National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were
North Eastern Railway (United Kingdom)
The North Eastern Railway was an English railway company. It was incorporated in 1854 by the combination of several existing railway companies, it was amalgamated with other railways to form the London and North Eastern Railway at the Grouping in 1923. Its main line survives to the present day as part of the East Coast Main Line between London and Edinburgh. Unlike many other pre-Grouping companies the NER had a compact territory, in which it had a near monopoly; that district extended through Yorkshire, County Durham and Northumberland, with outposts in Westmorland and Cumberland. The only company penetrating its territory was the Hull & Barnsley, which it absorbed shortly before the main grouping; the NER's main line formed the middle link on the Anglo-Scottish "East Coast Main Line" between London and Edinburgh, joining the Great Northern Railway near Doncaster and the North British Railway at Berwick-upon-Tweed. Although a Northern English railway, the NER had a short length of line in Scotland, in Roxburghshire, with stations at Carham and Sprouston on the Tweedmouth-Kelso route, was a joint owner of the Forth railway bridge and its approach lines.
The NER was the only English railway to run trains into Scotland, over the Berwick-Edinburgh main line as well as on the Tweedmouth-Kelso branch. The total length of line owned was 4,990 miles and the company's share capital was £82 million; the headquarters were at York and the works at Darlington, Gateshead and elsewhere. Befitting the successor to the Stockton & Darlington Railway, the NER had a reputation for innovation, it was a pioneer in electrification. In its final days it began the collection that became the Railway Museum at York, now the National Railway Museum. In 1913 the company achieved a total revenue of £11,315,130 with working expenses of £7,220,784. Constituent companies of the NER are listed in chronological order under the year of amalgamation, their constituent companies are indented under the parent company with the year of amalgamation in parenthesis. If a company changed its name, the earlier names and dates are listed after the name; the information for this section is drawn from Appendix E in Tomlinson.
1854 York and Berwick Railway was York and Newcastle Railway and Newcastle and Darlington Junction Railway Durham Junction Railway Brandling Junction Railway Durham and Sunderland Railway Pontop and South Shields Railway Stanhope and Tyne Railway Newcastle and Berwick Railway Newcastle and North Shields Railway Great North of England Railway York and North Midland Railway Leeds and Selby Railway Whitby and Pickering Railway East and West Yorkshire Junction Railway Leeds Northern Railway was Leeds and Thirsk Railway Malton and Driffield Railway1857 Deerness Valley Railway Hartlepool Dock and Railway1858 North Yorkshire and Cleveland Railway1859 Bedale and Leyburn Railway1862 the "N. E. R. Foss Island BR" railway line, which appears on the 1860 Ordnance Survey map near Elmfield College Hull and Holderness Railway Newcastle and Carlisle Railway Blaydon and Hebburn Railway 1863 Stockton and Darlington Railway Darlington and Barnard Castle Railway Middlesbrough and Guisborough Railway Middlesbrough and Redcar Railway Wear Valley Railway Bishop Auckland and Weardale Railway Eden Valley Railway Frosterley and Stanhope Railway South Durham and Lancashire Union Railway 1865 Cleveland Railway West Hartlepool Harbour and Railway Clarence Railway Stockton and Hartlepool Railway 1866 Hull and Hornsea Railway1870 West Durham Railway1872 Hull and Selby Railway1874 Blyth and Tyne Railway 1876 Hexham and Allendale Railway Leeds and Pontefract Junction Railway1882 Tees Valley Railway1883 Hylton and Monkwearmouth Railway Scotswood and Wylam Railway1889 Whitby and Middlesbrough Union Railway1893 Wear Valley Extension Railway1898 Scarborough & Whitby Railway1900 Cawood and Selby Light Railway1914 Scarborough and West Riding Junction Railway1922 Hull and Barnsley Railway 1853 Hartlepool West Harbour and Dock1857 Hartlepool Dock and Railway1893 Hull Dock Company Having inherited the country's first great barrel-vault roofed station, Newcastle Central, from its constituent the York Newcastle & Berwick railway, the NER during the next half century built a finer set of grand principal stations than any other British railway company, with examples at Alnwick, Gateshead East, Stockton, Darlington Bank Top and Hull Paragon.
The four largest, at Newcastle, Darlington and Hull survive in transport use. Alnwick is still extant but in non-transport use since 1991 as a second-hand book warehouse, the others having been demolished during the 1950s/60s state-owned railway era, two following Second World War blitz damage. York station was the hub of the system, the headquarters of the line was located here; the basis for the present station was opened on 25 June 1877. Until the advent of modern signalling, the 295-lever box was the largest manually worked signal box in Britain. Newcastle station, opened on 29 August 1850, became the largest on the NER. Other principal stations were located at Sunderland and Hull; the station at Leed
Brandling Junction Railway
The Brandling Junction Railway was an early railway in County Durham, England. It took over the Tanfield Waggonway of 1725, built to bring coal from Tanfield to staiths on the River Tyne at Dunston; the Brandling Junction Railway itself opened in stages from 1839, running from Gateshead to Wearmouth and South Shields. Wearmouth was regarded at the time as the "Sunderland" terminal; the Tanfield Waggonway was modernised and connected to the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway near Redheugh, onward transit to the main line of the Brandling Junction Railway was by a rope-worked incline from Redheugh to a Gateshead station. The Brandling Junction Railway modernised the Tanfield Waggonway route, although it remained a difficult route, with numerous rope-worked inclines; the Brandling Junction Railway was conceived as a mineral railway, but passenger traffic was buoyant. From 1841 until 1850 main line passenger trains from London to Gateshead ran over part of the line and after that date from Pelaw to Gateshead, until 1868.
Most of the network closed in the middle years of the twentieth century, although the route from Gateshead to Monkwearmouth is still in use. In the seventeenth century coal was being mined in the ground south of the River Tyne, south west of Gateshead. Transport of the mineral to market involved getting it overland to a waterway; the overland portion of the journey, by pack cart, was slow and expensive. As the easy seams were worked out, the site of mining moved south, further from the Tyne, the land transport problem worsened. About 1671 a waggonway was built to Dunston from the Ravensworth estate, a few miles south of Dunston; the Dunston waggonway fell into disuse. The Tanfield Waggonway originated in a waggonway laid across Tanfield Moor, about seven miles south west of Gateshead, it was opened in 1712 by Sir John Clavering and Thomas Brumell from collieries they owned at Lintz and Buck's Nook, George Pitt of Strathfieldsaye was encouraged to develop what became the great Tanfield coalfield, using the waggonway.
At this period there were few public roads in the area and coal owners requiring to get their product to a waterway had to arrange a wayleave with owners of intermediate land. This was an agreement to pay a fee per unit of mineral transported; the further the coalpit was from the waterway, the more had to be paid to secure wayleaves. Tomlinson records that the landowners made "themselves masters of the wayleaves and great part of the collieries, thereby got near £3,000 per annum for one colliery."Construction of the waggonway led to a legal dispute: Clavering had contracts for wayleaves for conveying coal to the Tyne by "carts or wains, did not include waggons". This made the waggonway unusable, frustration among coal owners led to the formation of a powerful group known informally as the Grand Allies: Hon. Sidney Wortley Montagu, his son, the Hon. Edward Wortley Montagu, Thomas Ord, of Newcastle upon Tyne; these men began to construct "at the expense of many thousand pounds the longest and most remarkable waggonway which had so far been laid down.
Besides some large cuttings, the works comprised a huge embankment across the valley of the Berkley Burn, which rendered necessary the making of a drift through the solid rock for the course of the diverted stream, the building of a stone bridge of a single arch 102 feet in span over the stream higher up, famous as the Causey Bridge or Tanfield Arch..." It was known as Dawson's Bridge. Lewis explains that the original route may have followed the west bank: "A substantial and long-disused waggonway is traceable from the west end of Causey Arch along the west bank to Tanfield pits, quite the original Tanfield line of 1725. If this is so, Causey Arch was built to carry a main line, not a branch."The line had a 1 in 40 ruling gradient, there were several inclined planes on it. Lobley Hill self-acting incline south of Dunston was 50 chains long at 1 in 16 to 1 in 18; the Fugar incline self-acting, was one mile four chains in length at a maximum of 1 in 11. At Tanfield Moor the incline was up to 1 in 9.
There were three inclines worked by stationary engines: at Bowes Bridge at 1 in 40 northwards and Causey East Bank southwards at 1 in 57, worked by the same engine. Horse worked the intermediate sections; the "Old Way" of the Tanfield Waggonway was north of Bryan's Leap, but it was extended southwards, forming the majority of the network, in 1725 - 1727. It crossed the Beckley Burn near Causey by the Causey Arch. Sykes described the bridge in 1833: Tanfield Arch, in the county of Durham, a remarkable structure, was built by Colonel Liddell and the Hon. Charles Montague, the founders of the partnership now vulgarly called the Grand Allies, to obtain a level for the passage of coal-waggons, it is called Cawsey Bridge, from its being built over the deep and romantic dell of Cawsey burn, near Tanfield. The span of the arch is 103 feet; the architect was Ralph Wood, a common mason, having built a former arch of wood, that fell for want of weight, committed suicide from a fear of this beautiful structure experiencing a similar fate.
On a sun dial, on one of the pie
Newcastle Airport Metro station
Airport is a terminus station of the Green line of the Tyne and Wear Metro that serves Newcastle Airport, Newcastle upon Tyne. The station's platforms and ticket hall are situated a short distance south of the airport's terminal building, with a covered walkway running between them; the Airport extension, encompassing both Airport station and the intermediate Callerton Parkway station, was opened on 17 November 1991, having cost £12 million to construct. Prior to this date the Metro's Green line terminated 2 miles to the south-east at Bank Foot, with passengers heading to the airport having to alight there and take the M77 shuttle bus to the airport; the vast majority of the route of the extension was in place, having been opened in 1905 as part of the Ponteland and Darras Hall Branch of the North Eastern Railway. Although the line no longer reached Ponteland or Darras Hall, enough of it remained that building the extension only required around 0.2 miles of new right-of-way. In 2014 a survey conducted by the Consumers Association found that the Metro service from the Airport was one of the highest rated airport rail links in the country for customer satisfaction.
Only the Intercity train link to Birmingham International Airport was rated higher. Services towards South Hylton via Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland city centres operate every 12 minutes during the daytime and every 15 minutes during the evening and on Sundays, with trains taking around 24 minutes to reach central Newcastle and 55 minutes to reach Sunderland station. Services commence at 05:37 on weekdays, with starts on Saturday and Sunday; the last service to run the full length of the Green line to South Hylton departs at 22:39. Additional trains depart until 00:01, only taking passengers as far as Regent Centre before continuing empty to the Metro depot. Airport station information
Sunderland is a city at the centre of the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough, in Tyne and Wear, England, 10 miles southeast of Newcastle upon Tyne and 12 miles northeast of Durham at the mouth of the River Wear. In County Durham, there were three original settlements by the mouth of the River Wear on the site of modern-day Sunderland. On the north side of the river, Monkwearmouth was settled in 674 when King Ecgfrith of Northumbria granted land to Benedict Biscop to found Monkwearmouth Monastery. In 685, Ecgfrith further granted Biscop the land adjacent to the monastery on the south side of the river; as the river separated this land from the monastic community, it was henceforth referred to as the "sunder-land", would grow as a fishing settlement before being granted a charter in 1179. West of the medieval village of Sunderland on the south bank, Bishopwearmouth was founded in 930. Sunderland grew as trading coal and salt. Ships began to be built on the river in the 14th century. By the 19th century, the port of Sunderland had absorbed Bishopwearmouth and Monkwearmouth, owing to the growing economic importance of the shipbuilding docks.
Following the decline of the city's traditional industries in the late 20th century, the area grew into a commercial centre for the automotive industry and technology and the service sector. Bede, sometimes called the father of English history, began his monastic career at Monkwearmouth monastery in Sunderland, before moving to the newly-founded Jarrow monastery in 685, it therefore seems that he was born in or near Sunderland. Indeed, Bede wrote that he was "ácenned on sundorlande þæs ylcan mynstres". Alternatively, it is possible that Sunderland was named in honour of Bede's connections to the area, by people familiar with this statement of his. A person from Sunderland is sometimes known as a Mackem. However, as this term originated as as the early 1980s, its use and acceptance by Sunderland residents among the older generations, is not universal. At one time, Sunderland-built ships were called "Jamies", in contrast with those from Tyneside, which were known as "Geordies", although in the case of "Jamie" it is not known whether this was extended to people.
Sunderland was created a municipal borough of County Durham in 1835. Under the Local Government Act 1888, it was given the status of a County Borough, independent from county council control. In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the county borough was abolished and its area combined with that of other districts to form the Metropolitan Borough of Sunderland in Tyne and Wear. In 1986, Tyne and Wear County Council was abolished, Sunderland became a unitary authority, once again independent from county council control; the metropolitan borough was granted city status after winning a competition in 1992 to celebrate the Queen's 40th year on the throne. The population of the city taken at the 2011 Census was 275,506. Although it is a unitary authority, many public services in the City of Sunderland are provided in cooperation with neighbouring local authorities. For instance, the Northumbria Police covers the five boroughs of Tyne and Wear, plus the neighbouring county of Northumberland; the Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service covers the five boroughs only.
Since 2014, the City of Sunderland has been a member of the North East Combined Authority, an alliance of the five former boroughs of Tyne and Wear and the neighbouring counties of Northumberland and County Durham. However, Sunderland is still a unitary authority. For instance, the Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Executive, better known by its brand name Nexus, is now an executive body of the North East Combined Authority. Sunderland has the motto of Nil Desperandum Auspice Deo or Under God's guidance we may never despair Much of the city is located on a low range of hills running parallel to the coast. On average, it is around 80 metres above sea level. Sunderland is divided by the River Wear which passes through the middle of the city in a incised valley, part of, known as the Hylton gorge; the three road bridges connecting the north and south portions of the city are the Queen Alexandra Bridge at Pallion, the Wearmouth Bridge just to the north of the city centre and most the Northern Spire Bridge between Castletown and Pallion.
To the west of the city, the Hylton Viaduct carries the A19 dual-carriageway over the Wear. Most of the suburbs of Sunderland are situated towards the west of the city centre with 70% of its population living on the south side of the river and 30% on the north side; the city extends to the seafront at Hendon and Ryhope in Seaburn in the north. Some local authority-built, Sunderland suburbs have most streets beginning with the same letter: A: Farringdon B: Town End Farm and Barnes C: Hylton Castle D: Dykelands Road area of Seaburn E: Carley Hill F: Ford Estate G: Grindon H: Hylton Lane / Havelock K: Downhill M: Moorside and Millfield and Wear P: Pennywell and Plains Farm and Pallion R: Red House S: Springwell, Southwick T: Thorney Close W: WitherwackIn Marley Pots, the streets are all associated with trees, e.g. Maplewood, Elmwood etc. In Millfield, the streets are all associated with plants, e.g. Chester, Rose, Hyacinth etc. There are two definitions for Sunderland; the smaller Urban Subdivision follows the boundaries of wha
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The Boldons are a group of three small villages in the north east of England - East Boldon, West Boldon and Boldon Colliery - north of Sunderland, east of Newcastle and south of South Shields and Jarrow. They have a population of 13,271. Lying within the historic boundaries of County Durham, the villages are first recorded in print in 1170, their names evolved from the words "Bold" or "Botl", meaning a building, "dun", meaning a hill. In 1866, work began sinking a pit that began producing coal in 1869, was known as Boldon New Winning; the village that developed nearby in the 1870s became known as Boldon Colliery. When the mine was deepened and extended in the 1910s, further housing to accommodate the workforce was built to the south of the pit in an area known as Boldon New Town; until 1974 the area was administered as an urban district of County Durham, but since has been part of the borough of South Tyneside. In 1976, the Boldon Colliery Band appeared in episode 13 of the television series When the Boat Comes In.
The mine closed in 1982 but more jobs became available when an Asda supermarket opened in 1987. Recent developments include Boldon Business Park. Boldon Colliery has its own multi-screen cinema operated by Cineworld; the main secondary school in the area is a specialist sports college. The Boldons form part of the suburban fringe of South Tyneside and are surrounded by green belt. There are conservation areas within the historic village centres of West Boldon. East Boldon is considered the more affluent sought after area of the Boldons. With a reputation competing with nearby Cleadon Village, East Boldon attracts a young professional family market and residents to this day have created a much desired family, village environment; the three schools are much sought after, they provide nursery and juniors, who work together via the PTA. The village has its own community Facebook page and Friends of East Boldon Parks hold annual community events such as party in the park and Halloween trails etc; the East Boldon Scouts is one of the largest in the UK with over 200 attendees.
House prices are higher than national average and sell due to their desirability. Despite the small geographical area, there are a significant number of older buildings considered as being of architectural merit including churches, public houses and former country houses, as well as modern additions. St. Nicholas Church in West Boldon is a Grade I listed building; the area includes a wide range of housing styles, from Edwardian villas to Victorian terraces, post-war housing to more recent smaller-scale developments. The first street built in Boldon Colliery was Cross Row, constructed to house the men who were employed to sink the shaft. Several years other major housing projects were started and terraced housing such as that at Arnold Street and Charles Street were built. After the colliery was closed the former industrial land lay derelict for many years. In 2000, Colliery Wood was created with over 2,500 trees planted; the wood is popular with the local community and provides a habitat for animals such as pheasants, squirrels and otters.
Colliery Wood provides six new paths, which are suitable for cycling and link to East Boldon, Brockley Whins and Whiteleas in nearby South Shields. Boldon Flats is another site important for nature conservation, which contains an area of damp pasture; the flats are flooded from each October to March and attract a wide array of bird life and a large population of common frogs. West Boldon Lodge, constructed by the National Grid, is situated amongst a range of habitat, including wetland and woodland. Locally rare orchids are present at one site; the River Don is the last stronghold of water voles in South Tyneside. Recent/proposed projects include: the introduction of the Metro light rapid transit system connecting Boldon to the rest of Tyne & Wear a new state-of-the-art senior school new attractive housing developments an expansion to the ASDA Walmart superstore - one of the largest in northern England a new Pizza Hut and Nando’s restaurant and Costa Coffee at the leisure park further growth of the business park road and cycle way improvements a new skate park, community woodland projectsThe new £17.5 million Boldon School opened on 6 November 2006.
It has been funded by a private finance initiative and was constructed by Gleeson Building Company as well as other small businesses. The new school boasts a £750,000 theatre, top-of-the-range arts facilities, a four-lane 25 metre swimming pool and other new sports facilities such as five-a-side football pitches gymnasium. Computerised technology has been incorporated into the school's meals service, with school pupils using an electronic card system to purchase meals; the built Quadrus Centre at Boldon Business Park houses entrepreneurial businesses and acts as a gateway to South Tyneside on the main A19 trunk road. The building features a modern design within its lakeside setting; the building is illuminated at night in a range of colours and has won many awards for its iconic design. Boldon has produced many notable sports personalities, one of, former Newcastle United footballer Wes Saunders. Charlton Athletic goalkeeper Sam Bartram, their record appearance holder, who played 800 games for the London club, was signed from Boldon Villa in September 1934 and played in four successive Wembley cup finals from 1944 to 1947.
Full back Jack Shreeve moved from the Villa to Charlton in 1935 and was a colleague of Bartram's in their 1947 FA Cup winning team. A Sam Bartram Memorial Cup com