State Council of the People's Republic of China
The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954, is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China. It is chaired by the premier and includes the heads of each of the cabinet-level executive departments; the council has 35 members: the premier, one executive vice premier, three other vice premiers, five state councilors, 25 additional ministers and chairs of major agencies. In the politics of the People's Republic of China, the Central People's Government forms one of three interlocking branches of power, the others being the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army; the State Council directly oversees the various subordinate People's Governments in the provinces, in practice maintains membership with the top levels of the Communist Party of China. The State Council meets every six months. Between meetings it is guided by a Standing Committee; the standing committee includes the premier, one executive vice premier, three vice premiers, five other state councilors.
The vice-premiers and state councilors are nominated by the premier, appointed by the president with National People's Congress' approval. Incumbents may serve two successive five-year terms; each vice premier oversees certain areas of administration. Each State Councilor performs duties as designated by the Premier; the secretary-general heads the General Office which handles the day-to-day work of the State Council. The secretary-general has little power and should not be confused with the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China; each ministry supervises one sector. Commissions outrank ministries and set policies for and coordinate the related activities of different administrative organs. Offices deal with matters of ongoing concern. Bureaus and administrations rank below ministries. In addition to the 25 ministries, there are 38 centrally administered government organizations that report directly to the state council; the heads of these organizations attend full meetings of the state committee on an irregular basis.
The State Council is formally responsible to the NPC and its Standing Committee in conducting a wide range of government functions both at the national and at the local levels, nominally acts by virtue of the NPC's authority. There has been at least one case where the NPC has outright rejected an initiative of the State Council and a few cases where the State Council has withdrawn or modified a proposal in response to NPC opposition; the State Council and the Communist Party of China are tightly interlocked. With rare exceptions, State Councilors are high-ranking members of the CPC. Although, as Party members, they are supposed to follow Party instructions, because they tend to be senior members of the Party they have substantial influence over what those instructions are; this results in a system, unlike the Soviet practice in which the Party controlled the State. Rather, the Party and State are fused at this level of government; the members of the State Council derive their authority from being members of the state, while as members of the Party they coordinate their activities and determine key decisions such as the naming of personnel.
There were attempts to separate the party and state in the late 1980s under Zhao Ziyang and have the Party in charge of formulating policy and the State Council executing policy, but these efforts were abandoned in the early 1990s. As the chief administrative organ of government, its main functions are to formulate administrative measures, issue decisions and orders, monitor their implementation; the State Council is the functional center of state power and clearinghouse for government initiatives at all levels. With the government's emphasis on economic modernization, the State Council acquired additional importance and influence; the State Council controls the Ministry for National Defense but does not control the People's Liberation Army, instead controlled by the Central Military Commission. Secretary-General of the State Council Deputy Secretary-Generals of the State Council State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, established in 2003 General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China State Administration of Taxation State Administration for Market Regulation National Radio and Television Administration General Administration of Sport National Bureau of Statistics China International Development Cooperation Agency National Healthcare Security Administration Counselor's Office of the State Council National Government Offices Administration the "Government Offices Administration of the State Council" National Press and Publication Administration, additional name "National Copyright Administration", a name reserved by the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China National Religious Affairs Administration, a name reserved by the United Front Work Department of the Communist Party of China Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office of the State Council State Council Research Office Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the State Council, a name reserved by the United Front Work Department of the Communist Party of China Taiwan Affai
Huai'an called Huaiyin until 2001, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province of Eastern China. Huai'an is situated directly south of Lianyungang, southeast of Suqian, northwest of Yancheng directly north of Yangzhou and Nanjing, northwest of Chuzhou. Huai'an is a small city in Chinese terms, but it produced two of the most important people in Chinese history: Wu Cheng'en, Ming Dynasty novelist, author of the Journey to the West; as of the 2010 census, the municipality had 4,799,889 inhabitants, of whom 2,494,013 lived in four urban districts. Most parts of the Huai'an city area lie in the Jianghuai Plain. There are a few hills inside Xuyi County, the highest altitude in Huai'an is 200m. Huai'an is notable for its large number of lakes and canals; the most famous waterways include the Huai River. Hongze Lake, the fourth largest freshwater lake in China, is to the southwest of Huai'an city. Towards the south, there are several smaller lakes; the prefecture-level city of Huai'an administers 7 county-level divisions, including 4 districts and 3 counties.
These are further divided into 127 township-level divisions, including 84 towns, 33 townships and 10 subdistricts. The area of Huai'an spans an ancient canal of the Huai River, the name of Huai'an expresses the residents' hope for a lastingly peaceful Huai River. Chinese mythology recounts that Yu the Great, the Chinese leader with a legendary ability for flood control techniques, was taming the Huai River here in the Huai'an area. Traces of the activities of ancient Chinese living about 5000 to 6000 years ago have been found in the area; the most famous of these is the Qingliangang Hill Civilization. The borough area had been properly developed, led China in convenience of transportation and irrigation; the Gangou Drain connected the Huai River delta region. The Qian Road and Shan Road that traversed the region reached Northern China. Thus, Huaiyin was a critical area for several strong states in the Autumn period; the region was occupied by the Wu, Yue and Chu states, one after another. After the Qin Dynasty consolidated all states in China, the County System was promoted throughout China.
Huaiyin County, Xuyi County, Dongyang were built in the region. In a movement of rebelling farmers during the years of the Qin Dynasty, the people of Huai'an supported the rebel forces, including the famous militia leader Han Xin, honored for his bravery and meritorious deeds. In the epoch of the West Han Dynasty, Huaipu County, Sheyang County and Fulin County were built. During the Qin and Han Dynasties, great improvements in irrigation, were made to agriculture and manufacturing. In the years of the East Han Dynasty, the Governor of Guanglin, Cheng Deng, built the Gaojiayang Levees; these 30 miles of levees kept out protected farmlands. He built the Pofu Pool for farm irrigation. Iron-made apparatus and bull-farming were widespread. Although a few wars and battles took place, agriculture and logistics made fair progress; the highway built by the first Qin Emperor went through the region, the West Way of Gaogou Drain, built by Cheng Deng, improved traffic between the Yangtze and the Huai River area.
Handicrafts and business developed during this period, while culture and the arts were at high levels, as well. Home-teaching and private schools flourished during the Han Dynasty, many famous artists appeared: for example, the Han-text composers Mei Chen and Mei Gao, Chen Lin, one of the Seven Scholars of Jian'an; the Ming Dynasty Ancestor Tomb is located in Xu Yi County, the former Sizhou, of the Huai An Municipality. This location was chosen for the tomb because the founder of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuan Zhang, aka Hong Wu, was conceived in Xuyi town of Huai'an, his grandfather died there, while his family was moving from Sizhou to Fengyang in Anhui. Three of the Hong Wu emperor's ancestors were buried here, his grandfather, his great grandfather, his great great grandfather. Today the tomb site features a sacred way with one of the most impressive collections of Ming Dynasty stone statues in all of China. In the reign of the Kangxi Emperor in the Qing dynasty the classical Qing Yan Garden was first built.
Whole area of Huaiyin was occupied by Chinese communist army in December 1948 and became part of the territory of the People's Republic of China. District of Huaiyin was established on April 21, 1949, operating 10 counties, which were: Huaiyin, Siyang, Guanyun, Suining, Xin'an, Pisui and Lianshui; the district office was at Huaiyin County. Huaibao County was dissolved on May 12, 1950 to Huaiyin, Huai'an and Baoyin County (belonging to District of Y
Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province, People's Republic of China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political and cultural center of Anhui. Located in the central portion of the province, it borders Huainan to the north, Chuzhou to the northeast, Wuhu to the southeast, Tongling to the south, Anqing to the southwest and Lu'an to the west. From the 8th to the 6th centuries BC, Hefei was the site of many small states a part of the Chu kingdom. Many archaeological finds dating from this period have been made; the name'Hefei' was first given to the county set up in the area under the Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC. In the 3rd century AD, the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford was fought at Xiaoyao Ford in Hefei. Zhang Liao, a general of the Wei state, led 800 picked cavalry to defeat the 200,000-strong army from Wei’s rival state Wu. Several decades of warring in Hefei between Wu and Wei followed this battle. During the 4th to the 6th centuries AD, this crucial border region between northern and southern states was much fought over.
During the Sui and Tang periods, it became the seat of Lu prefecture—a title it kept until the 15th century, when it became a superior prefecture named Luzhou. The present city dates from the Song dynasty, the earlier Hefei having been some distance farther north. In the 10th year of Xining, the taxes collected from the Luchow Prefecture were 50315 Guan 25 million today's Chinese Yuan, with a ranking of the amount of taxes was the 11th among all the prefectures of Song Dynasty. During the 10th century, it was for a while the capital of the independent Wu kingdom and was an important center of the Southern Tang state. After 1127 it became a center of the defenses of the Southern Song dynasty against the Jin invaders in the Jin–Song wars, as well as a flourishing center of trade between the two states; when the Chinese Republic was founded in 1911, the superior prefecture was abolished, the city took the name of Hefei. The city was known as Liu-tcheou during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Hefei was the temporary capital for Anhui from 1853 to 1862.
It was renamed as Hefei County in 1912. Following the Chinese victory in the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945, Hefei was made the capital of Anhui. Before World War II, Hefei remained an administrative center and the regional market for the fertile plain to the south, it was a collecting center for grain, beans and hemp, as well as a center for handicraft industries manufacturing cloth, bamboo goods, ironware. The construction in 1912 of the Tianjin–Pukou railway, farther east, for a while made Hefei a provincial backwater, much of its importance passed to Bengbu. In 1932–36, however, a Chinese company built a railway linking Hefei with Yuxikou to the southeast and with the Huai River at Huainan to the north. While this railway was built to exploit the rich coalfield in northern Anhui, it did much to revive the economy of the Hefei area by taking much of its produce to Wuhu and Nanjing. Although Hefei was a quiet market town of only about 30,000 in the mid-1930s, its population grew more than tenfold in the following 20 years.
The city's administrative role was strengthened by the transfer of the provincial government from Anqing in 1949, but much of its new growth derived from its development as an industrial city. A cotton mill was opened in 1958, a thermal generating plant, using coal from Huainan, was established in the early 1950s, it became the seat of an industry producing industrial chemicals and chemical fertilizers. In the late 1950s an iron and steel complex was built. In addition to a machine-tool works and engineering and agricultural machinery factories, the city has developed an aluminum industry and a variety of light industries. There are several universities based in the city. Hefei is located 130 kilometres west of Nanjing in south-central Anhui. Chao Lake, a lake 15 km southeast of the city, is one of the largest fresh water lakes in China. Though, the lake has been polluted with nitrogen and phosphorus, in recent decades, the situation is improving due to efforts by both the government and the people.
Hefei features a humid subtropical climate with four distinct seasons. Hefei's annual average temperature is 16.18 °C. Its annual precipitation is just over 1,000 millimetres, being heavier from May through August. Winters are damp and cold, with January lows dipping just below freezing and January averaging 2.8 °C. The city sees irregular snowfalls that turn significant. Springs are relatively pleasant if somewhat erratic. Summers here are oppressively hot and humid, with a July average of 28.3 °C. In the months of June, July and September, daily temperatures can reach or surpass 37 °C with high humidity levels being the norm. Autumn in Hefei sees a gradual drying. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 35 percent in March to 50 percent in August, the city receives 1,868 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −20.6 °C on 6 January 1955 to 41.1 °C on 27 July 2017. Air quality diminishes in May and June when the city is blanketed by smog caused by the smoke generated as farmers outside the city burn their fields in preparation for planting the next crop.
A dense wave of smog began in Hefei surrounding Anhui as well
Nantong is a prefecture-level city in Jiangsu province, China. Located on the northern bank of the Yangtze River, near the river mouth. Nantong is a vital river port bordering Yancheng to the north, Taizhou to the west and Shanghai to the south across the river, the East China Sea to the east, its current population is 7,282,835 at the 2010 census, 1,994,708 of whom live in the built-up area made up of three urban districts. In September 26, 2004, the first World Metropolitan Development Forum was held in Nantong. In 2005, Nantong had a GDP growth of 15.4%, the highest growth rate in Jiangsu province, in 2016 Nantong's GDP had a total of about 675 billion yuan, ranking the 21st in the whole country. Although the city took a blow from the economic depression of the 1930s, as well as the Japanese occupation of the 1930s and 40s, Nantong has remained an important center for the textile industry; because of its deep-water harbor and connections to inland navigational canals, it was one of 14 port cities opened to foreign investment in recent Chinese economic reforms.
Because the coast of the East China Sea is expanding eastward as the Yangtze River adds silt to its delta, the distance between Nantong and the seashore is getting longer than it once was in ancient times. Nantong has a humid subtropical climate, with four distinct seasons. Winters are chilly and damp, cold northwesterly winds caused by the Siberian high can force temperatures to fall below freezing at night although snowfall is uncommon. Summers are hot and humid, downpours or freak thunderstorms occur. Monthly daily average temperatures range from 3.1 °C in January to 27.2 °C in July, the annual mean is 15.33 °C. With the plum rains in June and early July comes the rainiest part of the year; the prefecture-level city of Nantong administers eight county-level divisions, including three districts, four county-level cities, one county. These are further divided into 146 township-level divisions; because the coast of the East China Sea is expanding eastward as the Yangtze River adds silt to its delta, the distance between Nantong and the seashore is getting longer than it once was in ancient times.
The area, now Nantong was part of the State of Wu during the Spring and Autumn period, conquered by the State of Yue in 473 BC. After yet again being subjected to a new foreign rule by the State of Chu in 334 BC, the inhabitants of present-day Nantong would again experience another regime change during the first unification of China by the State of Qin. From the Han dynasty up until the Tang dynasty, what is now called Nantong was a minor city county subordinate to Yangzhou. By AD 958, that city county had gained sufficient importance for it to be upgraded to an independent prefecture called Tongzhou to be created; the increasing wealth of Yangzhou caused Tongzhou to be once again eclipsed as an administrative center in 1368. When Tongzhou regained prefecture status in 1724 during the Qing Dynasty, it was renamed to its present name Nantong to avoid confusion with another administrative division named Tongzhou, located near Beijing. Nantong was the first place in China to be developed into a modern city after the collapse of the Qing Dynasty, was the birthplace of China's modern industry.
The prosperity of Nantong has traditionally depended on salt production on the nearby seacoast and cotton agriculture, manufacture of cotton textiles Nantong blue calico. A local statesman and industrialist named Zhang Jian founded Nantong's first modern cotton mills in 1899, he developed an industrial complex that included flour and silk reeling mills, a distillery, a machinery shop. He founded a shipping line and reclaimed saline agricultural land to the east of Nantong for cotton production. Thanks to these efforts, by 1911 Nantong was called "Zhang Jian's Kingdom". In the early Republican period, the Nantong Special Administrative District included Chongming County, now part of Shanghai. Xuanmiao Temple, structure built during the Song era. Nantong Confucian Temple Nantong Museum Nantong city and its six counties are rich in linguistic diversity, featuring both important Northern Wu varieties and divergent dialects of Mandarin. People in the city of Nantong speak a unique dialect which sounds nothing like standard Mandarin or any other dialect, it is holds distinctive differences from surrounding dialects.
About 2 million people in the southern parts of Tongzhou and Qidong speak the Wu dialect, referred to as "Qi-hai Hua", meaning Qidong-Haimen speech. It is about the same as the dialect spoken on the neighbouring island of Shanghai. People in northern parts of these counties speak "Tōngdōng Huà", meaning "Eastern Tong Talk". People in Rugao, Hai'an speak other dialects; the Hao River, known as the Emerald Necklace of Nantong, surrounds the city with a total length of 15 km. Most city scenery lines this river. Popular tourist sites include Langshan, around 110 meters high. On top of the hill is a Buddhist temple dedicated to a Song dynasty monk; because of the monk's legendary powers over water demons, sailors pray to him for protection on their voyages. The Cao Gong Zhu Memorial Temple commemorates a local hero who defended the city against Japanese pirates in 1557. Shuihuiyuan Garden, meaning Water Garden, is unique of all Chinese classical gardens due its creation in th
Fujian, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, the Taiwan Strait to the east; the name Fujian came from the combination of Fuzhou and Jianzhou, two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty. While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China; as a result of the Chinese Civil War, Historical Fujian is now divided between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China based in Taiwan, both territories are named the Fujian province in their respective administration divisions. The majority of the territory of historical Fujian make up the Fujian province of the PRC; the Fujian province of the ROC is made up of the Matsu Islands, the Wuqiu Islands and the Kinmen Islands, the two latter archipelagos constituting Kinmen County. Recent archaeological discoveries demonstrate that Fujian had entered the Neolithic Age by the middle of the 6th millennium BC.
From the Keqiutou site, an early Neolithic site in Pingtan Island located about 70 kilometres southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones, bones and ceramics have been unearthed, together with spinning wheels, definitive evidence of weaving. The Tanshishan site in suburban Fuzhou spans the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Age where semi-underground circular buildings were found in the lower level; the Huangtulun site in suburban Fuzhou, was of the Bronze Age in character. Tianlong Jiao notes that the Neolithic appeared on the coast of Fujian around 6,000 B. P. During the Neolithic, the coast of Fujian had a low population density, with the population depending on on fishing and hunting, alongside with limited agriculture. There were four major Neolithic cultures in coastal Fujian, with the earliest Neolithic cultures originating from the north in coastal Zhejiang. Keqiutou culture 壳丘头文化 Tanshishan culture 昙石山文化 Damaoshan culture 大帽山文化 Huangguashan culture 黄瓜山文化 There were two major Neolithic cultures in inland Fujian, which were distinct from the coastal Fujian Neolithic cultures.
Niubishan culture 牛鼻山文化 Hulushan culture 葫芦山文化 Fujian was where the kingdom of Minyue was located. The word "Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn", an ethnic name, "Yuè", after the State of Yue, a Spring and Autumn period kingdom in Zhejiang to the north; this is because the royal family of Yuè fled to Fujian after its kingdom was annexed by the State of Chu in 306 BC. Mǐn is the name of the main river in this area, but the ethnonym is older. Minyue was a de facto kingdom until one of the emperors of the Qin dynasty, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished its status. In the aftermath of the Qin dynasty's fall, civil war broke out between two warlords, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang; the Minyue king Wuzhu sent his troops to fight with Liu and his gamble paid off. Liu founded the Han dynasty. In 202 BC, he restored Minyue's status as a tributary independent kingdom, thus Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in Fuzhou as well as a few locations in the Wuyi Mountains, which have been excavated in recent years.
His kingdom extended beyond the borders of contemporary Fujian into eastern Guangdong, eastern Jiangxi, southern Zhejiang. After Wuzhu's death, Minyue maintained its militant tradition and launched several expeditions against its neighboring kingdoms in Guangdong and Zhejiang in the 2nd century BC; this was stopped by the Han dynasty. The Han emperor decided to get rid of the potential threat by launching a military campaign against Minyue. Large forces approached Minyue from four directions via land and sea in 111 BC; the rulers in Fuzhou surrendered to avoid a futile fight and destruction and the first kingdom in Fujian history came to an abrupt end. The Han dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly 20 years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains; the first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war.
These immigrants were from eight families in central China: Lin, Chen, Zhan, Qiu, He, Hu. The first four remain as the major surnames of modern Fujian. Isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's undeveloped economy and level of development, despite major population boosts from northern China during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan, Fujian served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, the Southern Dynasties reigned south of the Yangtze River, including Fujian. During the Sui and Tang eras a large
Xuzhou, known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in Jiangsu province, China. The city, with a recorded population of 8,577,225 at the 2010 census, is a national complex transport hub and the central city of Huaihai Economic Zone; the city is designated as National Famous Historical and Cultural City since 1986 for its relics the terracotta armies, the Mausoleums of the princes and the art of relief of Han dynasty. Before the adoption of Hanyu Pinyin, the city's name was romanized as Suchow or Süchow, though it appeared as Siu Tcheou, Hsu-chou, Hsü-chow; the early prehistoric relics around Xuzhou are classified as Dawenkou culture system. Liulin site together with Dadunzi site, Huating site, Liangwangcheng site correspond to the initial and late stages of this culture, respectively. While the remains of sacrificial rituals performed to Tudi deity found at Qiuwan site and Gaohuangmiao site, both of them are in the outskirts of the city, indicate that Shang dynasty affected the area.
History relates that Peng or Great Peng, the transitions from a tribe to a chiefdom contained within the boundary of the city. Peng Zu is believed to be the first chief, while the state was conquered by King Wu Ding of Shang in around 1208 BC. During the Western Zhou, a chiefdom called Xuyi or Xu rose and controlled the Lower Yellow River Valley. Allied with Huaiyi, Xuyi fought against its vassals at irregular intervals. Since its declining, Xuyi once moved the capital to the area of Xuzhou and populated it with people who were migrated southwards. Pengcheng, a city at the junction of the ancient Bian and Si Rivers, was founded by Lü. Chu took the city in the war of 573 BCE, but ceded the city back to Song in the next year, as a coercive measure. In 208 BC, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang pull their troops into Pengcheng, to where the Emperor Yi of Chu transferred his capital from Xuyi after Xiang Liang’s death; the Emperor Yi was exiled to the southern China by Xiang Yu in 206 BC, the latter proclaimed himself the Hegemon-King of Western Chu, established his capital in Pengcheng too, until 202 BC.
Liu Jiao, the younger half-brother of Liu Bang, became the Prince of Chu. His grandson, Wu succeeded the title. Wu participated the Rebellion of the Seven Princes, he was defeated afterwards and his power was diminish by reducing the fief. By the end of the 2nd century, a prosperous Buddhist community had been settled at Pengcheng. At the turn of the 2nd century, Pengcheng changed hands several times among Cao Cao and his rivals before being annexed to Cao Wei in about 200. In the intervening years, the seat of Xuzhou was transferred from Tancheng to Xiapi, which located in the northwest of Suining. While Pengcheng became the seat than 220. With the invasions of the Five Barbarians, considerable local households migrated to the south, a Liu clan from Pengcheng ascended to the gentry, its most well known descendant is Liu Yu, the Emperor Wu of Liu Song. Pengcheng was taken by the Northern dynasties later. Liu Yu recaptured the lost territory in the north of the Huai River in about 408. Xuzhou was divided into two parts: Beixuzhou and Xuzhou in 411.
North Xuzhou whose seat was Pengcheng bounded on the south by the Huai River. Beixuzhou was restored as Xuzhou a decade while its south counterpart was renamed Nanxuzhou. Since Pengcheng remained being the seat of Xuzhou until it was eliminated in the early Ming; the raging wars inflicted upon Xuzhou until the Emperor Taizong of Tang's enthronement in 626. Keeping the northern rebellions and warfare a distance gave Xuzhou scope for developing during the most period of the Tang dynasty. According to the Old Book of Tang and the New book of Tang, in 639, the total population of Pengcheng County, Fei County and Pei County was only 21,768, versus 205,286 in 742. In 781, Li Na marched south to besiege Xuzhou. Although his revolt was quell soon, the halt of the transport by the Bian Canal impelled the court to secure the area; the prefect of Xuzhou, Zhang Jianfeng was designated as the first military governor of Xuzhou-Sizhou-Haozhou, headquartered in Xuzhou since 788. The title was renamed Wuning in 805, after an interval of five years.
Wang Zhixing, another military governor of Wuning, established several battalions in the Army for select recruits. These soldiers not only defy military discipline but show defiant towards the successors to Wang. In 832, Li Ting received a threatening letter prior to his induction in there, made him resigned immediately. Wuning suffered mutinies in 849, 859 and again in 862. Another two governors were expelled. Wang Shi was appointed, under the circumstances, he put the mutiny down by executing part of the garrison troops and disbanded the rest, which became thugs and loot later. In 864, the court declared an amnesty in the area, promised that all thugs who willingly re-enrolled would be sent for a tour of duty in the southern, presumably, returned to regular army service in the north. Three thousand men surrendered and were sent to the south to join the two thousand former Wuning soldiers there; the breached pledge irritated them. Led by Pang Xun, some soldiers marched back north, they have unimpeded access to the area by the winter of 868.
The local civil governor refused Pang's demand to have the hatred officers removed, a military confrontation ensued. Thousands of local peasants joined the rebels, they took the prefectural city of Xuzhou, captured the civil governor, killed those office
Yantai known as Zhifu or Chefoo, is a prefecture-level city on the Bohai Strait in northeastern Shandong Province, China. Lying on the southern coast of the Korea Bay, Yantai borders Qingdao on the southwest and Weihai on the east, it is the largest fishing seaport in Shandong. Its population was 6,968,202 during the 2010 census, of whom 2,227,733 lived in the built-up area made up of the 4 urban districts of Zhifu, Muping and Laishan; the name Yantai derives from the watchtowers constructed on Mount Qi in 1398 under the reign of the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty. The towers were used to light signal fires and send smoke signals, called langyan from their supposed use of wolf dung for fuel. At the time, the area was troubled by the "Dwarf Pirates" raiders from the warring states in Japan but principally disaffected Chinese, it was formerly romanized as Yen-tai. The major district of Yantai is Zhifu, it was variously romanized as Chefoo, Che-foo, Chi-fu, Chih-fou. Although this name was used for the city by foreigners prior to the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, the locals referred to the settlement as Yantai throughout.
During the Xia and Shang dynasties, the region was inhabited by indigenous peoples vaguely known to the Chinese as the "Eastern Barbarians". Under the Zhou, they were colonized and sinicized as the state of Lai. Lai was annexed by Qi in 567 BC. Under the First Emperor, the area was administered as the Qi Commandery. Under the Han, this was renamed as the Donglai Commandery. Following the Three Kingdoms Period, the area was organized by the Jin as the Donglai Kingdom or Principality returning to prefecture status as a jùn and zhōu. Under the Tang and during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, it was known as Deng Prefecture and organized with the Henan Circuit, it was organized as the Laizhou and under the Qing, Dengzhou Commandery. Up to the 19th century, the Zhifu area consisted of nothing but small unwalled fishing villages of little importance. Under the Ming, these were first troubled by the "Dwarf Pirates" and by the overreacting "Sea Ban", which required coastal Chinese to give up trading and most fishing and relocate inland upon pain of death.
Following the Second Opium War, the Qing Empire was obliged to open more treaty ports by the unequal 1858 Treaty of Tianjin, including Tengchow. Its port being found inadequate, Zhifu—about 30 miles away—was selected to act as the seat of the area's foreign commerce; the mooring was at considerable distance from shore, necessitating more time and expense in loading and unloading, but the harbor was deep and expansive and business grew rapidly. The harbor opened with its status as an international port affirmed on 22 August; the official decree was accompanied by the construction of the Donghai Pass. It became the residence of a circuit intendant, customs house, a considerable foreign settlement located between the old native town and the harbor. Britain and sixteen other nations established consulates in the town; the town was expanded with well-laid streets and well-built stone houses for the poorer classes, a Catholic and a Protestant church were erected, a large hotel did business with foreigners who employed the town as a summer resort.
The principal traders were the Americans, followed by the Germans and Thais. In the 1870s, the principal imports were woolen and cotton goods and opium and the principal exports were tofu, soybean oil, coarse vermicelli and dried fruit from Zhifu itself, raw silk and straw braid from Laizhou, walnuts from Qingzhou; the town traded Chinese liquors and sundries for the edible seaweed grown in the shallows of the Russian settlements around Port Arthur. In 1875, the murder of the British diplomat Augustus Margary in Tengchong, led to a diplomatic crisis, resolved in Zhifu by Thomas Wade and Li Hongzhang the next year; the resultant Chefoo Convention gave British subjects extraterritoriality throughout China and exempted the foreign merchants' enclaves from the likin tax on internal commerce. Its healthy situation and good anchorage made it a favorite coaling station for foreign fleets, giving it some importance in the conflicts over Korea, Port Arthur, Weihaiwei. Along with much of the rest of Shandong, Yantai was under German influence for about 20 years.
In the run-up to the First World War, its trade continued to grow but was limited by the poor roads of the area's hinterland and the necessity of using pack animals for portage. The trade items remained the same as before. After the Germans were defeated by Allied forces in World War I, Qingdao and Yantai were handed over to the Japanese, who turned Yantai into a summer station for their Asian fleet, they set up a trading establishment in the town. The different foreign influences that shaped this city are explored at the Yantai Museum, which used to be a guild hall. However, the city's colourful history has not left a distinctive architectural mark, there has never been a foreign concession, though there are a few grand 19th-century European buildings, most of the town is of much more recent origin. After 1949, the town's name was changed from Chefoo to Yantai, it was opened to the world as an ice-free trade port in 1984. On 12 November 1911, the eastern division of Tongmeng Hui declared itself a part of the revolutionary movement.
The next day, it established the Shandong Military Government and, the day after that, renamed itself the Yantai Division of the Shandong Military Government. In