New Zealand House of Representatives
The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign. The House passes all laws, provides ministers to form a Cabinet, supervises the work of the Government, it is responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts. The House of Representatives is a democratically elected body whose members are known as members of Parliament. There are 120 members, though this number can be higher if there is an overhang. MPs are elected every three years in a mixed system of district voting and party list voting. A government is formed from the coalition with the majority of MPs. If no majority is possible a minority government can be formed with a confidence and supply arrangement. If a government is unable to maintain the confidence of the House an early general election can be called; the House of Representatives was created by the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, an Act of the British Parliament, which established a bicameral legislature.
Parliament received full control over all New Zealand affairs in 1947 with the passage of the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act. The debating chamber of the House of Representatives is located inside Parliament House in Wellington, the capital city. Sittings of the House are open to the public, but the House may at any time vote to sit in private. Proceedings are broadcast through Parliament TV, AM Network and Parliament Today; the New Zealand House of Representatives takes the British House of Commons as its model. The New Zealand Parliament is based, on the Westminster system; as a democratic institution, the primary role of the House of Representatives is to provide representation for the people and to pass legislation on behalf of the people. As the responsible house, the House of Representatives plays an important role in responsible government; the Government of New Zealand, headed by the Cabinet, draws its membership from the House of Representatives. A government is formed when a party or coalition can show that it has the "confidence" of the House, meaning the support of a majority of members of parliament.
This can involve making agreements among several parties. Some may join a coalition government, while others may stay outside the government but agree to support it on confidence votes; the Prime Minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Representatives. In the event that the House of Representatives loses confidence in the Cabinet, therefore the government, it can dissolve the government if a vote of no-confidence is passed; the current government is a minority coalition government consisting of the Labour Party and New Zealand First, with confidence and supply from the Green Party. These parties collectively have 63 members in the House, thus Labour leader Jacinda Ardern commands the support of the House; the House of Representatives consists of 120 members, who bear the title "Member of Parliament". They were known as "Members of the House of Representatives" until the passing of the Parliamentary and Executive Titles Act 1907 when New Zealand became a Dominion, earlier as "Members of the General Assembly".
All members are democratically elected, enter the House following a general election. Once sworn in, members continue to serve until the next dissolution of Parliament and subsequent general election, which must take place at least every three years—although early general elections are possible at the discretion of the Prime Minister in the event that a minority government is unable to retain the confidence of the House. If a member dies or resigns, his or her seat falls vacant, it is possible for the House to expel a member, but this power is exercised only in cases of serious misconduct or criminal activity. Electorate vacancies arising between general elections are filled through by-elections. If a list member's seat becomes vacant, the next available person on their party's list fills the position. List members are free to stand in electorate by-elections and in the case of successful contest their own seat will be filled'in turn'. To be a member of Parliament a person must be a New Zealand citizen at the time of the election and not be disqualified from enrolling to vote.
Party list candidates are always nominated by political parties. The 52nd New Zealand Parliament is the current sitting of the House, meeting since 7 November 2017, it consists of five parliamentary parties represented by 120 members. Of these current members, 49 are women—the highest number since women were first allowed to stand for Parliament in 1919. Based on British tradition, the longest continuously serving member in the House holds the unofficial title "Father of the House"; the current Father of the House is Nick Smith, first elected in 1990. Smith inherited the title on 14 March 2018, following the departure of former Prime Minister Bill English, who had entered the House in 1990; the House started with 37 members in 1854, with numbers progressively increasing to 95 by 1882, before being reduced to 74 in 1891. Nu
New Zealand Labour Party
The New Zealand Labour Party, or Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice, it is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance. The New Zealand Labour Party was formed in 1916 by trade unions, it is thus the country's oldest political party still in existence. With its main rival, the New Zealand National Party, Labour has dominated New Zealand governments since the 1930s. To date, there have been six periods of Labour government under ten Labour prime ministers; the party was first in power from 1935 to 1949, under prime ministers Michael Joseph Savage and Peter Fraser, when it established New Zealand's welfare state. It governed from 1957 to 1960, again from 1972 to 1975, a single term each time. Up to the 1980s the party advocated a strong role for governments in social matters; when it governed from 1984 to 1990 Labour instead privatised state assets and reduced the role of the state in the economy.
Labour prime minister David Lange introduced New Zealand's nuclear-free policy. Labour was again the largest party from 1999 to 2008 when it governed in coalition with, or on the basis of negotiated support from, several minor parties. Since the 2008 general election, Labour has comprised the second-largest caucus represented in the House of Representatives. In the 2017 general election, the party under Jacinda Ardern returned to prominence with its best showing since the 2005 general election, winning 36.9% of the party vote and 46 seats. On 19 October 2017, Labour formed a minority coalition government with New Zealand First, with confidence and supply from the Green Party. Jacinda Ardern serves as Labour Party leader and prime minister, Kelvin Davis is deputy leader; the New Zealand Labour Party was established on 7 July 1916 in Wellington, bringing together socialist groups advocating proportional representation, the abolition of the country quota, the "recall" of Members of Parliament, as well as the nationalisation of production and of exchange.
Despite its Wellington origins, the West Coast town of Blackball is regarded as the birthplace of the party, as it was the location of the founding of one of the main political organisations which became part of the nascent Labour Party. The party was created by, has always been influenced by, the trade unions, in practice Labour Party politicians regard themselves as part of a broader labour movement and tradition; the New Zealand Labour Party was an amalgamation of a number of early groups, the oldest of, founded in 1901. The process of unifying these diverse groups into a single party was difficult, with tensions between different factions running strong. At the turn of the century, the radical side of New Zealand working class politics was represented by the Socialist Party, founded in 1901; the more moderate leftists were supporters of the Liberal Party. In 1905, a group of working class politicians who were dissatisfied with the Liberal approach established the Independent Political Labour League, which managed to win a seat in Parliament in the 1908 election.
This established the basic dividing line in New Zealand's left-wing politics – the Socialists tended to be revolutionary and militant, while the moderates focused instead on progressive reform. In 1910, the Independent Political Labour League was relaunched as an organisation called the Labour Party, distinct from the modern party. Soon, the leaders of the new organisation decided additional effort was needed to promote left-wing cooperation, organised a "Unity Conference"; the Socialists refused to attend. The United Labour Party was born. Soon afterwards, the labour movement was hit by the Waihi miners' strike, a major industrial disturbance prompted by radicals in the union movement; the movement was split between supporting and opposing the radicals, in the end, the conservative government of William Massey suppressed the strike by force. In the strike's aftermath, there was a major drive to end the divisions in the movement and establish a united front – another Unity Conference was called, this time the Socialists attended.
The resulting group was named the Social Democratic Party. Not all members of the United Labour Party accepted the new organisation and some continued on under their own banner. However, the differences between the Social Democrats and the ULP Remnant broke down, in 1915 they formed a unified caucus both to better oppose Reform and to differentiate themselves from the Liberals. A year yet another gathering was held; this time, all major factions of the labour movement agreed to unite, establishing the modern Labour Party. The new Labour Party became involved in the acrimonious debate about conscription, which arose during World War I – the Labour Party opposed conscription, several leading members were jailed and expelled from Parliament for their stand against the war: Peter Fraser, Harry Holland, Bob Semple and Paddy Webb; the loss of leadership threatened to destabilise the party, but the party survived. In its first real electoral test as a united party, the 1919 election, Labour won eight seats – the party's quick success shocked many conservatives.
This compared with 47 for the governing Reform Party and 2
William Lee Rees
William Lee Rees was an English-born New Zealand cricketer and lawyer. Rees was born in Bristol in 1836, the son of James Rees, a surgeon, Elizabeth Pocock. Rees' father died when he was young, he was brought up by his mother and uncle. Rees was a member of the famous cricketing Grace family, with his mother's sister, Martha Pocock, the mother of WG Grace, he emigrated with his mother, in 1851, at the start of the Victorian gold rush. He began studying law at the University of Melbourne, but was interested in religion, training as a Congregationalist minister, he was ordained in 1861, served as minister to the parish of Beechworth from 1861–65, which included a lecture on "scepticism, credulity & faith" delivered at the Beechworth Town Hall in June 1863. He married Hannah Elizabeth "Annie" Staite in Melbourne on 8 July 1863, whom he had seven children with, including Annie Lee "Lily" Rees, a writer and lawyer. Rees played four first-class matches during the early part of cricket in New Zealand.
He made his first-class debut for Victoria against New South Wales in January 1857 at The Domain, scoring two runs batting at number three. He was run out for a duck in the second innings, his cousin, William Gilbert Rees, playing in the same match, made 28 in the first innings before being dismissed leg before wicket by Tom Wills. Inter-colonial matches were sporadic at the time due to travelling distances, Rees did not play again until October 1857, when he appeared for Gentlemen of Victoria against Players of Victoria, although the match was not awarded first-class status. Rees was dismissed for a duck in each innings. Rees' next match was against New South Wales in January 1858, where he made one and three in either innings; the New South Wales team was captained by George Gilbert, a cousin, who took 11 wickets for the match, including Rees in the first innings. Rees moved from Otago to Hokitika, he represented the Kanieri riding on the Westland County from December 1868 to November 1869. He was elected to the Auckland City East electorate in 1875 election, defeating James Clark 300 votes to 266.
At the next general election in 1879 election, he was defeated for Auckland North. He supported Sir George Grey, with Wi Pere set up a Trust for dealing with Maori land. In the 1884 by-election and the subsequent 1884 election, he contested the East Coast electorate and was defeated both times by Samuel Locke, he was defeated in the 1889 by-election by Alexander Creighton Arthur. He was elected to the multi-member City of Auckland electorate in 1890 election and resigned shortly before the end of the term of the 11th Parliament in July 1893, he supported the Liberal Government and was Chairman of Committees from 1891 to 1893. In 1893, Rees accused Alfred Cadman, the Member for Thames, of using his position as Minister for Native Affairs for personal gain. Cadman inconclusively sued Rees for libel, challenged him to a by-election contest for Rees' seat, City of Auckland, which Rees lost. Rees retired from parliamentary politics, returning to Gisborne, where most of his family lived and where he had business interests.
He lived at Te Hapara for most of the rest of his life, participating in several philanthropic gestures, including the installation of the first cricket pitch and tennis courts in Gisborne. He was buried at Makaraka Cemetery; the Coming Crisis: A sketch of the financial and political condition of New Zealand with the causes and probable results of that condition. Sir Gilbert Leigh, or, Pages from the History of an Eventful Life, with an appendix, The Great Pro-consul. Co-operation of Land and Capital. From Poverty to Plenty, or, the Labour Question Solved; the Life and Times of Sir George Grey, K. C. B.. "Obituary". "Hastings Standard" in Papers Past. 20 May 1912. "Tribute from Sir Robert Stout". "Poverty Bay Herald" in Papers Past. 20 May 1912. Scholefield, Guy. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949. Wellington: Govt. Printer. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103
Opotiki is a small town in the eastern Bay of Plenty in the North Island of New Zealand. It houses the headquarters of the Opotiki District Council and comes under the Bay of Plenty Regional Council. Opotiki has a large Māori population that exceeds 50%, making it one of the few towns in New Zealand to be predominantly populated by Māori. All the figures below are based on the 2013 census, from Statistics New Zealand of the town: 4,176 - male 1,989, female 2,187 8,436 people live in Opotiki District - male 4,179, female 4,257 Its population ranks 59th in size out of the 67 districts in New Zealand Opotiki District has around 0.2 percent of New Zealand's population Māori 60% European 52% Other or undefined comprise the balance 4,518 Māori live in Opotiki District. Its Māori population ranks 32nd in size out of the 67 districts in New Zealand. 0.9 percent of New Zealand's Māori population live in Opotiki District. Iwi based within the district are: Te Whakatōhea from Ohiwa Harbour to Opape, including Opotiki township.
Ngāti Tai are based in Torere. Te Whānau-ā-Apanui and hapu Te Ehutu cover the area from Hawai to Potaka; the Opotiki district is bounded on one long side by the eastern half of the Bay of Plenty embayment of the Pacific Ocean and on the other long side by the Raukumara mountain range which rises to 1754 m at Mt. Hikurangi; the district is predominantly steep hills dissected by fast-flowing rivers, the largest being the Motu. The coastal riverine floodplains and terraces provide the only flat land. Opotiki township is situated on the largest flat at the conjunction of two of these, the Otara River and the Waioeka River. Sandy beaches, lower hills and larger flats are characteristic of the southwest area of the district. Current human population is therefore concentrated in the coastal southwest; the district has a land area of 3,104.54 km². The town of Opotiki is situated on latitude 38° South; the climate is temperate. Summer temperatures reach the mid-20s on the coast and encourage a continuation of the beach culture of the Bay of Plenty.
Winter days are cloudless, the daytime temperature never drops below freezing but there may be a mild frost at night. Winter snow falls along the crest of the ranges, on the higher peaks may remain for a few weeks. Rain occurs at any season. Severe localised rainstorms may occur in the high country and have caused flash flooding including past inundations of Opotiki township. Geologically the district is predominantly greywacke of Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous age, draped by wind-blown loess during the Pleistocene Ice Ages and more covered in volcanic ash and pumice from the Rotorua and Taupo volcanic centres; the active volcano Whakaari/White Island represents a tsunami risk. Earthquakes are a risk, but the district lies just off to the east of major fault lines and the risk is less than in other nearby areas. There are no valuable mineral resources, although the greywacke contains rare decapitated guyots which have been mined in the past for gold and copper. Natural vegetation is preserved in many parts of the district because of the unsuitability of steep land for cultivation.
The district is at a natural climatic boundary. It is the southern limit for mangroves on this side of the North Island of New Zealand, the southern limit for the coastal tree taraire, the mountains are the furthest north for many New Zealand alpine plants. A remnant sea-level stand of an alpine southern beech exists at the head of Ohiwa Harbour, a drowned Ice Ages valley system. Coastal forest consists of pōhutukawa trees, nikau palms, many small shrubs belonging to genera such as Pseudopanax, Coprosma etc. Of particular note are a daisy-flowered shrub Olearia pachyphylla endemic to the district, the rare large-flowered broom Carmichaelia williamsii. Further inland is temperate rainforest; the canopy is dominated by tall trees such as tawa and pukatea populated by epiphytes and lianas which include a pandanaceous climber. The understory contains many ferns of various sizes including tree ferns up to 10 m high, the giant stinging nettle Urtica ferox and the poisonous tutu shrub. In mountainous areas the rainforest gives way to less dense Nothofagus beech forest.
The understory is dominated by Gahnia sedges with sparse shrubs such as the foul-smelling Coprosma foetidissima. Above the treeline there is alpine herbfield; the diminutive alpine tutu shrub Coriaria pottsiana is endemic to the district. The lower river valleys and adjacent tablelands provide productive farming areas whilst exotic plantings for commercial timber occur on the fringes of the hill country. Introduced animal species considered to be pests are common in the forested areas and feral sheep and cattle can be found as ‘escapees’ from adjacent farmland. In the developed areas, birdlife is a mix of introduced pastoral species from Britain, California quail, native species such as tui, grey warbler, kingfisher, pukeko. In the forested areas the birdlife is native species which in addition to the above include wood pigeon, blue duck, morepork. In the past the rare North Island kōkako (a blue-wattled bird
1879 New Zealand general election
The New Zealand general election of 1879 was held between 28 August and 15 September 1879 to elect a total of 88 MPs to the 7th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Māori vote was held on 8 September. A total of 82,271 European voters turned out 14,553 Māori voters. Following the election, John Hall formed a new government. Formal political parties had not been established yet; the same 73 electorates were used as for the last election, held in 1875–76. In October 1875, Parliament passed the Representation Act 1875, which resolved to increase the size of Parliament to 88 representatives across the 73 electorates. Two of the electorates were represented by three members each. A further eleven electorates were represented by two members each; the remaining 60 electorates were represented by a single member each. The election came about when George Grey's government was defeated in a no-confidence motion in July, he requested a dissolution from the Governor of New Zealand, Sir Hercules Robinson.
Male Māori received universal suffrage. The parliamentary term was reduced from five to three years; the election was held between 15 September. The date of election is defined here as the day on which the poll took place, or if there was no contest, the day of nomination; the earliest date was the nomination meeting in the Avon electorate, where William Rolleston was declared elected unopposed. The last elections were held on 15 September, where John Studholme and Edward George Wright were elected in the Gladstone and Coleridge electorates, respectively; the election in the Maori electorates were held on 8 September. At the nomination meeting in the Waimea electorate on 5 September 1879, Joseph Shephard, Albert Pitt, Oswald Curtis and Acton Adams were proposed, the latter three without their knowledge or consent by opponents of George Grey who had the support of Shephard. With Pitt and Adams all formally withdrawing from the contest, the returning officer declared Shephard elected unopposed. In 14 seats there was only one candidate.
In the European electorates, the male population over 21 years of age was 116,008. Of those, 82,271 were enrolled and the turnout was 66.5%. The male Māori population was estimated at 14,553; the Maori statistics are to be treated with caution, though, as not much emphasis was put into precise data gathering. When the first Maori roll was established for the 1949 election, for example, more votes were cast than were voters on the roll; the initial results showed a virtual deadlock with no clear winner. Inititially the opposition seemed to have won more seats than the "Greyites" but not enough to claim a majority outright. However, after several days of negotiations a new ministry was formed by John Hall who had ensured support from 45 members, with 41 backing Grey and 2 Independent of either faction. Upon Grey's rejection, James Macandrew was unanimously elected leader of the liberals and sought to oust Hall and form a new ministry, but was denied after Hall induced four Auckland liberals to cross the floor.
George Grey was elected in the City of Christchurch electorates. Grey came first in the three-member Christchurch electorate. Richardson petitioned against Grey's return on technical grounds, as Grey had been elected in the Thames electorate; the electoral commission unseated Grey on 24 October, with Richardson offered to fill this vacancy a few days later. Grey remained a member of parliament through that constituency. Laws were passed to confirm the results in three electorates where there was some doubt about the legitimacy of the results to confirm the winner; the Hall Ministry stayed in power until 21 April 1882, i.e. some months after the next general election. McRobie, Alan. Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. Scholefield, Guy. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949. Wellington: Govt. Printer. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103
1999 New Zealand general election
The 1999 New Zealand general election was held on 27 November 1999 to determine the composition of the 46th New Zealand Parliament. The governing National Party, led by Prime Minister Jenny Shipley, was defeated, being replaced by a coalition of Helen Clark's Labour Party and the smaller Alliance; this marked an end to nine years of National Party government, the beginning of the Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand which would govern for 9 years, until its loss to the National Party in the 2008 general election. Before the election, the National Party had an unstable hold on power. After the 1996 election National had formed a coalition with the populist New Zealand First party and its controversial leader, Winston Peters; the coalition was unpopular, as New Zealand First was seen as opposed to the National government, had made many statements in the 1996 election campaign to that effect, such as saying that only through New Zealand First could National Party be toppled, Peters said that he would not accept Jim Bolger as Prime Minister, Bill Birch as Finance Minister or Jenny Shipley in a social welfare portfolio.
NZ First's support crashed, though this was partly caused by scandals and by mid-1997, NZ First was polling at as low as 2%. National polled badly, Jim Bolger was replaced as Prime Minister with Jenny Shipley. However, the relationship between the two parties deteriorated, Peters took his party out of the coalition. A number of New Zealand First MPs deserted Peters, establishing themselves as independents or as members of newly established parties. By forming agreements with these MPs, National was able to keep itself in office, but its control was unsteady; the polls were still close, but without NZ First support, National's chances of forming a government were slim. Labour Party gained a solid lead over National; the Labour Party, in Opposition since losing the 1990 election, presented a strong challenge due to its agreement with the smaller Alliance party. The two had not enjoyed good relations due to the presence of the NewLabour Party as one of the Alliance's key members. NewLabour had been established by Jim Anderton, a former Labour MP who quit the party in protest over the economic reforms of Roger Douglas, which were blamed for Labour's election loss in 1990.
As the Labour Party withdrew from "Rogernomics", the Alliance reduced its hostility towards Labour, but it was not until shortly before the 1999 election that a formal understanding was reached regarding a possible left-wing coalition. This agreement was deemed a necessary step towards building a credible alternative to the National Party; this election was the only one in New Zealand's history to date where both main parties were led by women. The election took place on 27 November. Less than 84.1% of the 2,509,365 people registered to vote turned out for the election. This was the lowest turnout for some time. A total of 679 candidates stood for electorate seats. Party lists comprised 760 candidates from 22 parties; the new government was sworn in on 10 December. In the election 965 candidates stood, there were 22 registered parties with party lists. Of the candidates, 482 were electorate and list, 197 were electorate only, 286 were list only. 67 % of candidates were 33 % female. Labour Party won 49 seats in parliament.
When combined with the ten seats won by the Alliance, the coalition was two seats short of an absolute majority. It was able to form a new government with support from the Green Party, which entered parliament for the first time as an independent party; the Green Party's entry to parliament was by a narrow margin, however - in order to gain seats, it needed to either win 5% of the party vote or win an electorate seat, neither of which the party appeared to do. Helen Clark encouraged Labour supporters in the Coromandel to give their constituency vote to Green Party co-leader Jeanette Fitzsimons and their party vote to Labour. However, when all special votes were counted, the Greens had narrowly reached not one but both targets - Jeanette Fitzsimons won the electorate of Coramandel by 250 votes, the party gained 5.16% of the vote. The National Party, while not performing exceptionally poorly, failed to gain enough support to keep it in power, it won ten fewer than the Labour Party. ACT New Zealand, a potential coalition partner for National, gained nine seats.
While this was an increase on ACT's previous election results, it was not sufficient to enable the National Party to form a government. National's former coalition partner, New Zealand First, performed poorly, with voters punishing it for the problems in the last government; the party received less than 5% of the vote, so would have been removed from parliament had Winston Peters not retained his electorate of Tauranga, something he did by only 63 votes. None of the MPs who deserted New Zealand First were returned to parliament. In addition to the registered parties listed above, some groups participated in the election without submitting party lists. Many of these were unregistered parties, lacking the necessary membership numbers for submitting a party list. There were, three registered ones that did not, for whatever reason, submit a party list. In total, 14 parties nominated electorate candidates only. By number of votes received, the most significant parties to do this were Te Tawharau, Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata, the Equal Rights Party (unregis
George Morris (New Zealand politician)
George Bentham Morris was a 19th-century Member of Parliament from the Gisborne and Bay of Plenty regions of New Zealand. He represented the East Coast electorate from 1876 to 1879; the 1881 election in the newly formed Tauranga electorate was hotly contested. Four candidates were nominated: Morris. Rowe announced his retirement from the contest on 6 December three days out from election day, urging his supporters to vote for Stewart instead; the unofficial results were released the day after the election and Morris had a majority of 13 votes over Stewart, with the official declaration to be made on 12 December. This was deferred until 14 December, with Morris ahead by 10 votes. Stewart stood for the Tauranga mayoralty a few months and was elected the town's first mayor, he represented the Tauranga electorate until 1885. He was a member of the Legislative Council, from 15 May 1885 to 16 April 1903, when he died. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt.
Printer. OCLC 154283103