Pseudo-Chalkidian vase painting
Pseudo-Chalcidian vase painting is an important style of black-figure Greek vase painting, dating to the 6th century BC. Pseudo-Chalkidian vase painting was influenced by Chalkidian vase painting, but shows influences from Attic and Corinthian vase painting; the potters used the Ionic alphabet for added inscriptions. The clays were of a different fabric from those used for Chalcidian pottery. By now, about 60 vases of the style are known; the potters/painters may have been the successors of those who produced Chalcidian pottery, as well as some potters newly immigrated to Etruria. Pseudo-Chalcidian vase painting can be subdivided in two groups; the older of the two is the Polyphemus Group. It produced the majority of known vases neck amphorae and oinochoai. Most show groups of animals, mythological imagery is rare; the vessels were found in Etruria and Sicily, but in Marseille and Vix. The more recent and less productive memnon Group, to which 12 vessels can be ascribed, had a much less extensive distribution, limited to Etruria and Sicily.
Apart from a single small oinochoe, it only produced neck amphorae painted with animals and horsemen. There is a single depiction of a chariot race, as well as one amphora with Circe. Fulvio Canciani: Eine neue Amphora aus Vulci und das Problem der pseudochalkidischen Vasen, In: Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 95, p. 140-162 Thomas Mannack: Griechische Vasenmalerei. Eine Einführung. Theiss, Stuttgart 2002, p. 131 ISBN 3-8062-1743-2. Matthias Steinhart: Pseudochalkidische Vasenmalerei. In: Der Neue Pauly, vol. 10, cols. 516-517
The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, are similar in chemical composition; the nearly perfect cleavage, the most prominent characteristic of mica, is explained by the hexagonal sheet-like arrangement of its atoms. The word mica is derived from the Latin word mica, meaning a crumb, influenced by micare, to glitter. Chemically, micas can be given the general formula X2Y4–6Z8O204,in which X is K, Na, or Ca or less Ba, Rb, or Cs. Structurally, micas can be classed as trioctahedral. If the X ion is K or Na, the mica is a common mica, whereas if the X ion is Ca, the mica is classed as a brittle mica. Muscovite Common micas: Biotite Lepidolite Phlogopite ZinnwalditeBrittle micas: Clintonite Very fine-grained micas, which show more variation in ion and water content, are informally termed "clay micas", they include: Hydro-muscovite with H3O+ along with K in the X site.
Mica is distributed and occurs in igneous and sedimentary regimes. Large crystals of mica used for various applications are mined from granitic pegmatites; until the 19th century, large crystals of mica were quite rare and expensive as a result of the limited supply in Europe. However, their price dropped when large reserves were found and mined in Africa and South America during the early 19th century; the largest documented single crystal of mica was found in Lacey Mine, Canada. Similar-sized crystals were found in Karelia, Russia; the British Geological Survey reported that as of 2005, Koderma district in Jharkhand state in India had the largest deposits of mica in the world. China was the top producer of mica with a third of the global share followed by the US, South Korea and Canada. Large deposits of sheet mica were mined in New England from the 19th century to the 1970s. Large mines existed in Connecticut, New Hampshire, Maine. Scrap and flake mica is produced all over the world. In 2010, the major producers were Russia, United States, South Korea and Canada.
The total global production was 350,000 t. Most sheet mica was produced in Russia. Flake mica comes from several sources: the metamorphic rock called schist as a byproduct of processing feldspar and kaolin resources, from placer deposits, from pegmatites. Sheet mica is less abundant than flake and scrap mica, is recovered from mining scrap and flake mica; the most important sources of sheet mica are pegmatite deposits. Sheet mica prices vary with grade and can range from less than $1 per kilogram for low-quality mica to more than $2,000 per kilogram for the highest quality; the mica group represents 37 phyllosilicate minerals that have a platy texture. The commercially important micas are muscovite and phlogopite, which are used in a variety of applications. Mica’s value is based on several of its unique physical properties; the crystalline structure of mica forms layers that can be split or delaminated into thin sheets causing foliation in rocks. These sheets are chemically inert, elastic, hydrophilic, lightweight, reflective, refractive and range in opacity from transparent to opaque.
Mica is stable when exposed to electricity, light and extreme temperatures. It has superior electrical properties as an insulator and as a dielectric, can support an electrostatic field while dissipating minimal energy in the form of heat. Muscovite, the principal mica used by the electrical industry, is used in capacitors that are ideal for high frequency and radio frequency. Phlogopite mica remains stable at higher temperatures and is used in applications in which a combination of high-heat stability and electrical properties is required. Muscovite and phlogopite are used in ground forms; the leading use of dry-ground mica in the US is in the joint compound for filling and finishing seams and blemishes in gypsum wallboard. The mica acts as a filler and extender, provides a smooth consistency, improves the workability of the compound, provides resistance to cracking. In 2008, joint compound accounted for 54% of dry-ground mica consumption. In the paint industry, ground mica is used as a pigment extender that facilitates suspension, reduces chalking, prevents shrinking and shearing of the paint film, increases the resistance of the paint film to water penetration and weathering and brightens the tone of colored pigments.
Mica promotes paint adhesion in aqueous and oleoresinous formulations. Consumption of dry-ground mica in paint, the second-ranked use, accounted for 22% of the dry-ground mica used in 2008. Ground mica is used in the well-drilling industry as an additive to drilling fluids; the coarsely ground mica flakes help prevent the loss of circulation by sealing po
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum; the museum is housed in the Louvre Palace built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the urban expansion of the city, the fortress lost its defensive function and, in 1546, was converted by Francis I into the main residence of the French Kings; the building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre as a place to display the royal collection, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons.
The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces; the museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801; the collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown through donations and bequests since the Third Republic; the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities. The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century to protect the city from English soldiers which were in Normandy.
Remnants of this castle are still visible in the crypt. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den. In the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her "Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris" to a monastery.. The Louvre Palace was altered throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in French Renaissance style. Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed. Four generations of Boulle were granted Royal patronage and resided in the Louvre in the following order: Pierre Boulle, Jean Boulle, Andre-Charles Boulle and his four sons, after him. André-Charles Boulle is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry known as "Inlay".
Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers". He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession". Before the fire of 1720 destroyed them, André-Charles Boulle held priceless works of art in the Louvre, including forty-eight drawings by Raphael'. By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery, with the art critic La Font de Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for a display of the royal collection. On 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. A hall was opened by Le Normant de Tournehem and the Marquis de Marigny for public viewing of the Tableaux du Roy on Wednesdays and Saturdays, contained Andrea del Sarto's Charity and works by Raphael. Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy; the comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the "French Museum".
Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution. During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection i
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Geometric art is a phase of Greek art, characterized by geometric motifs in vase painting, that flourished towards the end of the Greek Dark Ages, circa 900 BC – 700 BC. Its center was in Athens, from there the style spread among the trading cities of the Aegean; the Greek Dark Ages are called the Geometric period in reference to this characteristic pottery style, although the historical period is much longer than the art-historical period, being circa 1100 – 800 BC. The vases had various uses or purposes within Greek society, but not limited to, funerary vases and symposium vases. Funerary vases not only depicted funerary scenes, but they had practical purposes, either holding the ashes or being used as grave markers. Relatives of the deceased conducted burial rituals that included three parts: the prothesis, the ekphora, the interment of the body or cremated remains of the body. To the Greeks, an omission of a proper burial was an insult to proper dignity; the mythological context of a proper burial relates to the Greeks' belief in a continued existence in the underworld that will disallow the dead to maintain peace in the absence of a proper burial ritual.
Aside from its funerary use, the Greeks utilized various vessels during symposiums. The Greek symposium was a social gathering. Vessels, such as wine coolers, various drinking cups, mixing vessels, were decorated with Greek, geometric scenes; some of the scenes depicted drinking his followers. The symposia would be held in the “andron,”, a man’s only room; the only women allowed into this room were called “hetaera,” or female sex-workers who required payment from their regular, male companions. During the Protogeometric period, the shapes of the vessels have eliminated the fluid nature of the Mycenaean. There are horizontal, decorative bands that feature geometric shapes, but not limited to, concentric circles or semicircles. Technological developments caused a new relationship between structure; the Protogeometric period did not yet feature human figures within its art, but horses were pictured during this time period. Common vase shapes of the period include amphorae with the handles on both the belly and the neck, oinochoai and skyphoi.
In the Early Geometric period, the height of the vessels had been increased, while the decoration is limited around the neck down to the middle of the body of the vessel. The remaining surface is covered by a thin layer of clay, which during the firing takes a dark, metallic color; that was the period when the decorative theme of the meander was added to the pottery design, the most characteristic element of Geometric art. During this period, a broader repertoire of vessel shapes was initiated. Amphorae were used to hold cremation ashes; the amphorae featured handles on the "neck/shoulder" for males, while they feature handles on the "belly" of the vase for women. By the Middle Geometric period, the decorative zones appear multiplied due to the creation of a laced mesh, while the meander dominates and is placed in the most important area, in the metope, arranged between the handles. While the technique from the Middle Geometric period was still continued at the beginning of the 8th century BC, some potters enriched again the decorative organization of the vases, stabilized the forms of the animals in the areas of the neck and the base of the vase, introduced between the handles, the human form.
The Late Geometric Period was marked by a 1.62 meter amphora, made by the Dipylon painter at around 760-750 BC. The vase was a grave marker to an aristocratic woman in the Dipylon cemetery; this was the first phase of the Late Geometric period, in which the great vessels of Dipylon ware placed on the graves as funeral monuments, represent with their height and the perfection of their execution, the highest expression of the Greek Geometric art. The focal point of the funerary vases was now the body lying in state and the wail of the dead, carrying out to the grave with an honorary chariot race, various other subjects thought to be related to similar descriptions of the Homeric epics. People and animals are depicted geometrically in a dark glossy color, while the remaining vessel is covered by strict zones of meanders, crooked lines, swastikas, in the same graphical concept; the main tragic theme of the wail declined, the compositions eased, the geometric shapes have become more and areas with animals, scenes of shipwrecks, hunting scenes, themes from mythology or the Homeric epics led Geometric pottery into more naturalistic expressions.
One of the characteristic examples of the Late Geometric style is an oldest surviving signed work of a Greek potter Aristonothos. The vase was found at Cerveteri in Italy and illustrates the blinding of Polyphemus by Odysseus and his companions. From the mid-8th century BC, the closer contact between Greece and the East enriched the ceramic art with new subjects – such as lions, imaginary beings, palmettes, lotus flowers etc. – that led to the Orientalizing Period style, in which the pottery style of Corinth distinguished. The notion of narrative during this time period exists between the audience; the artist communicates with the viewer, but
An oenochoe spelled oinochoe, is a wine jug and a key form of ancient Greek pottery. There are many different forms of oenochoe; the earliest is the olpe, with no distinct shoulder and a handle rising above the lip. The "type 8 oenochoe" is what one would call a mug, with no single pouring point and a curved profile; the chous was a squat rounded form, with trefoil mouth. Small examples with scenes of children, as in the example illustrated, were placed in the graves of children. Oenochoai may be undecorated. Oenochoai have only one handle at the back and may include a trefoil mouth and pouring spout, their size varies considerably. Most Greek oenochoe were in painted terracotta pottery but metal oenochoai were also common among the better off, though as with other vessel shapes, few have survived. Again as with other shapes, large versions in stone were sometimes used as grave markers carved with reliefs. In pottery, some oinochoai are "plastic", with the body formed as sculpture one or more human heads.
Typology of Greek vase shapes Corpus vasorum antiquorum Ancient Greek vase painting Pottery of ancient Greece Media related to Oinochoes at Wikimedia Commons
White ground technique
White-ground technique is a style of white ancient Greek pottery and the painting in which figures appear on a white background. It developed in the region of Attica, dated to about 500 BC, it was associated with vases made for ritual and funerary use, if only because the painted surface was more fragile than in the other main techniques of black-figure and red-figure vase painting. A wide range of subjects are depicted. In white-ground pottery, the vase is covered with a white slip of kaolinite. A similar slip had been used as carrier for vase paintings in the Archaic periods. White-ground vases were produced, in Ionia, Laconia and on the Cycladic islands, but only in Athens did it develop into a veritable separate style beside black-figure and red-figure vase painting. For that reason, the term white-ground pottery or white-ground vase painting is used in reference to the Attic material only; the light slip was meant to make the vases appear more valuable by eliciting associations with ivory or marble.
However, in no case was a vessel's entire surface covered in white slip. It has been conjectured that this form of painting emerged in order to emulate the more prestigious medium of wall painting, but the thesis has been elusive of proof. Furthermore, the group of five Huge Lekythoi are covered in white slip, which suggests an imitation of marble lekythoi for funerary purposes. White-ground vase painting occurred in association with red-figure vase painting. Typical of this are kylikes with a white-ground interior and a red-figure exterior image. White-ground painting is less durable than black- or red-figure, why such vases were used as votives and grave vessels; the development of white-ground vase painting took place parallel to that of the black- and red-figure styles. In the course of that development, five sub-styles can be noted: Early use; the earliest surviving example of the technique is a fragmentary kantharos signed by the potter-painter Nearchos ca. 570 BC. It was found on the Athenian Acropolis.
The technique was used to create strobing bands of colour that emphasize the shape of the vase. and is associated with the workshops of Andokides and Psiax. Type I; the use of a white ground in conjunction with outline painting did not develop until some fifty years when black-figure vase painting on white ground was introduced by the potter Nikosthenes around 530/525 BC. After a short interval, this technique was adopted by other workshops, including that of Psiax; the manner of painting is the same as in conventional black-figure, the colour of the grounding being the only difference. The ground is pure white, but slightly yellowish or light beige. Type II. A second form is monochrome silhouette drawing. Images are not created from reservation and painted internal detail, but from drawn outlines and painted internal detail; this style is used since the end of the 6th century BC on cups and lekythoi. The outline of the figures is executed in the form of a relief line, but from about 500 BC, this is replaced by painted yellowish-brown lines.
The so-called semi-outline technique is a combination of the first and the second technique, used only in the first half of the 5th century BC exclusively on lekythoi and alabastra. Type III. In the first quarter of the 5th century, the workshop of the potter Euphronios develops a four-colour painting style using a combination of shiny clay slip and mineral paints; the images are made up of coloured areas in mineral paint. This style is used on pyxides and cups; some details, such as fruit, weaponry or vessels are can be executed in clay slip in such a fashion as to attain a slight plasticity, additionally they may be gilded. The paints used are limited to tones of red and brown, yellow and black. Type IV. Early Classical lekythos painting combined shiny slip, mineral paints and non.ceramic mineral paints, This type developed in the second quarter of the 5th century BC. It was used in painting large grave lekythoi used in funerary cult; the images are constructed of coloured areas. Pure outline drawing is only used for the depiction of male bodies at this stage.
Female bodies are rendered in white paint, clothing in black shiny slip, mineral paints and non-ceramic paints such as cinnabarite or Egyptian blue. Many images depict scenes from women's life. Grave images are rare; the most important representative of this style is the Achilles Painter. Type V; the fifth style was polychrome lekythos painting. It replaced Early Classical lekythos painting around the middle of the 5th century BC. By this time, white-ground can be identified most with three principal shapes: the lekythos, the krater, cups. Black shiny slip and white paint now disappeared from the paintings. Female bodies were again rendered as simple outline drawings. Non-ceramic mineral paints ceased to be used. At the same time, several painters, starting with the Sabouroff Painter, began to use red or blackish-grey matt paints, instead of shiny slip, for the contours. Only the contours are painted before firing, other paints are applied afterwards. Therefore, the durability of such vase paintings is limited.
As a result, it is difficult to assess the depicted motifs. Grave scenes are predominant. Important Classical white-ground painters, in addition to the Achilleus Painter and Sabouroff Painter, include the Sappho Painter, Thanatos Painter, Bird Painter, Squa