Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.
Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18; the country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities; as of 2015, Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa's largest economy in 2014.
The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, it has a "low" Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence; the Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lago
Abia is a state in the south eastern part of Nigeria. The capital is Umuahia and the major commercial city is Aba, a British colonial government outpost in the region. Abia state was created in 1991 from part of Imo State, it is one of the constituent states of the Niger Delta region. Abia State, which occupies about 6,320 square kilometres, is bounded on the north and northeast by the states of Anambra and Ebonyi. To the west of Abia is Imo State, to the east and southeast are Cross River State and Akwa Ibom State and to the south is Rivers State; the southern part of the State lies within the riverine part of Nigeria, it is a low-lying tropical rainforest with some oil-palm brush, the southern portion gets heavy rainfall of about 2,400 millimetres per year and is intense between the months of April through October. The rest of the State is wooded savanna; the most important rivers in Abia State are the Imo and Aba Rivers which flow into the Atlantic Ocean through Akwa Ibom State. Crude oil and gas production is a prominent activity, as it contributes over 39% of the State's GDP.
However, the indigenous oil companies- through the Marginal Fields Programme - have not found it easy to attract the requisite funding and infrastructural capacity to explore some of the marginal oil fields which are about 50 in the State. The manufacturing sector only accounts for 2% of the GDP; the industrial centre of the state is in Aba, with textile manufacturing, soap, cement and cosmetics. In addition to the above, Abia State Government has just built a 9,000 capacity multipurpose International Conference Centre in Umuahia; this edifice of international standard was built by Governor T. A Orji to enhance tourism as well as boost the state economy through hosting of major International and Local events. Representing 27% of the GDP, agriculture- which employs 70% of the state workforce- is the second economic sector of Abia. With its adequate seasonal rainfall, Abia has much arable land that produces yams, potatoes, cashews, plantains and cassava. Oil palm is the most important cash crop.
There are over 3 installed flow stations in Abia State. There is an associated gas plant, Abia/NNPC gas plant; as of 2012, boundary Commission said it returned 42 oil wells from neighbouring Rivers State to Abia. This would have meant Abia being fourth largest oil producing state in the country. Oil giant, holds most of the licenses for the wells in the State and has concentrated on the estimated 50 wells that are considered high-yield; the State produced 36,000 barrels of crude oil per day. Four oil wells in Izaku go to Obigo flow station. About 30 oil wells from my village go to Umuri and about eight oil wells from Umurie go to Afam", lamented Samuel Okezie Nwogu, Chairman of Abia State Oil Producing Development Area Commission. However, the State has complained of poor funding from its oil revenue federal allocation. Our people are suffering, there are lots of projects we can still execute to alleviate their sufferings. There are four universities in the state: the federal-owned Michael Okpara University of Agriculture at Umudike, the state-owned Abia State University in Uturu, the Gregory University Uturu and Rhema University in Aba, both owned.
There are two tertiary hospitals, the Federal Medical Center in Umuahia and the Abia State University Teaching Hospital in Aba, which serve as referral hospitals in the State. The Abia State Polytechnic is in the city of Aba. There are two major power plants in The Alaoji Power plant and the Geometric Power plant. Abia has been a "haven" for foreign investors; the state's population has grown since its creation. The nearest airport to Abia is an hour drive to Umuahia and Aba. Akwa Ibom Airport can serve would-be visitors; the distance between Uyo and Umuahia is: 73.28 kilometres. The rail transport is another means of travel effective but on revitalisation. Aba is connected to Port Harcourt by rail; the coastal parts of the State are accessible with boats and canoes. Abia State is one of the thirty-six States in seventeen Local government areas that constitute the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Abia was carved out of the former Imo State in 1991; the name "Abia" is an abbreviation of four of Abia state's densely populated regions Aba, Bende and Afikpo.
Abia is peopled by the Igbo ethnic group. The Igbo people, who are one of the indigenous peoples of Southeastern part of Nigeria, make up 95% of the population, their traditional language, Igbo is in widespread use. English is widely spoken, serves as the official language in governance and business. Abia's over 2.4 million people are Christians. The State Government is led by a democratically-elected executive Governor who works with members of the state's House of Assembly; the capital city is Umuahia. There are Seventeen local government areas. In 1999, Nigeria became a democracy and Orji Uzor Kalu contested on the platform of the People's Democratic Party and won the Governorship election in Abia State, he was sworn-in on 29 May 1999. In 2003, when it was time for fresh elections, Kalu re-contested on the platform of the PDP and got a second mandate to govern. Theodore Orji defeated Onyema Ugoc
Enugu is the capital of Enugu State in Nigeria. It is located in southeastern Nigeria; the city had a population of 722,664 according to the 2006 Nigerian census. The name Enugu is derived from the two Igbo words Énú Ụ́gwụ́ meaning "hill top" denoting the city's hilly geography; the city was named after Enugwu Ngwo. Since the 17th century the location of present-day Enugu has been inhabited by the Nike subgroup of the Igbo people. In 1900 the Southern Nigeria Protectorate was established by the colonial administration of the British Empire; the discovery of coal by the colonialists led to the building of the Eastern Line railway to carry coal from the inland city to the port of Port Harcourt, a city created for this purpose located 151 miles south of what was called Enugu Coal Camp. Enugu was renamed Enugu and developed as one of the few cities in West Africa created from European contact. By 1958 Enugu had over 8,000 coal miners; as of 2005 there are no significant coal mining activities left in the city.
Enugu became the capital of the Eastern Region after Nigeria's independence in 1960. On 30 May 1967 Enugu was declared the capital of the short-lived Republic of Biafra. After Enugu was captured by the Nigerian armed forces, the Biafran capital was moved to Umuahia. Industries in the city include bottling industries. Enugu is one of the filming locations for directors of the Nigerian movie industry, dubbed "Nollywood". Enugu's main airport is the Akanu Ibiam International Airport; the main educational establishment in the city is the Enugu campus of the University of Nigeria based in Nsukka, a town north of Enugu and in the same state. The first settlement in the Enugu area was the small Nike village of Ogui, present since the era of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Nike in the Igbo language means "with strength or power." It was through slave raiding that the Nike people acquired most of their lands, which were unsettled. The Nike used slaves for a defence strategy, placing slave camps at the edge of their territories so that it was harder for an enemy to access the free born.
The Nike people were allied to the Aro people who formed the Aro Confederacy, an Igbo organisation that controlled slave trading in the Enugu area. Along with the Aro people who came to trade from Arochukwu in the south were the Hausa people who came to trade from the north; the Hausa traders provided horses to the Nike. Both the Aro and Hausa migrated back and forth to what is now the city of Enugu and were considered foreigners to the area. A British campaign to invade Arochukwu and open up the hinterland for British military and political rule was carried out in 1901. A war between the British and Aro started on 1 December 1901 lasting till 24 March 1902 when the Aro were defeated; the Aro Confederacy ended and the rest of Aro dominated areas was added to The Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria, declared in 1900. Europeans first arrived in the Enugu area in 1903 when the British/Australian geologist Albert Ernest Kitson led an exploration of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate to search for valued mineral resources under the supervision of the Imperial Institute, London.
By 1909 coal was found under the village of Enugwu Ngwo in the Udi and Okoga areas and by 1913 the coal was confirmed to be in quantities that would be viable commercially. By 1914 the colonial government had merged the Northern and Southern Nigeria Protectorate to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. In 1915 the British began talks with the indigenous people of the land that would become Enugu about its acquisition in order to lay the Eastern Line railway and to build a colliery; the first houses built in the area were in a temporary settlement consisting of Igbo traditional mud housing inhabited by a W. J. Leck and some other Europeans on Milliken Hill. Another settlement known as Ugwu Alfred or "Alfred's Camp", inhabited by an Alfred Inoma and his labourers, was located on a hillside. After the land acquisition by the British, Frederick Lugard, the Governor-General of Nigeria at the time, named the colliery built at the bottom of the Udi Hills Enugu Coal Camp to distinguish it from Enugwu Ngwo which overlooks the city from atop a scarp on Enugu's west.
The first coal mine in the Enugu area was the Udi mine opened in 1915, shut down two years and replaced with the Iva Valley mine. Enugu became the only significant one in West Africa; the Eastern Line railway connecting Enugu with Port Harcourt was completed in 1916 in order to export the coal through its seaport of which the city was created for this purpose. Enugu became one of the few cities in West Africa created out of contact with Europeans. By 1916 parts of Enugu reserved for Europeans were set up by the colonial government; the area now known as the Government Reserved Area became the European Quarters located north of the Ogbete River. The built-up area of Enugu comprised these two areas, by 1917 the city gained township status. On the African side of the city a rapid influx of migrant workers sparked the development of squatter camps on the Udi Hills near the coal mines and the Iva Valley. In 1938 Enugu became the administrative capital of the Eastern Region; the number of employed co
Anambra is a state in southeastern Nigeria. Its name was inspired by one of its Northern and riverine clans Anam but merged with "branch"; the colonialists who travelled from the present day Anambra region to present Northern Nigeria described where they were coming from as "Anam branch". The term coupled with Omambala, the Igbo name of the Anambra River formed the name Anambra; the capital and seat of government is Awka. Onitsha, a historic port city from pre-colonial times, has developed as by far the largest urban area in the state; the state's theme is "Light of the nation". Boundaries are formed by Delta State to the west, Imo State and Rivers State to the south, Enugu State to the east, Kogi State to the north; the name was derived from the Anambra River m which flows through the area and is a tributary of the River Niger. The indigenous ethnic groups in Anambra state are the Igbo and a small population of Igala, who live in the north-western part of the state. Anambra is the eighth-most populated state in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the second-most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State.
The stretch of more than 45 km between the towns of Oba and Amorka contains a cluster of numerous thickly populated villages and small towns, giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500–2,000 persons per square kilometre. Anambra is rich in natural gas, crude oil and ceramic, it has an 100 percent arable soil. Anambra state has many other resources in terms of agro-based activities such as fisheries and farming, as well as land cultivated for pasturing and animal husbandry, it has the lowest poverty rate in Nigeria. In the year 2006, a foundation-laying ceremony for the first Nigerian private refinery, Orient Petroleum Refinery, was made at Aguleri area; the Orient Petroleum Resource Ltd, owners of OPR, was licensed in June 2002, by the Federal Government to construct a private refinery with a capacity of 55,000 barrels per day. In 2012, following the efforts of Governor Peter Obi and other stakeholders of Orient Petroleum, Anambra State became an oil-producing state; the indigenous company struck oil in the Anambra River basin.
On August 2, 2015, the management of Orient Petroleum Resources Plc said the company planned to increase its crude oil production to 3,000 barrels per day by September 2015, as it stepped up production activities in two new oil wells in its Aguleri oil fields. An indigenous company and Stanley Ltd, was to establish a gas plant at Umueje in Ayamelum Local Government Area to support economic activities in the oil and gas industry in the state. Since the late 1990s, there has been a migration from rural to urban areas in the state, resulting in Anambra becoming a urbanized state: 62% of its population lives in urban areas. In October 2015, the APGA-led state government of Willie Obiano signed a memorandum of understanding with Galway modular housing company, Affordable Building Concepts International, for 10,000 housing units to be built in the state. Given decades of neglect of infrastructure and bad governance, the shift in human migration has posed problems for the state. Infrastructure improvements, both physical and social, have lagged behind the growth in population.
There are problems in environmental sanitation, erosion control, provision of social services. Major cities have become characterized by inadequate and deteriorated road networks and walkways, unregulated building patterns, poor sanitation, uncontrolled street trading, mountains of garbage, chaotic transport systems, creating congestion, noise pollution, overcrowding; the government of Peter Obi, with the assistance of the UN-HABITAT, produced 20-year structural plans for three major cities in the State: Onitsha and Awka Capital Territory, to restore urban planning and guide their growth into the future. The plans contain policies and proposals for land use, city beautification, road infrastructure, industrial development, waste disposal, water supply and health and educational facilities to turn the cities into successful urban areas that can generate employment and wealth, provide high living standards for their residents. Anambra became the first state in Nigeria to adopt Structural Plans for its cities.
With effective implementation, it should systematically grow as a major economic center in Nigeria and West Africa. The process of urbanization is contributed by population growth, immigration and infrastructure initiatives like good road, water and gardens, resulting in the growth of villages into towns, town into cities and cities into metros. To have ecologically feasible development, planning requires an understanding of the growth dynamics. There is a fear that if too many people leave the villages, only the aged men and women will be left to farm; this pattern has been seen in Amesi and Achina towns in Aguata local government area. They have been important in the production of yam and cassava through consistent agriculture, but such activities have suffered due to the out-migration of youth to the urban centres. There has been both food scarcity in the over-population in urban areas. To upgrade the State capital and improve traffic, Governor Willie Obiano signed off on construction of three fly-overs between the Amawbia and Arroma end of the Enugu-Onitsha Expressway, a distance of about three kilometres within the city.
Agulu Crocodile Lake is located along Awka road in Agulu, Anaocha Local Government Area of the state. A potential tourist site, it is home to water turtles. Fishing is not allowed on the lake; as the crocodiles are considered sacred animals, they cannot be killed. Legend says that t