The Kensico Reservoir is a reservoir located in the towns of Armonk and Valhalla, New York. It was formed by the old earth and gravel dam, built in 1885, which impounded waters from the Bronx and Byram rivers, supplied about 18 million gallons daily; the construction of a new masonry dam in 1915, replaced the old dam, expanded the water supply by bringing water from the Catskill Mountains over a distance of more than 100 miles. It is about 3 miles north of downtown White Plains, New York, about 15 miles north of New York City; the reservoir serves to store the waters received from the Catskill Mountains west of the Hudson River. Along with the West Branch Reservoir and Boyds Corner Reservoir, it is one of only three reservoirs within the Catskill/Delaware system outside the Catskill Mountains region; the Kensico Reservoir provides for fishing and boating recreation. Every year, the reservoir is stocked with over 2,000 brown trout. According to the Department of Environmental Conservation, the Kensico Reservoir was stocked in April 2016 with 8620 brown Trout 8.5 to 9.5 inches long.
As the population of New York City grew in the 19th century, so did the need for water. The first use of water from Westchester County came from the old Croton Dam, completed in 1842. In the 1880s, the City faced increasing demands for water and therefore needed to enlarge the Croton Reservoir to meet that need; the enlargement of the Croton Reservoir was completed in 1906 as a part of a system of reservoirs designed to bring water from Putnam and Westchester Counties to New York City. The village of Kensico, NY was named in 1849 for a Siwanoy Indian chief, who had sold most of the land surrounding White Plains to English settlers in the 1600s. In 1885, the old Kensico Dam was built south of the village of Kensico, NY as an additional source of water for New York City; the earth and gravel dam formed a small lake from water supplied by the Bronx River and the Byram River, but it was still not enough for the ever-increasing population of New York City. A reservoir was needed that would contain waters from various new reservoirs and act as a holding tank for distribution to New York City.
Kensico was surrounded by hills that came to a natural V-shape making it an ideal area to hold a vast amount of water. Just to the south of Kensico was Rye Pond and Little Rye Pond in Harrison, NY, which would form part of the new reservoir. A nearby quarry in Harrison bordering Cranberry Lake, provided the necessary materials for building the new dam. Although small—with a population of about 200 people—Kensico had houses, churches, hotels and a railroad station. In 1905, legislation was passed by New York State to allow money to be raised for the building of the Kensico Reservoir; the next year, final planning by the state was approved, preliminary surveys were started. Seventeen miles of railroad track were built to carry materials from quarries at nearby Cranberry and Silver Lakes to the dam site. A camp for the workers and their families had to be constructed, along with facilities such as schools for their children. To prepare for the dam construction, each individual lot of land was condemned and appraised, the owner paid a "fair value" for the land.
Many of the families had to move to such surrounding communities as Armonk, Harrison and White Plains. The village of Kensico was flooded to make way for the reservoir. After the events of September 11, 2001 the road running across the top of the Kensico Dam was closed indefinitely for fear of an attempt to destroy the dam. A breach of the dam would result in a diminished supply of water to New York City and the flooding of many communities in Westchester. On September 11, 2005, a 9/11 memorial was dedicated in the dam plaza; the memorial is dedicated to the 109 Westchester County residents. The roadway was reopened in May 2012 to bicycle traffic only. Before constructing the existing Kensico Dam, the old Kensico Dam had to be removed; the construction of the dam began in 1913 and was concluded in 1917—three years ahead of schedule—at a cost of more than $15,000,000. The dam is 1,843 feet long, it stands 307 feet above its foundation and contains 1 million cubic feet of masonry—as much masonry as the Egyptians used to build some of the pyramids.
In one month, 2.5 million cubic yards of concrete were poured into blocks, which had to cure for three months before being swung onto the rising hyperbolic pile of dam. The dam is able to hold back about 30 billion US gallons of water. Frank E. Winsor was the engineer in charge of construction of Kensico as well as Hillview Reservoir and 32 miles of the Catskill Aqueduct. New York City’s main contractor built a work camp at nearby Valhalla for the 1,500 men who worked on the dam at the height of construction; the water supply board created a mounted police force to keep order. Crews were made up of Italian immigrants, who began the long task of digging straight down to a depth of 110 feet to reach solid rock with no water-bearing seams; this entailed a number of fatal accidents. As the aqueduct neared completion in 1913, the work gangs at Kensico began laying the first of the concrete bricks of which the dam is built; the tremendous influx of workers provided a period of prosperity for the surrounding area.
New stores, rooming houses, restaurants and
Southeast, New York
Southeast is a town in Putnam County, New York, United States. The population was 18,404 at the 2010 census; the town is in the southeast part of the county. Interstate 84, Interstate 684, U. S. Route 202, US Route 6 pass through the town; the first settler arrived around 1730. The area first exploited was called "The Oblong," and was outside of the land claimed by the Philipse Patent. Due to a border dispute between New York and Connecticut, the area between the undisputed border of New York and the undisputed border of Connecticut was an 4-mile-wide area which ran the full north-south dimension along the state line, in what are now Westchester, Putnam and Columbia Counties; this was called the Oblong. Land was sold in this area both by the governor of New York and the King of England for Connecticut, with conflicting deeds; the boundary was settled in New York's favor by the 1731 Treaty of Dover. A small portion of The Oblong, namely the portion in the Philipse Patent, was alternately known as Southeast as it was the southeasternmost town in Dutchess County.
It consisted of the 4-mile-wide section of land along the Connecticut border, going the full north-south dimension of what is now Putnam County, i.e. the eastern part of the current town of Patterson, the eastern part of the current town of Southeast. The western parts of those two current towns were part of the large Phillipse Patent which had not yet been divided into towns; the most settled areas of the "Oblong" version of Southeast were the "city" of Frederickstown, now the hamlet of Patterson, the area called Sodom. This version of Southeast was founded in 1788, formed the southeast corner of Dutchess County. In 1795, the town, Southeast's neighbor, was divided into the present towns of Carmel and Patterson, the latter two known at first as "Frederick" and "Franklin", at the same time, Southeast lost its northern half to Patterson, expanded to the west to become the shape it is now. Putnam County split from Dutchess in 1812; the most densely populated area in the town today is the village of Brewster.
The first "South East" post office was established in 1797, when the town was still a municipality in Dutchess County. On June 12, 1812, the county of Putnam was established from six Dutchess County towns: Carmel, Patterson, Putnam Valley and Southeast; these two dates provide a frame of reference for the dates of operation of each Southeast post office. Before the establishment of centralized post offices, local offices were established in general stores, railroad depots and other public venues in densely populated areas. In Southeast, there were nine individual post offices, each with distinctive postmarks: Brewster's Station from 1850 to 1883 Brewster from 1883 to date Doanesburgh from 1839 to 1855 Dykman's from 1851 to 1894 Dykemans from 1894 to 1935 Milltown from 1826 to 1867 Putnam Lake Branch 1959 to 1968 South East 1797 to 1812 South East 1812 to 1857 Tilly Foster 1881 to 1958By September 1968, the last of these local offices was closed, the only post office for the town of Southeast and village of Brewster was located at 20 Main Street with the postmark "Brewster, New York 10509".
In the 1990s this USPS branch relocated to 3 Mount Ebo Road in the Doansburgh section of Southeast, no longer in the village of Brewster, but retained the "Brewster 10509" name and ZIP code. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 35.0 square miles, of which 32.1 square miles is land and 2.9 square miles, or 8.35%, is water. The town contains several reservoirs; the east town line borders Fairfield County and the south town line borders northern Westchester County. As of the census of 2000, there were 17,316 people, 6,184 households, 4,569 families residing in the town; the population density was 540.1 people per square mile. There were 6,412 housing units at an average density of 200.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.88% White, 1.87% African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.63% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 2.40% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.04% of the population. There were 6,184 households out of which 37.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.9% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families.
20.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.22. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $69,272, the median income for a family was $78,553. Males had a median income of $51,957 versus $39,583 for females; the per capita income for the town was $29,506. About 3.1% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.3% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over. The Town of Southeast is governed by a town board. Southeast Town Hall is located on New York State Route 22 in New York. Law enforcement services for Southeast are provided by the New York State Police and the Putnam County Sheriff's Department.
The village of Brewster, New York has its own police department. Bog Brook Reservoir – A reservoir near the center of the town. Brewster – A centr
West Branch Croton River
The West Branch Croton River is a tributary of the Croton River in Putnam and Westchester counties in the state of New York. It lies within the Croton River watershed and is part of the New York City water supply system's Croton Watershed; the rivers headwaters drain into Sagamore Lake in the northwest part of the town of Kent in Putnam County. From there the West Branch flows southeast one mile into Boyds Corner Reservoir, where it joins the New York City water supply system. From Boyd's Corners it flows into West Branch Reservoir in the town of New York, it flows southeast into the Croton Falls Reservoir in Carmel above the Westchester border, where it picks up the waters of the Middle Branch Croton River after their co-mingling in the Diverting Reservoir to the north. These combined waters exit the Croton Falls Reservoir for a brief stretch of the West Branch alone, which joins the East Branch at the confluence of the Croton River proper in Croton Falls, a hamlet of the town of North Salem, New York in northern Westchester County.
List of rivers of New York
The Ashokan Reservoir is a reservoir in Ulster County, New York. The reservoir is in the eastern end of the Catskill Park, is one of several in the region created to provide the City of New York with water, it is the city's deepest reservoir, 190 feet deep near the dam at the former site of Bishop Falls. New York City turned to the Catskills for water in the early 20th century after discovering that a group of speculators calling itself the Ramapo Water Company had bought up riparian rights to many water sources further south in Rockland and Ulster counties; the Catskills were more desirable, as state-owned Forest Preserve land in the region could not, under the state constitution, be sold to any other party. A recent amendment to that section of the state constitution allowed up to 3% of the total Forest Preserve land to be flooded for reservoirs. In 1905 the New York State Legislature enacted legislation that created the New York City Board of Water Supply and allowed the city to acquire lands and build dams and aqueducts in the Catskills.
Local opponents of the reservoir cast doubt on its soundness, saying it could never hold enough water, but when it was filled from 1912 to 1914, they were silenced. Residents of the area to be flooded did not take kindly to the idea, fought eminent domain proceedings bitterly, they were aided by local lawyers familiar with the checkered history of Catskill land claims. It would be 1940; the Ashokan Reservoir was constructed between 1907 and 1915, by the New York City Board of Water Supply, by impounding the Esopus Creek. Thousands of acres of farmland were submerged; the impoundment covered twelve communities located in a valley where farming and quarrying prevailed. Two thousand residents along with roads, shops, farms and mills were either moved or abandoned, but most of them were torn down. According to Bob Steuding, a humanities professor at Ulster County Community College in Stone Ridge, the area that became the West Basin of the reservoir contained 504 dwellings, nine blacksmith shops, 35 stores, 10 churches, 10 schools, seven sawmills and a gristmill.
Several of these communities were re-established in nearby locations. Nearly 12-and-a-half miles of a local railroad line was moved and cemeteries were relocated; the dam was constructed by local laborers, as well as African-Americans and Italian immigrants, who did the job of razing most of the trees and buildings in the area. Fights would break out in the labor camps where the crews would eat and sleep, so a police force, which would become the New York City Department of Environmental Protection Police, was established to keep peace in the camps; the dam was constructed with Rosendale cement. When the dam was completed, giant steam whistles blew for one hour, signaling to people in the valley to evacuate immediately; some relocated communities survive along the reservoir's banks, such as West Shokan, Olivebridge and Shokan. Most, such as Brown's Station, are remembered in historical markers along routes 28 and 28A; the resulting body of water is the oldest New York City–owned reservoir in the Catskill Mountains, being placed into service as long ago as 1915.
It is located at the eastern end of Ulster County, being about 13 miles west of Kingston, New York, 93 miles north of New York City. The reservoir is one of NYC's largest according to its surface volume. At full capacity, the reservoir can hold 122.9 billion US gallons of water, has a 255-square-mile drainage basin, is over 180 feet deep at its deepest point, making it the city's deepest reservoir. The reservoir is encircled by Routes 28A, along with many relocated villages, it is separated into two basins by Reservoir Rd. which has a causeway that runs over the middle of it. Water does not pass between the two basins, the eastern basin, which borders the relocated villages of Ashokan and West Hurley, along with the non-relocated village of Stony Hollow, is seven inches lower than the western basin; the western basin borders the relocated villages of Boiceville, Olive, Olivebridge and West Shokan. There is an abandoned road that runs along the spillway of the reservoir, where water runs back into the Esopus Creek by Olivebridge.
Some of this water comes from the Schoharie Reservoir via the 16 mile Shandaken Tunnel, which empties into the Esopus Creek. It gets water from said creek and its many tributaries, it flows another 11 miles to the Ashokan Reservoir. The water flows into Olivebridge, New York to enter the 92-mile Catskill Aqueduct, it flows into the Kensico Reservoir, just north of White Plains, to mix with water from the Delaware Aqueduct. The water flows a few more miles into the Hillview Reservoir in Yonkers, the main collecting point for the water. Due to the need to ensure the safety of the water system, to make sure the nearly century-old dams stay intact, only limited activities are permitted around the reservoir property, including fishing and logging. One needs a special license to do such activities. For instance, if one is to go boating or fishing, which the reservoir is well known to the locals for, one would need a public access permit, issued after 2002. Otherwise, it is no longer valid; such activities as swimming and diving are prohibited.
This is. It is illegal to bring gasoline-powered motorcraft
The Neversink River is a 55-mile-long tributary of the Delaware River in southeastern New York in the United States. The name of the river comes from the corruption of an Algonquian language phrase meaning "mad river."In the 1890s Theodore Gordon expertly matched dry fishing flies to actual insects. Edward Ringwood Hewitt conducted research on insect and flies from his property above the town of Neversink; as a result, the Neversink River is considered by many to be the birthplace of American dry fly fishing. The Neversink's main flow begins just south of the border between present-day Ulster and Sullivan counties, where the east and west branches of the river join near the hamlet of Claryville. Both branches begin on the slopes of the highest peak in the Catskills; the west branch is joined by several major tributaries, such as Biscuit Brook and Pigeon Creek at Frost Valley YMCA in the town of Shandaken, Ulster County. In its upper course, it is ideal for trout fishing. But, most of the land around it is owned and not open to fishermen.
It flows southeast through the mountains. Not far downriver from the confluence in Neversink, it is impounded to form the Neversink Reservoir of the New York City Water Supply System.. It is connected by a 5-mile water tunnel to Rondout Reservoir, subsequently to the Delaware Aqueduct. Development of the Neversink Reservoir resulted in the displacement of many locals, as several towns along the river were flooded to make the reservoir. New York City paid for their relocation, it flows through the town of Fallsburg, the hamlets of Woodbourne, South Fallsburg, Old Falls. It enters the town of Thompson near Bridgeville; the Holiday Mountain Ski Area was developed near the river. Southern Sullivan County has less developed country, the river passes over its largest waterfalls, Denton Falls and High Falls in the Neversink Gorge, it flows southeastward into western Orange County. Near Cuddebackville, it is joined from the northeast by Basher Kill flows southwest. US 209 runs parallel to the river. At this confluence with the Delaware, the Tri-States Monument marks the tripoint of the borders of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania.
Along much of its length, the Neversink is a popular trout stream north of Woodbourne. In addition to rainbow trout, it sustains brook trout and the rare tiger trout; the river is home to other fish species such as smallmouth bass, sucker, American eel, lampreys. Other forms of recreation are pursued on the river. Several swimming holes are available; the relative narrow nature of the river is not hospitable to boating. The river is navigable with small watercraft from near its dam in Hasbrouck to its mouth. In the late 19th century the river was said to have been navigable to Claryville, where a tannery operated; the river provided a transportation waterway for the tannery's products as well as smaller steam-propelled vessels. The Delaware & Hudson Canal crossed the river at Cuddebackville by an early aqueduct bridge designed by John Roebling and built in 1851. In heavy rains the Neversink River sometimes floods near its mouth at the Delaware River; this occurred most in April 2005, causing some destruction and dislocation in the Port Jervis area.
The Myers Grove community near Huguenot was affected. In addition, heavy rains, in combination with an extended period of unusually warm weather after a moderate to heavy winter with a considerable snowpack, can produce devastating floods at the headwaters of the river from January to April; the snowpack melt increases the volume in the river at the same time as rain. A detailed history of the river can be found in James Eldrige Quinlan's History of Sullivan County, published in 1873. Cuddebackville Dam List of crossings of the Neversink River List of New York rivers Neversink Preserve Notes 1851 Neversink Aqueduct The Neverskink Valley Area Museum D&H Canal Historical Society "USGS Report, Flood of April 2–3, 2005, Neversink River Basin"
Neversink Reservoir is a reservoirs in the New York City water supply system. It is located in the Catskill Mountain town of Neversink in Sullivan County, New York, 75 miles northwest of the City, it is fed by the longest tributary of the Delaware River. Water collected in the reservoir in turn goes through the Neversink Tunnel a short distance east to Rondout Reservoir to be pooled with that from Pepacton and Cannonsville reservoirs which form the west-of-the-Hudson River components of the Delaware Aqueduct. Together, they provide nearly half of the city's daily consumption. Construction began in 1941, as the city realized that after World War II, it would need to increase its supply aggressively to meet explosive growth. Neversink was chosen after opposition from the region's trout fishermen and the geologic unfeasibility of the site scotched plans for smaller reservoirs along Willowemoc Creek. Two local hamlets with long histories and Bittersweet, were condemned and flooded to make the reservoir a reality.
The reservoir was finished in 1953 and began sending water the following year, although only in 1955 did it reach its planned capacity. In 2006, after residents raised concerns regarding the soundness of both Merriman and Neversink dams, a local newspaper obtained copies of inspection reports for both and found that the handwriting and information relating to the structural soundness of the dams on many of them over a three-year period was identical, suggesting they had been photocopied. Only variable information, such as weather and water elevation, changed in each report. City and state officials promised to investigate the matter and discipline any employees involved in wrongdoing. Several were suspended indefinitely without pay. At full capacity, Neversink holds 34.9 billion US gallons. The upper Neversink drains a 92-square mile area reaching all the way to Slide Mountain, the Catskills' highest peak, through six towns and two counties, it reaches a maximum depth of 175 feet. Neversink Dam is an earthen structure 195 feet high.
NY 55 travels across it. The spillway elevation is 1,440 feet above sea level. Neversink is not as reached as some of the city's other Catskill reservoirs. NY 55 runs along its southern end, but, the only road within proximity of any section. Access to the actual reservoir is restricted and has been more so since the September 11, 2001 attacks forced an increase in security. Fishing is permitted in season with a DEP-issued permit in addition to the appropriate New York state license, the reservoir is known, as with most Catskill fishing areas, for its trout; however boats are not allowed to leave the reservoir for environmental reasons and must be stored near it year round. Fish species present in the lake include landlocked salmon, brown trout, yellow perch, smallmouth bass, chain pickerel, black bullhead, rock bass and pumpkinseed sunfish. Hunters with valid city and state permits may use the lands around the reservoir where hunting is permitted during the season. Beyond those, however, no recreational use of the reservoir is permitted.
While the land is not fenced off, the area is patrolled by uniformed DEP police. Official NYCDEP Neversink Reservoir page Table of Reservoir Facts at the Catskill Center for Conservation and Development website. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Neversink Reservoir
Bog Brook Reservoir
The Bog Brook Reservoir is a 379-acre reservoir in the Croton Watershed in southern New York State, part of the New York City water supply system. It is located in the town of Southeast in Putnam County 38 miles north of New York City, it was formed by the damming of a small tributary of the East Branch of the Croton River. The reservoir was put into service in 1892, its main function is to serve as a storage reservoir for the larger East Branch Reservoir, to which it is connected by an underground tunnel. The reservoir holds 4.4 billion US gallons of water at full capacity, has a drainage basin of four square miles. The Bog Brook Reservoir is one of 12 reservoirs in the Croton Watershed. From the East Branch Reservoir, the water flows into the continuation of the East Branch of the Croton River into The Diverting Reservoir via the Croton River to the Muscoot Reservoir and the New Croton Reservoir, into the New Croton Aqueduct, to the Jerome Park Reservoir in the Bronx for distribution to New York City.
It flows through Manhattan, mixes with the water from the Catskill Aqueduct. List of reservoirs and dams in New York NYCDEP Water Supply Watersheds-Links to information on reservoirs by system