Greater Western Sydney Giants
The Greater Western Sydney Giants, nicknamed the GWS Giants or just Giants, is a professional Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League. Representing the Greater Western Sydney area and Canberra, the club is based at the Tom Wills Oval in Sydney Olympic Park; the team's primary home ground is Spotless Stadium in Sydney Olympic Park. Four games a year are played at Manuka Oval in Canberra as part of a deal with the government of the Australian Capital Territory; the club played its first game as a regular part of the AFL in March 2012. A reserve team, the Western Sydney University Giants, participates in the North East Australian Football League, as part of a partnership between the club and the university; the reserve team was renamed in 2016 to reflect the rebranding of the university from University of Western Sydney. A netball team, Giants Netball, operated by the club, competes in the National Netball League; the idea of an AFL team from western Sydney originated from the AFL's plans in 1999 to make the North Melbourne Football Club Sydney's second team.
Following the momentum of the relocated Swans Grand Final appearance, the AFL had backed the move for North Melbourne, a club which had previously gained market exposure by defeating the Swans in their first re-location Grand Final appearance. However the venture was unsuccessful and after several games a season North Melbourne never managed to draw crowds of over 15,000 at the Sydney Cricket Ground before leaving the market and experimenting with Canberra and the Gold Coast; the AFL's interest in the Western Sydney market appeared to be rekindled after the Sydney Swans' second, more successful Grand Final appearance in 2005, which started grassroots interest in the game in the populous region. In 2006, the AFL introduced the NSW Scholarships scheme aimed at juniors in West Sydney market to foster home grown talent and produce AFL players, a region which despite its large and growing population, had produced few professional Australian Footballers; the AFL was buoyed when it gained the support of NSW premier Morris Iemma in late 2006, the league became a partner in the Blacktown sporting facility in Rooty Hill, New South Wales.
The facility was announced as the new home base for its team out of western Sydney in 2007. In January 2008, the AFL registered the business name Western Sydney Football Club Ltd with ASIC. In March 2008, it was revealed by the media that the AFL had considered a radical proposal to launch an Irish-dominated team in Sydney's western suburbs, which would perform before an international audience under the "Celtic" brand name; the "Sydney Celtics" plan was first put to AFL chief executive Andrew Demetriou in early 2007 by Gaelic Players Association executive Donal O'Neill. It was said that the proposal originated at the International Rules series in Ireland in late 2006 when O'Neill put forward a plan to purchase an AFL licence in Sydney. However, the idea never materialised and the AFL has since stated that this was never a serious option. In March 2008, the AFL won the support of the league's 16 club presidents to establish an eighteenth side in Western Sydney; the Western Sydney working party devising player rules and draft concessions for the second Sydney team met on 22 July 2008.
During 2008, the AFL Commission, whose agenda was to make a final decision on the Western Sydney Football Club, delayed it on multiple occasions. During the same year, in November, the AFL announced a A$100 million venture for a boutique stadium at the Sydney Showground, in the city's west. After a third meeting in Sydney in November, the AFL cited the Economic crisis of 2008 as being a key factor in the delays. While the AFL reiterated its stance on the Western Sydney licence, the commission admitted that the delay in the decision was due to financial remodelling of the bid in response to the crisis, conceded that the debut of the team in the AFL may eventuate one or more seasons than suggested; the expansion licence drew increasing media scepticism and public criticism in the light of a poor finals attendance in Sydney, declining Sydney Swans attendances and memberships, the economic crisis and the Tasmanian AFL Bid which had gained significant momentum and public support during 2008. An Australian Senate enquiry into the Tasmanian AFL Bid concluded that Sydney had "insurmountable cultural barriers" to the establishment of a second AFL team.
In May 2009, AIS/AFL Academy coach Alan McConnell was appointed as the club's high performance manager. McConnell was the first full-time appointment for GWS and his new role commenced on 1 July 2009. Kevin Sheedy was appointed inaugural coach in November 2009, his role commenced on 2 February 2010. His first senior assistant coach was former premiership coach of Mark Williams. Williams left the role at the conclusion of 2012, in order to become a development coach at the Richmond Tigers. In November 2010 Skoda Australia was announced as the team's first major sponsor, signing a three-year contract which included naming rights to the team's home ground at the Sydney Showground. SpotJobs became a sponsor in March 2015, they featured on the back of the Giants’ playing guernseys for home matches in Sydney and Canberra and on the front of the guernseys for all the team's away games for that year only. Virgin Australia, Toyo Tyres and St. George bank are the main sponsors, alongside with apparel partner, X Blades.
On 4 October 2012, Greater Western Sydney confirmed Leon Cameron as its new senior assistant coach for 2013. This role expanded to Senior Coach and he is contracted until 2020 in this role. In 20
The Brisbane Lions is a professional Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League. The club is based in Brisbane, Australia; the club was formed in late 1996 from the merger of the Brisbane Bears. The Lions are one of the most successful AFL clubs of the 21st century, having appeared in four consecutive AFL Grand Finals from 2001 to 2004 and winning three premierships; the club is based at the Gabba. The team is coached by Chris Fagan; the Brisbane Lions were launched on 1 November 1996, joining the national competition in 1997. In their first year as a combined club the Lions made the finals, finishing in eighth position after being defeated by the St Kilda Football Club in a qualifying final; the following year, they finished in last position, despite boasting a talented playing list. As the Brisbane Lions, the club won its first AFL premiership in the 2001 AFL Grand Final, defeating Essendon 15.18 to 12.10. Lions utility player Shaun Hart won the Norm Smith Medal as best on ground in the Grand Final.
In 2002, the Lions won back-to-back premierships when they defeated Collingwood 9.12 to 10.15 in the 2002 AFL Grand Final in cold and wet conditions at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Early in the contest the Lions lost both ruckman Beau McDonald and utility player Martin Pike to injury and had to complete the match with a limited bench. In 2003, the Lions would win their 3rd premiership in a row, second in a row against the Collingwood Magpies. With a number of players under an injury cloud – and having lost to Collingwood in a qualifying final at the Melbourne Cricket Ground three weeks – the Lions went into the game as underdogs. However, they sealed their place in history as an AFL dynasty by thrashing the Magpies in cool but sunny conditions. At one stage in the final quarter the Lions led by 80 points before relaxing when the match was well and won, allowing Collingwood to score the last four goals; the final score of 20.14 to 12.12 saw the club become only the fourth in VFL/AFL history to win three consecutive premierships and the first since the creation of the AFL.
Simon Black claimed the Norm Smith Medal with a dominant 39 possession match, the most possessions gathered by a player in a grand final. The 2004 season saw. Reaching the finals in second position, Brisbane controversially had to travel to Melbourne to play against Geelong in the preliminary final, due to a contract between the Melbourne Cricket Ground and the Australian Football League that required one preliminary final to be played each year at the MCG. Port Adelaide hosted the other preliminary final in Adelaide. Despite this setback, Brisbane beat Geelong and reached the AFL Grand Final for the fourth consecutive year, their opponents, Port Adelaide, playing in their first grand final, were too good on the day and recorded a 40-point win. The Lions began the 2006 season optimistically, but injuries again plagued the club, whose players recorded an AFL record total of 200 matches lost to injury for the season; the Brisbane Lions finished runner up in the 2007 NAB Cup and went on to create history by being the first team in the history of the AFL to have five co-captains.
That year, the Lions failed to make the finals for a third successive year in 2007. The Lions began the 2008 NAB Cup shakily; the team struggled for the season and missed out on the finals with a 10–12 record, losing 3 games despite having at least 5 more scoring shots in each of those games. Coach Leigh Matthews resigned at the end of the season after 10 seasons and 3 premierships with the club; the Lions made a good start in the 2009 NAB Cup under new senior coach Michael Voss by registering a 9-point win over St Kilda. However this was followed by a series of losses in the pre-season to Essendon and Richmond, their season ended with a 51-point loss to the Western Bulldogs. The 2009/2010 off-season was dominated by the arrival of Brendan Fevola from Carlton, the hype was focused on Fevola and Jonathan Brown in the sense that the Lions could capitalise on their strong 2009 season. Indeed, the Lions won their first four matches of the 2010 season to be top of the ladder after four rounds, but they would only win three more games after that to crash to a lowly finish by season's end.
One of those wins however, was against eventual premiers Collingwood. The Lions' 2010/2011 off-season was disrupted by the sacking of Fevola after just one season at the Lions, following repeated off-field indiscretions which included getting drunk in the Brisbane streets during New Year's Eve celebrations. On the field, the Lions won only four games for the year, but only one against any Victorian team, and, North Melbourne, in Round 9. Despite their worst season since 1998, coach Michael Voss was granted a contract extension after the board recommended that Voss was the best man to take the club forward into the future. Leading into season 2012, only two players from the triple-premiership winning team of 2001–2003 remained: Simon Black and Jonathan Brown; the 2013 season started well for Brisbane, defeating Carlton in the final of the NAB Cup, with Daniel Rich winning the Michael Tuck Medal for best on ground and Aaron Cornelius showing some good form. However, things began to decline from with losses to the Western Bulldogs and Adelaide.
However, in the 5th QClash match against Gold Coast, the Lions won by two points, with Jonathan Brown winning the Marcus Ashcroft Medal. Injuries were beginning to take a toll, with
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
West Australian Football League
The West Australian Football League is an Australian rules football league based in Perth, Western Australia. The WAFL is the third-most popular league in the nation, behind the nationwide Australian Football League and South Australian National Football League; the league consists of nine teams, which play each other in a 24-round season lasting from March to September, with the top five teams playing off in a finals series, culminating in a Grand Final. The league runs reserves and colts competitions; the WAFL was founded in 1885 as the West Australian Football Association, has undergone a variety of name changes since re-adopting its current name in 2001. For most of its existence, the league was considered one of the traditional "big three" Australian rules football leagues, along with the Victorian Football League and South Australian National Football League. However, since the introduction of two Western Australia-based clubs into the VFL – the West Coast Eagles in 1987 and the Fremantle Football Club in 1995 – the popularity and standard of the league has decreased to the point where it is considered a feeder competition to the AFL.
Although payments are made to players, it is considered to be a semi-professional competition. A salary cap of A$200,000 per club is in place; the league is affiliated with the two Western Australia-based AFL clubs. Players who are not selected to play with their respective AFL clubs instead play for allocated clubs in the WAFL; the competition is governed by the West Australian Football Commission, based at Subiaco Oval. There are ten teams that compete in the WAFL: a Claremont played at the Claremont Showgrounds from 1925 to 1927 and again from 2014 until 2016 when Claremont Oval was closed for re-development, at Subiaco Oval from 1945 to 1947 when Claremont Oval was being rebuilt after a grandstand fire in 1944. B East Fremantle played at Fremantle Oval from 1898 to 1952, excluding a period in 1906 where home games were played at East Fremantle Oval. C East Perth played at Wellington Square from 1902 to 1909, at Perth Oval from 1910 to 1987 and from 1990 to 1999, at the WACA Ground during 1988 and 1989.
D Perth played at the WACA Ground from 1899 to 1958 and during 1987 and 1988. E Subiaco played at Shenton Park between 1901 and 1905, at Mueller Park in 1906 and 1907, at Subiaco Oval from 1908 to 2003. F West Perth played at Leederville Oval from 1915 to 1993. Ten other clubs competed in the competition: Fremantle Football Club was known as Unions Football Club from 1886 to 1889.a Up until the turn of the century, there were a limited number of grounds available for use by the clubs, with all clubs sharing the different grounds. As such, the Esplanade Park and Fremantle Park in Fremantle, the Old Recreation Ground and the New Recreation Ground in Perth were all used as "home" grounds by the above teams. B The High School withdrew from the competition due to lack of players two rounds into the inaugural season. C Rovers were a "wandering" team – they had no home ground, drew players from all over the metropolitan area. D West Australian Football Club merged with Victorians in 1889 to form the Metropolitan Football Club, which in turn became the West Perth Football Club.
The WAFL has a salary cap in place. In 2016 the Total Player Payments cap is $294,000 for the non-AFL aligned clubs, while the cap for East Perth and Peel Thunder is $191,100. In January 2015, the WAFL executive announced. Under the arrangement, Seven agreed to a three-year deal involving the telecast of 18 home and away matches as well as all Finals matches, broadcast throughout Western Australia; the WAFL match of the round was broadcast on ABC throughout Western Australia every Saturday afternoon during the regular home and away season. Matches were replayed nationwide on-demand from the ABC iView service and re-broadcast on the ABC2 channel early Friday morning at 2.30 am local time. Radio stations which cover the competition include 720 ABC Perth, ABC Grandstand Digital, 91.3 SportFM, 107.3 HFM and KIX Country Digital. Since 2015, the current major sponsor of the WAFL Premiership is Telecommunications Company Optus. Prior to that, AAMI were major sponsors of the league. Attendance at WAFL matches dropped when each of the two Western Australian based AFL teams entered the league.
In recent years, however the attendances have increased with 2009 recording the first combined annual attendance of more than 200,000 since 1994. A largest recent crowd was 24,638 at the 2010 WAFL Grand Final between Swan Districts and Claremont at Subiaco Oval; the all-time attendance record is 52,781 in 1979 for East Fremantle v South Fremantle at Subiaco Oval. Patrons at the WAFL pay at the gates; the following are the most recent attendance figures. Organised football in the Perth/Fremantle region of Western Australia dates back to 1881. Back though rugby union was the dominant football code, with only one senior club, "Unions", playing Australian Rules. In 1883 a second club, "Swans", but Australian Rules' growth remained much subdued compared to that of Victoria and South Australia. However, in those days many young men of Perth's wealthier families were educated in Adelaide, the capital of South Australia. On returning home from there they wished to play the sport they'd grown up with and no doubt exerted some influence on their less affluent peers as to such.
Coincidentally, the press at the time reported there was a growing dissatisfaction with rugby as a spectacle. During the 1880s, the discoveries of gold
Northern Territory Football Club
Northern Territory Football Club, nicknamed NT Thunder, is a Northern Territory-based Australian rules football club competing in the North East Australian Football League. The Northern Territory Thunder were formed in 2008 and were invited to join the West Australian Football League but instead opted to join the Queensland Australian Football League. At the conclusion of the 2011 QAFL season the Thunder, along with nine other Queensland-based teams, were invited to join the newly formed North East Australian Football League; the Thunder finished the regular season with the best record in the Northern Conference and in doing so claimed their first minor premiership. The Thunder went on to prove their superiority by claiming the first Northern Conference NEAFL premiership by defeating the Morningside Panthers. A week the Thunder defeated the newly crowned Eastern Conference NEAFL premiers, Ainslie Tri-Colours, to claim the first NEAFL premiership at Traeger Park. Legend: ^ Premiers, † Finals Bold italics: competition leading goal kicker 2009 – Cameron Ilett 2010 – Cameron Ilett 2011 – Jake Dignan 2012 – Jason Roe 2013 – Cameron Ilett 2014 – Cameron Ilett 2015 – Richard Tambling 2016 – Cameron Ilett 2017 – Cameron Ilett The Grogan Medal was awarded between 2011 and 2013 to the best and fairest player in the NEAFL Northern Conference.
Cameron Ilett The Ray Hughson Medal was awarded in the QAFL until 2010, in the NEAFL Northern Conference between 2011 and 2013 to the leading goalkicker. Darren Ewing – 81 goals Darren Ewing – 115 goals Darren Ewing – 94 goals The NEAFL leading goalkicker has been awarded since 2014 to the player who kicks the most goals in the NEAFL competition. Darren Ewing – 78 goals Darren Ewing – 58 goals Darren Ewing – 61 goals The NEAFL Rising Star was awarded between 2011 and 2013 to the best young player in the Northern Conference. Ross Tungatalum The NEAFL Rising Star has been awarded since 2014 to the best young player in the NEAFL competition. Adam Sambono Murray Davis Xavier Clarke The NEAFL Coach of the Year has been awarded since 2014 to the best coach in the NEAFL competition. Xavier Clarke NT Thunder competed in the QAFL between 2009 and 2010 before joining the NEAFL. Darren Ewing Cameron Ilett Jarred Ilett Peter MacFarlane Brett Goodes Zephaniah Skinner Between 2011 and 2013, the Team of the Year representatives were from the Northern Conference.
Since 2014, the representatives have been for the whole NEAFL competition. Darren Ewing Cameron Ilett Shaun Tapp Ross Tungatalum Kenrick Tyrrell Jake Dignan Jason Roe Matt Rosier Chris Dunne Justin Beugelaar Richard Tambling Raphael Clarke Adam Sambono The following is the list of NT Thunder players who have played at AFL level and the club they play for. Jed Anderson – Hawthorn and North Melbourne Dom Barry – Melbourne Jared Brennan – Brisbane Lions and Gold Coast Raphael Clarke – St Kilda Nakia Cockatoo – Geelong Alwyn Davey – Essendon Nathan Djerrkura – Geelong and Western Bulldogs Brett Goodes – Western Bulldogs Nikki Gore - Adelaide Women Steven May – Gold Coast Ryan Nyhuis - Fremantle Andrew McLeod – Adelaide Liam Patrick – Gold Coast Relton Roberts – Richmond Jason Roe – Brisbane Lions Zephaniah Skinner – Western Bulldogs Richard Tambling – Richmond and Adelaide Troy Taylor – Richmond Austin Wonaeamirri – Melbourne The NT Thunder club song is "We are the Territory Thunder". Correct to the end of round 17, 2017 Highest score for: 193 points Round 18, 2010 – NT Thunder 29.19 vs. Broadbeach 8.3 Lowest score for: 28 points Round 17, 2017 – NT Thunder 4.4 vs. Sydney Swans 25.24 Highest score against: 174 points Round 17, 2017 – NT Thunder 4.4 vs. Sydney Swans 25.24 Lowest score against: 15 points Round 13, 2014 – NT Thunder 19.11 vs. Sydney University 1.9 Highest aggregate score: 287 points Round 4, 2009 – NT Thunder 20.11 vs. Redland 23.18 Lowest aggregate score: 89 points Elimination final, 2014 – NT Thunder 7.11 vs. Ainslie 5.6 Lowest winning score: 53 points Elimination final, 2014 – NT Thunder 7.11 vs. Ainslie 5.6 Highest losing score: 131 points Round 4, 2009 – NT Thunder 23.18 vs. Redland 23.18 Greatest winning margin: 142 points Round 18, 2010 – NT Thunder 29.19 vs. Broadbeach 8.3 Greatest losing margin: 146 points Round 17, 2017 – NT Thunder 4.4 vs. Sydney Swans 25.24 Longest winning streak: 13 matches Round 11, 2015 vs. Sydney University to round 1, 2016 vs.
Gold Coast Longest losing streak: 3 matches Round 15, 2009 vs. Redland to round 17, 2009 vs. Southport Round 2, 2010 vs. Redland to round 4, 2010 vs. Southport Northern conference grand final, 2012 vs. Brisbane Lions to round 2, 2013 vs. Aspley Round 20, 2013 vs. Redland to round 22, 2013 vs. Aspley Most goals in a match by an individual: 14 goals Darren Ewing, round 19, 2013 Northern Territory Thunder FC website
Sydney Cricket Ground
The Sydney Cricket Ground is a sports stadium in Sydney, Australia. It is used for Test, One Day International and Twenty20 cricket, as well as Australian rules football, rugby league football, rugby union, association football, it is the home ground for the New South Wales Blues cricket team, the Sydney Sixers of the Big Bash League, the Sydney Roosters of the National Rugby League, the NSW Waratahs of Super Rugby and the Sydney Swans Australian Football League club. It is owned and operated by the Sydney Cricket Ground Trust that manages the Sydney Football Stadium located next door; until the 44,000 seat Football Stadium opened in 1988, the Sydney Cricket Ground was the major rugby league venue in Sydney. In 1811, the Governor of New South Wales, Lachlan Macquarie, established the second Sydney Common, about one-and-a-half miles wide and extending south from South Head Road to where Randwick Racecourse is today. Part sandhills, part swamp and situated on the south-eastern fringe of the city, it was used as a rubbish dump in the 1850s, not regarded as an ideal place for sport.
In 1851, part of the Sydney Common south of Victoria Barracks was granted to the British Army for use as a garden and cricket ground for the soldiers. Its first user was the 11th North Devonshire Regiment which flattened and graded the southern part of the rifle range adjacent to the Barracks. In the next couple of years, the teams from Victoria Barracks combined themselves into a more permanent organisation and called themselves the Garrison Club; the ground therefore became known as the Garrison Ground when it was first opened in February 1854. Up until that time Hyde Park had been the main sporting and racing ground in the colony but when it was dedicated as public gardens in 1856 city cricketers and footballers had to find somewhere else to play. In the late 1860s another part of the Sydney Common, the area west of the Garrison Ground to the Dowling Street, was opened for public recreation, it was named Moore Park after the Mayor of Sydney, Charles Moore, who planted a number of Moreton Bay Fig trees which exist to this day.
As well as the location of Sydney's first zoo, Moore Park was a regular venue for games between Sydney rugby clubs Sydney University and the Wallaroos. Sydney at the time was a small, dense city and best navigated on foot and Moore Park was on the outskirts, it was not liked so much by cricketers. When the commander of the Sydney garrison, Lieutenant-Colonel John Richardson, aligned his soldiers to the East Sydney Cricket Club, the Garrison Ground became known as the Civil and Military Ground. In 1870 British troops left Victoria barracks and the future of the Civil and Military Ground became uncertain. However, with the closure of the Albert Ground in the 1870s, the NSW Cricket Association began regular use of the Civil and Military Ground. In 1875, the NSW Government began to upgrade the ground. Despite efforts by Victoria Barracks and the Carlingford, Redfern and Albert cricket clubs to take control, the president of the NSWCA, Richard Driver, persuaded the government to let the NSWCA look after the ground's administration.
In 1876, the ground was dedicated by Governor Sir Hercules Robinson. The NSWCA had influential supporters. Driver himself was a prominent solicitor for the City of Sydney Council; the Minister for Lands, Thomas Garrett, was supportive. It is hardly surprising therefore that within a couple of years of the NSWCA taking control of the ground, the governor, Sir Hercules Robinson, appointed Driver himself, William W. Stephen and Phillip Sheridan, the first trustees. Two trustees were appointed by the government and one by the NSWCA; the close relationship between the Trust and the NSWCA is evidenced by the fact that they pooled funds for the next six years. The military's link with the ground was severed when John Richardson and the Sydney garrison went to fight in the Sudan; the trustees took the opportunity to rename the ground the Association Ground In 1883 the most prominent trustee, regarding the ground as the responsibility of the trustees, began to act independently of the NSWCA, resulting in the NSWCA losing control of the ground.
Over the next century there was constant conflict between the Trust and the NSWCA over whether other sports such as rugby and cycling, the organisers of which were all keen to use the venue, had access to it. One conflict in 1904, over the Trust's plan to hold a cycling event which clashed with a cricket match, ended up in court; the NSWCA's influence was reduced further over the years due to changes in the way the State Government appointed trustees. By the time of the first Sydney cricket test in February 1882, the ground could boast two grandstands. On opposite sides of the ground to the stands two spectator mounds were built, they became known as the Paddington Hill. In 1886, the Members' Pavilion was rebuilt at a cost of £6,625. Membership was levied at two guineas. In 1881 a loop in the tram line, which ran down Randwick Road, was built to service the Ground and the Pastoral and Agricultural Society Ground next door. In 1894 the ground received its modern name, the Sydney Cricket Ground, followed by the opening of the Hill Stand, situated between The Hill and the Paddington Hill.
It became known as the Bob Stand during the Depression years because it co
Ruckman (Australian rules football)
In Australian rules football, a ruckman or ruckwoman is a tall and athletic player who contests at centre bounces and stoppages. The ruckman is one of the most important players on the field, they are key to coaching strategy and winning centre clearances which result in the most goal kicking opportunities. The role of the ruckman in Australian rules is similar to a lock in rugby union contesting a line-out; the key differences are that with the exception of boundary throw-ins, the ball is always thrown straight up high into the air rather than horizontally, so in this respect, the ruckman is similar to a basketball centre. The ruckman needs to be able to control the ball by palm fist with outstretched arms. Unlike rugby, the ruckman is not assisted by teammates. Australian football rucking involves vigorous mid-air collisions with the opposing ruckman. With no offside or knock on rules, the ruckman can tap the ball in any direction. Before a bounce down or ball up, ruckmen confer with the onballers to pre-determine the direction of the tap so that they can position themselves to best receive it to the team's advantage.
The ruckman is the tallest player on either team. A typical professional Australian Football League ruckman is over 200 cm or 6'7; when a ruckman beats his opponent by contacting the ball, it is called a hit out and measured as a statistic and performance indicator of effective ruckwork. Although the ruckman is the primary player to score hit-outs, sometimes tall key position players fill in for the ruckman around the ground if the ruckman cannot run to make the contest in time. Rucking is one of the most physically demanding positions on the ground, both in terms of fitness and body contact; as a result of the high level of physical contact of clashing with opponents in the air, many ruckmen have large physiques or bulk up to prevent injury. As well, due to the use of knees when jumping, many ruckmen wear protective thigh and shin padding, whereas players in other positions do. Coaches field more than one ruckman and rotate them due to the physical pressure of the position and the endurance of having to run to ruck contests around the ground.
Ruckmen are sometimes classified by their style of play, although many players alternate styles during a game based on strategy, the style of an opponent, their physical attributes and versatility. A tap ruckman is the most high jumping of styles. Players using this style will deftly palm the ball directly down to the advantage of a smaller teammate or rover making their hitouts the most effective. WAFL and VFL great Polly Farmer is considered to be one of the best all-time ruckmen of this style; the AFL's Aaron Sandilands is a good current example. A mobile ruckman describes a ruckman that covers a lot of ground. Sometime this type of ruckman is not as tall, as big, or effective at hit outs, but may possess a high leap and a greater athletic endurance. Against less mobile ruckman, this type of player can compensate with an ability to take more marks around the ground playing as a tall ruck rover and sometimes with the additional ability to kick goals while playing from the midfield or drop back into defence when required.
Jim Stynes was one of the first modern ruckmen in this mould. A thump ruckman practices a more physical style of rucking; the player is of a larger and/or taller build and uses brute force to take their opponent out of the contest and punch the ball forward going for distance and penetration into their attacking zone. These players are slower around the ground, as such are sometimes referred to as dinosaurs and sometimes criticised for a lack of skill around the ground; this type of ruckwork is rarer in the modern game, more so at its highest level. At the beginning of 2003, the AFL rules were changed so that ruckman must stand at opposite sides and run towards each other; this change affected thump ruckmen especially. Ruckmen are used by coaches strategically. Using tandem ruckmen known as third man up, is a tactic employed around the ground as a set play strategy; as only one ruckman from each side can be used at centre bounces, this tactic is restricted to boundary throw-ins and bounces. It involves a second tall or high jumping player from one of the sides contesting the ruck when the taller ruckmen are wrestling at ground level or ineffective in getting a clear tap away.
The tactic has become popular during the 2015 season. It results in a thump forward to keep the ball moving towards goal, as it is difficult for the shorter player contesting the ruck to aim a tap; this is because they are not able to be assisted by lifting and can be put off balance in the air when jumping over the top of ruckmen. Additionally, by committing an extra player to the ruck contest, there is one less player from that team around the contest - though this can have the effect of opening up space for more creative roving players; some key position players are designated secondary ruckmen for boundary throw-ins and will sometimes be used in tandem ruckwork. During kick-ins the ruckman can sometimes be a designated target. With extra height it is difficult for opposition players to take marks against them and they are an easier target to spot in a cluster. In a contested situation, the ruckman may be instructed to bring the ball to ground, so that the smaller rovers or crumbers on their team know to attack the ball from front and square position to gain possession.
Ruckmen are sometimes dropped into the goal