the Manchus invaded and conquered the Ming in 1644 and established the Great Qing Empire, known in China as the Qing Dynasty. Suspicious of local rulers, the Qing emperors always tried to replace Han officials with Manchu officials wherever they could. In the early 18th century, the Qing court felt secure enough to establish direct control over minority areas as well; this process, known as gaituguiliu, was carried out throughout south-west China and, in general, peacefully. The court adopted a carrot-and-stick approach of lavish pensions for compliant chieftains, coupled with a huge show of military force on the borders of their territories. Most of the Tujia areas returned to central control during the period 1728-1735.
Whilst the Tujia peasantry preferred the measured rule of Qing officials to the arbitrary despotism of the Tujia chieftains whom they had replaced, many resented the attempts of the Qing court to impose national culture and customs on them. With the weakening of central Qing rule, numerous large-scale uprisings occurred culminating in the Taiping Rebellion which affected the area badly. Following the collapse of the Qing, the Tujia found themselves caught between various competing warlords. More and more land was given over to the cultivation of high-earning opium at the insistence of wealthy landlords, banditry was rife. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Tujia areas came under Communist control and banditry was eradicated; the Great Leap Forward led to mass famine in Tujia communities. The Tujia were recognised as one of the 55 ethnic minorities in January 1957, a number of autonomous prefectures and counties were subsequently established. State Councillor Dai Bingguo, one of China's top officials on foreign policy, is the most prominent Tujia in the Chinese government.
Today, traditional Tujia customs can only be found in the most remote areas. The Tujia are renowned for their singing and song composing abilities and for their tradition of the Baishou Dance, a 500-year-old collective dance which uses 70 ritual gestures to represent war, hunting and other aspects of traditional life, they are famous for their richly patterned brocade, known as xilankapu, a product that in earlier days figured in their tribute payments to the Chinese court. For their spring festival they prepare, they gather round the fire to eat grilled ciba. Regarding religion, most of the Tujia worship a white tiger totem, although some Tujia in western Hunan worship a turtle totem. Tujia is a Sino-Tibetan language and is considered an isolate within this group, although it has grammatical and phonological similarities with Nuosu. Today there are at most 70,000 native speakers of the Tujia language, most of whom live in the northern parts Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture in north-western Hunan Province.
The vast majority of the Tujia use varieties of Chinese Southwestern Mandarin. Few monolingual Tujia speakers remain. Children now learn Chinese from childhood and many young Tujia prefer to use Chinese when communicating among themselves. Among fluent Tujia speakers, Chinese borrowings, sentence structures, are more common; the Fifth National Population Census of 2000 recorded 8,028,133 Tujia in China. Provincial Distribution of the Tujia In Chongqing, Tujia make up 4.67% of the total population. County-level distribution of the Tujia County-level distribution of the Tujia He Long Dai Bingguo Liao Guoxun Shang Chunsong ADuo 阿朵, singer/artiste Brown, M. J.. "Ethnic Classification and Culture: The Case of the Tujia in Hubei, China," Asian Ethnicity 2: 55-72. Brown, M. J.. "They Came with Their Hands Tied behind Their Backs" - Forced Migrations, Identity Changes, State Classification i
The Ainu or the Aynu, in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo, are an indigenous people of Japan and Russia. The official number of the Ainu is 25,000, but unofficially is estimated at 200,000, as many Ainu have been assimilated into Japanese society and have no knowledge of their ancestry. Recent research suggests that Ainu culture originated from a merger of the Jomon and Satsumon cultures; these early inhabitants did not speak the Japanese language and were conquered by the Japanese early in the 9th century. In 1264, Ainu invaded the land of Nivkh people controlled by the Yuan Dynasty, resulting in battles between Ainu and the Chinese. Active contact between the Wajin and the Ainu of Ezochi began in the 13th century; the Ainu formed a society of hunter-gatherers, surviving by hunting and fishing. They followed a religion, based on natural phenomena. During the Muromachi period, the disputes between the Japanese and Ainu developed into a war. Takeda Nobuhiro killed Koshamain. Many Ainu were subject to Japanese rule which led to a violent Ainu revolt such as Koshamain's Revolt in 1456.
During the Edo period the Ainu, who controlled the northern island, now named Hokkaido, became involved in trade with the Japanese who controlled the southern portion of the island. The Tokugawa bakufu granted the Matsumae clan exclusive rights to trade with the Ainu in the northern part of the island; the Matsumae began to lease out trading rights to Japanese merchants, contact between Japanese and Ainu became more extensive. Throughout this period the Ainu became dependent on goods imported by the Japanese, were suffering from epidemic diseases such as smallpox. Although the increased contact created by the trade between the Japanese and the Ainu contributed to increased mutual understanding, it led to conflict which intensified into violent Ainu revolts; the most important was an Ainu rebellion against Japanese authority. Another large-scale revolt by Ainu against Japanese rule was the Menashi-Kunashir Battle in 1789. In the 18th century, there were 80,000 Ainu. In 1868, there were about 15,000 Ainu in Hokkaido, 2000 in Sakhalin and around 100 in the Kuril islands.
The beginning of the Meiji Restoration in 1868 proved a turning point for Ainu culture. The Japanese government introduced a variety of social and economic reforms in hope of modernizing the country in the Western style. One innovation involved the annexation of Hokkaido. Sjöberg quotes Baba's account of the Japanese government's reasoning: … The development of Japan's large northern island had several objectives: First, it was seen as a means to defend Japan from a developing and expansionist Russia. Second … it offered a solution to the unemployment for the former samurai class … Finally, development promised to yield the needed natural resources for a growing capitalist economy. In 1899, the Japanese government passed an act labelling the Ainu as "former aborigines", with the idea they would assimilate—this resulted in the Japanese government taking the land where the Ainu people lived and placing it from on under Japanese control. At this time, the Ainu were granted automatic Japanese citizenship denying them the status of an indigenous group.
The Ainu were becoming marginalized on their own land—over a period of only 36 years, the Ainu went from being a isolated group of people to having their land, language and customs assimilated into those of the Japanese. In addition to this, the land the Ainu lived on was distributed to the Wajin who had decided to move to Hokkaido, encouraged by the Japanese government of the Meiji era to take advantage of the island's abundant natural resources, to create and maintain farms in the model of Western industrial agriculture. While at the time, the process was referred to as colonization, the notion was reframed by Japanese elites to the common usage kaitaku, which instead conveys a sense of opening up or reclamation of the Ainu lands; as well as this, factories such as flour mills, beer breweries and mining practices resulted in the creation of infrastructure such as roads and railway lines, during a development period that lasted until 1904. During this time, the Ainu were forced to learn Japanese, required to adopt Japanese names, ordered to cease religious practices such as animal sacrifice and the custom of tattooing.
The 1899 act was replaced in 1997—until the government had stated there were no ethnic minority groups. It was not until June 2008, that Japan formally recognised the Ainu as an indigenous group; the vast majority of these Wajin men are believed to have compelled Ainu women to partner with them as local wives. Intermarriage between Japanese and Ainu was promoted by the Ainu to lessen the chances of discrimination against their offspring; as a result, many Ainu are indistinguishable from their Japanese neighbors, but some Ainu-Japanese are interested in traditional Ainu culture. For example, born as a child of an Ainu father and a Japanese mother, became a musician who plays the traditional Ainu instrument tonkori. There are many small towns in the southeastern or Hidaka region where ethnic Ainu live such as in Nibutani. Many live in Sambutsu on the eastern coast. In 1966 the number of "pure" Ainu was about 300, their most known ethnonym is derived
The Uyghurs or Uighurs, are a Turkic people who live in Central and East Asia. As of 2019, Uyghurs live in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China, where they are one of China's fifty-five officially-recognized ethnic minorities. Uyghurs practice Islam. An estimated 80% of Xinjiang's Uyghurs live in the south-western portion of the region, the Tarim Basin. Outside Xinjiang, the largest community of Uyghurs in China is in Taoyuan County, in north-central Hunan; the World Uyghur Congress estimates the Uyghur population outside of China at 1.0–1.6 million. Significant diasporic communities of Uyghurs exist in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan and in Turkey. Smaller communities live in Afghanistan, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, Australia and the United States. In the Uyghur language, the ethnonym is written ئۇيغۇر in Arabic script, Уйгур in Russian, Уйғур in Uyghur Cyrillic, Uyghur or Uygur in Latin. In Chinese, this is transcribed into characters as 维吾尔 / 維吾爾, romanized in pinyin as Wéiwú'ěr.
In English, the name is spelt "Uyghur" by the Xinjiang government but appears as "Uighur", "Uigur", "Uygur". The name is pronounced in English as, although some Uyghurs and Uyghur scholars have advocated for using the closer pronunciation instead; the original meaning of the term is unclear. Old Turkic inscriptions record a word uyɣur, transcribed into Tang annals as 回纥 / 回紇, it was used as the name of one of the Turkic polities formed in the interim between the First and Second Göktürk Khaganates. The Old History of the Five Dynasties records that in 788 or 809 the Chinese acceded to a Uyghur request and emended their transcription to 回鹘 / 回鶻. Modern etymological explanations for the name "Uyghur" have ranged from derivation from the verb "follow, accommodate oneself" and adjective "non-rebellious" to the verb meaning "wake, rouse, or stir". None of these is thought to be satisfactory because the sound shift of /ð/ and /ḏ/ to /j/ does not appear to have taken place by this time; the etymology therefore cannot be conclusively determined, its referent is difficult to fix.
The "Huihe" and "Huihu" seem to have been a political rather than a tribal designation or to have just been one group among several others collectively known as the Toquz Oghuz. The name fell out of use in the 15th century, but it was reintroduced in the early 20th century by the Soviet Bolsheviks to replace the previous terms "Turk" and "Turki", it is presently used to refer to the settled Turkic urban dwellers and farmers of the Tarim Basin who follow traditional Central Asian sedentary practices, distinguishable from the nomadic Turkic populations in Central Asia. The Uyghurs appear in Chinese records under other names; the earliest record to a Uyghur tribe appears in accounts from the Northern Wei. They are described as the 高车 / 高車, now read as Gāochē but with the reconstructed Middle Chinese pronunciation *; this in turn has been connected to the Uyghur Qangqil. They were known as the Tiele. Throughout its history, the term Uyghur has taken on an expansive definition. Signifying only a small coalition of Tiele tribes in Northern China and the Altai Mountains, it denoted citizenship in the Uyghur Khaganate.
It was expanded into an ethnicity whose ancestry originates with the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate in the year 842, which caused Uyghur migration from Mongolia into the Tarim Basin. This migration assimilated and replaced the Indo-European speakers of the region to create a distinct identity as the language and culture of the Turkic migrants supplanted the original Indo-European influences; this fluid definition of Uyghur and the diverse ancestry of modern Uyghurs create confusion about what constitutes true Uyghur ethnography and ethnogenesis. Contemporary scholars consider modern Uyghurs to be the descendants of a number of people, including the ancient Uyghurs of Mongolia who arrived at the Tarim Basin after the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate, Iranic Saka tribes, other Indo-European peoples who inhabited the Tarim Basin before the arrival of the Turkic Uyghurs. DNA analyses indicate that the peoples of central Asia such as the Uyghurs are all mixed Caucasian and East Asian. Uyghur activists identify with the Tarim mummies, remains of an ancient people who inhabited the region, but research into the genetics of ancient Tarim mummies and their links with modern Uyghurs remains problematic, both to Chinese government officials concerned with ethnic separatism, to Uyghur activists concerned that the research could affect their people's claim of being indigenous to the region.
The Uighurs are the people whom old Russian travellers called Sart, while Western travellers called them Turki, in recognition of their language. The Chinese used to call them Ch'an-t'ou but this term has been dropped, being considered derogatory, the Chinese, using their own pronunciation, now called them Weiwuerh; as a matter of fact there was for centuries no'national' name for them. The term "Uyghur" was not use