Akron is a borough in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. It is a mid-sized town with two main roads going through it: Main Street and 7th Street Pennsylvania Route 272; the town is residential with a number of small businesses. The American headquarters of the Mennonite-related relief organizations, the Mennonite Central Committee and Mennonite Disaster Service, are located in the town; the town features the Roland Park which has baseball fields, pavilions, a pond, a gazebo, tennis courts, a playground, a beach volleyball court, a basketball court, an 18 target Disc golf course. Akron was incorporated as a borough in 1895. A railroad served a railroad station in the town. A trolley used to run in parts of the borough; the railroad is now the Warwick to Ephrata Rail Trail. Akron is located at 40°9′23″N 76°12′14″W; the borough is located on a hill. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,046 people, 1,622 households, 1,138 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 3,199.8 people per square mile. There were 1,687 housing units at an average density of 1,334.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.42% White, 0.54% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.38% Asian, 0.79% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races. 2.22% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,622 households, out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.5% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.8% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.86. In the borough the population was spread out, with 21.7% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 89.9 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.3 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $45,407, the median income for a family was $53,365. Males had a median income of $37,061 versus $24,545 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $19,983. About 3.4% of families and 4.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.9% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. Akron Elementary Akron borough is an independent local government unit located in Lancaster County, it is run by an elected mayor. The current Mayor of Akron is John McBeth; the Borough Council is run by President John Williamson. The Chief of Police is Thomas Zell; the Borough of Akron has a Fire Company established in 1893 the Akron Volunteer Fire Company Lancaster County Station 12, which has 50 active members and 3 pieces of Current Operating Fire Apparatus. The economy is made up of small businesses. There are few large businesses because the town is small and residential.
The largest business headquartered in Akron is the non-profit Mennonite Central Committee, which operates the Fair Trade retailer Ten Thousand Villages. The locally well known Weisers Market is in Akron. Loyd H. Roland Memorial Park, is a 70 plus acre park located on Main Street on the East side of Akron; the park has hiking trails, pond, 18 hole disc golf course, picnic pavilions and more. Akron is one of the many Pennsylvania towns to drop or raise a unique item at midnight on New Year's Eve; the "Shoe-In" begins several hours before midnight with children's activities, carriage rides, a bonfire. People donate children's shoes. In honor of the area's former shoe making industry a giant sneaker is lowered at midnight
In the U. S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania, a borough is a self-governing municipal entity, best thought of as a town smaller than a city, but with a similar population density in its residential areas. Sometimes thought of as "junior cities", boroughs have fewer powers and responsibilities than full-fledged cities. Boroughs tend to have more developed business districts and concentrations of public and commercial office buildings, including court houses. Both are larger, less spacious, more developed than the rural townships, which have the greater territory and surround boroughs of a related or the same name. There are 56 cities in Pennsylvania, but only one town, the town of Bloomsburg. All municipalities in Pennsylvania are classified as boroughs, or townships; the only exception is the town of Bloomsburg, recognized by state government as the only incorporated town in Pennsylvania and uses the distinction in its promotion. Many home rule municipalities remain classified as boroughs or townships for certain purposes if the state's Borough and Township Codes no longer apply to them.
Borough List of towns and boroughs in Pennsylvania Category:Self-governance References Sources
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Adamstown is a borough in Lancaster County which has grown into Berks County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. The population was 1,789 at the 2010 census. Of this, 1,772 were in Lancaster County, only 17 were in Berks County, it was founded on 4 July 1761 by William Addams on the site of a former village of Native Americans, Addams named the community "Addamsburry". The community was incorporated as a borough on 2 April 1850; the town promotes itself as the "antiques capital of the United States" because it attracts many antiques dealers and collectors. Adamstown is home to the Stoudt's Brewery, Pennsylvania's first microbrewery, established here in 1987; the town is home to the US's oldest hat manufacturer, the Bollman Hat Company, established in 1868. The Kagerise Store and House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.4 square miles, all land. At the 2010 census, Adamstown had a population of 1,789.
The median age was 37.5. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 91.3% non-Hispanic white, 1.1% black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 4.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.6% of two or more race and 1.7% Hispanic or Latino. At the 2000 census, there were 1,203 people, 501 households and 351 families residing in the borough; the population density was 880.7 people per square mile. There were 533 housing units at an average density of 390.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 99.09% White, 0.08% African American, 0.25% Asian, 0.42% from other races, 0.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.00% of the population. There were 501 households, of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.1% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.9% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.85. 22.9% of the population were under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 33.3% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.9 males. The median household income was $43,578 and the median family income was $47,337. Males had a median income of $35,000 compared with $25,400 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $20,840. About 1.4% of families and 2.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.0% of those under age 18 and 2.8% of those age 65 or over. Eugene Shirk, former Mayor of Reading, Pennsylvania; the Library shares a building with the Adamstown Borough office. In recent years, the role and responsibility of the library has increased, it became a full-fledged member of the Library System of Lancaster County and is now responsible for providing library services to the 28,000+ residents of Adamstown, Denver, East Cocalico and West Cocalico.
The library is run by its own Board of Trustees. The spirit of volunteerism is still strong in the library and volunteers continue to play a key role in ensuring the library is funded and assisting in library functions; the library now benefits from a staff of full-time and part-time trained employees, including a Library Director who holds a master's degree in library and information science
Park City Center
Park City Center is a shopping mall located in Lancaster, is the largest enclosed shopping center in Lancaster County. It is situated at the intersection of U. S. Route 30 and Harrisburg Pike; the mall has over 170 stores and is anchored by Boscov's, JCPenney, Kohl's. The shape of the mall resembles a snowflake, with its stores occupying 8 corridors extending from the center; the roof in the center of the mall is a large white tent, encloses the octagonal Center Court. The mall underwent a major renovation in 2008, which took 18 months and included updates to every part of the mall. During its early years Park City was called "Mall of Four Seasons" because of the seasonal names given to the 4 corridors leading to each anchor. Going clockwise from west to east was JCPenney in the two-story Winter quadrant, Sears in Spring, Gimbel's in Summer and Watt & Shand in Autumn; the high tech mall located in the heart of Pennsylvania Dutch Country was one of the first to have its own closed-circuit television.
Studios for Park City Communications and Lancaster/York/Harrisburg CBS affiliate WLYH-TV 15 were located on the first floor in the Winter wing alongside an ice skating rink. The mall is a major shopping destination for shoppers in the south-central Pennsylvania area due to its assortment of over 170 stores, all of which are newly renovated and most of which are not offered at the nearby Berkshire Mall and York Galleria; the mall had only the second location of Lancaster department store Shand. The lifestyle center portion of the mall, Fountain Shoppes, is accessible from the main level; the mall's only fountain can be found here. The mall has had no indoor fountains for over 25 years; the mall is located 35 miles east of Harrisburg and 85 miles west of Philadelphia. On December 28, 2018, it was announced that Sears would be closing as part of a plan to close 80 stores nationwide; the store will close in March 2019. Official website
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820