British Railways, which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the overground rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997. It was formed from the nationalisation of the "Big Four" British railway companies and lasted until the gradual privatisation of British Rail, in stages between 1994 and 1997. A trading brand of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission, it became an independent statutory corporation in 1962 designated as the British Railways Board; the period of nationalisation saw sweeping changes in the national railway network. A process of dieselisation and electrification took place, by 1968 steam locomotion had been replaced by diesel and electric traction, except for the Vale of Rheidol Railway. Passengers replaced freight as the main source of business, one third of the network was closed by the Beeching Axe of the 1960s in an effort to reduce rail subsidies. On privatisation, responsibility for track and stations was transferred to Railtrack and that for trains to the train operating companies.
The British Rail "double arrow" logo is formed of two interlocked arrows showing the direction of travel on a double track railway and was nicknamed "the arrow of indecision". It is now employed as a generic symbol on street signs in Great Britain denoting railway stations, as part of the Rail Delivery Group's jointly-managed National Rail brand is still printed on railway tickets; the rail transport system in Great Britain developed during the 19th century. After the grouping of 1923 under the Railways Act 1921, there were four large railway companies, each dominating its own geographic area: the Great Western Railway, the London and Scottish Railway, the London and North Eastern Railway and the Southern Railway. During World War I the railways were under state control, which continued until 1921. Complete nationalisation had been considered, the Railways Act 1921 is sometimes considered as a precursor to that, but the concept was rejected. Nationalisation was subsequently carried out after World War II, under the Transport Act 1947.
This Act made provision for the nationalisation of the network, as part of a policy of nationalising public services by Clement Attlee's Labour Government. British Railways came into existence as the business name of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission on 1 January 1948 when it took over the assets of the Big Four. There were joint railways between the Big Four and a few light railways to consider. Excluded from nationalisation were industrial lines like the Oxfordshire Ironstone Railway; the London Underground – publicly owned since 1933 – was nationalised, becoming the London Transport Executive of the British Transport Commission. The Bicester Military Railway was run by the government; the electric Liverpool Overhead Railway was excluded from nationalisation. The Railway Executive was conscious that some lines on the network were unprofitable and hard to justify and a programme of closures began immediately after nationalisation. However, the general financial position of BR became poorer, until an operating loss was recorded in 1955.
The Executive itself had been abolished in 1953 by the Conservative government, control of BR transferred to the parent Commission. Other changes to the British Transport Commission at the same time included the return of road haulage to the private sector. British Railways was divided into regions which were based on the areas the former Big Four operated in. Notably, these included the former Great Central lines from the Eastern Region to the London Midland Region, the West of England Main Line from the Southern Region to Western Region Southern Region: former Southern Railway lines. Western Region: former Great Western Railway lines. London Midland Region: former London Midland and Scottish Railway lines in England and Wales. Eastern Region: former London and North Eastern Railway lines south of York. North Eastern Region: former London and North Eastern Railway lines in England north of York. Scottish Region: all lines, regardless of original company, in Scotland; the North Eastern Region was merged with the Eastern Region in 1967.
In 1982, the regions were abolished and replaced by "business sectors", a process known as sectorisation. The Anglia Region was created in late 1987, its first General Manager being John Edmonds, who began his appointment on 19 October 1987. Full separation from the Eastern Region – apart from engineering design needs – occurred on 29 April 1988, it handled the services from Fenchurch Street and Liverpool Street, its western boundary being Hertford East and Whittlesea. The report, latterly known as the "Modernisation Plan", was published in January 1955, it was intended to bring the railway system into the 20th century. A government White Paper produced in 1956 stated that modernisation would help eliminate BR's financial deficit by 1962, but the figures in both this and the original plan were produced for political reasons and not based on detailed analysis; the aim was to increase speed, reliability and line capacity through a series of measures that would make services more attractive to passengers and freight operators, thus recovering traffic lost to the roads.
Important areas included: Electrification of principal main lines, in the Eastern Region, Birmingham to Liverpool/Manchester and Central Scotland Large-scale dieselisation to replace steam locomotives New passenger and freight rolling stock R
Clarkston railway station
Clarkston railway station is a suburban side platform railway station in the town of Clarkston, East Renfrewshire, Scotland. The station is managed by Abellio ScotRail and is on the East Kilbride branch of the Glasgow South Western Line, it was opened in 1866 by the Busby Railway. The station was opened by the Busby Railway on 1 January 1866. Services were subsequently extended through to East Kilbride by the Caledonian Railway two years and to High Blantyre, though the section beyond East Kilbride closed back in the 1940s. A further pair of connections to the Lanarkshire and Ayrshire Railway were subsequently constructed around 1903-4 by the latter company, though only the south to west one saw regular traffic and then for just a few months. Proposals put forward by British Rail in the early 1980s would have seen the former south to east curve reinstated to allow East Kilbride trains to be re-routed via Muirend and Mount Florida to Glasgow Central; the scheme would have seen the branch electrified but the Clarkston to Busby Junction portion closed, along with Giffnock and Thornliebank stations.
The plans were not well received and were dropped. The station has a half-hourly service in each direction to East Kilbride. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Penryn, Cornwall: Atlantic Transport Publishers. ISBN 978-0-906899-99-1. OCLC 228266687. RAILSCOT on Busby Railway Historical timetables and satellite imagery for Clarkston railway station. See Timetable World - The online collection of historical transport timetables and maps from around the world
A siding, in rail terminology, is a low-speed track section distinct from a running line or through route such as a main line or branch line or spur. It may connect to other sidings at either end. Sidings have lighter rails, meant for lower speed or less heavy traffic, few, if any, signals. Sidings connected at both ends to a running line are known as loops. Sidings may be used for marshalling, storing and unloading vehicles. Common sidings store stationary rolling stock for loading and unloading. Industrial sidings go to factories, quarries, warehouses, some of them are links to industrial railways; such sidings can sometimes be found at stations for public use. Sidings may hold maintenance of way equipment or other equipment, allowing trains to pass, or store helper engines between runs; some sidings have occasional use, having been built, for example, to service an industry, a railway yard or a stub of a disused railway that has since closed. It is not uncommon for an infrequently-used siding to fall into disrepair.
A particular form of siding is passing loop. This is connected to it at both ends by switches. Passing sidings allow trains travelling in opposite directions to pass, for fast, high priority trains to pass slower or lower priority trains going the same direction, they are important for efficiency on single track lines, add to the capacity of other lines. Single-ended siding with similar purpose to passing loop. A team track is a small siding or spur track intended for the use of area merchants, manufacturers and other small businesses to load and unload products and merchandise in smaller quantities; the term "team" refers to the teams of horses or oxen delivering wagon-loads of freight transferred to or from railway cars. Team tracks may be owned by the railroad company or by customers served by the railroad, or by industrial parks or freight terminals that encompass many customers. In some jurisdictions, the operation and construction of team tracks is regulated by legal authorities. Earliest rail service to an area provided a team track on railroad-owned property adjacent to the railroad agent's train station.
As rail traffic became more established, large-volume shippers extended owned spur tracks into mines and warehouses. Small-volume shippers and shippers with facilities distant from the rail line continued using team tracks into the early part of the 20th century. Throughout the mid to latter portion of the 20th century, improved highway systems and abandonment of low-volume rail lines made full-distance truck shipments more practical in North America and avoided delays and damage associated with freight handling during transfer operations. However, as a result of higher fuel costs, greater traffic jams on Interstate Highways, the growing movement towards sustainable development, there has been recent upward trend towards moving long-distance freight traffic off highways and onto rail lines; this has resulted in local communities and rail lines seeking construction of new team track and intermodal facilities. Some railroads publish detailed specifications for the design and construction of many elements of team tracks.
For example, the Union Pacific Railroad has standards and guidelines for many aspects of spur track construction including track layout, clearance standards and turnout and switch stand designs. Team tracks do not have road or pedestrian crossings across them. Marshalling yard or classification yard Rail yard Jackson, Alan A.. The Railway Dictionary, 4th ed. Sutton Publishing, Stroud. ISBN 0-7509-4218-5. Ellis, Iain. Ellis' British Railway Engineering Encyclopaedia. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-8472-8643-7. Riley, Joseph E. and Strong, James C. "Basic Track", AREMA, 2003 Solomon, Brian, "Railway Signalling", 1st Edition, Voyageur Press
Nerston, South Lanarkshire
Nerston is a village situated on the northern green-belt boundary of the new town of East Kilbride in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. The headquarters of Robert Wiseman Dairies - now renamed Müller Wiseman Dairies - has been based in the village since 1959, housed in a former farmhouse and piggery, the original farm and dairy premises founded in 1947 at Murray Farm having been redeveloped by the East Kilbride Development Corporation. Nerston Residential School was established in 1940 by Glasgow Corporation as the Nerston Residential Child Guidance Clinic, using houses purchased by the Glasgow United Evangelist Association in 1898 for use of the Glasgow Fresh Air Fortnight Committee holiday camps for Glasgow children; the school closed in 2010 as a result of a cost-cutting excerise, the remaining primary children being merged with pupils at Greenwood School and relocated to the former Hampden School premises in Glasgow. The abandoned school buildings were demolished in March 2014 to make way for a collection of nineteen 4- and 5-bedroom houses to be built on the site for Cala Homes.
Building commenced late in the Summer of 2016 with expected completion early in 2017. To the west of the present hamlet of Nerston, upon the lands known as West or Wester Nerston, is Kingsgate Retail Park, first opened in 1995, it grew in popularity. Its location on the A749 road from East Kilbride to Rutherglen and Glasgow attracts customers from these areas as well as within the town, is popular for East Kilbride-based commuters returning by car from work in Glasgow who visit the shops on their way home. A second phase of development was undertaken some years after the initial project with additional retail space being constructed to the south of the existing site; the East Kilbride Golf Club, founded in 1900, was relocated to Nerston in the late 1960s due to the ongoing expansion of the new town, having been located at the East Kilbride Village Show Park and at Blacklaw where the course extended into Calderwood Estate. Nerston is the name given to one of East Kilbride's three major industrial estates although it is some way to the south of the original village.
The area was the location of a large Rolls-Royce plant from the 1950s, employing 4000 workers at its peak, until the 2010s when the company relocated to more modern facilities in Renfrewshire. In 2016 plans were approved to transform the site into a mixed residential and commercial development. A 21st century development between Nerston and the suburb of Stewartfield is the 90-acre sports complex Playsport which features a 9-hole golf course and driving range, Five-a-side football and indoor skatepark and Climbing wall facilities
Blantyre, South Lanarkshire
Blantyre is a town and civil parish in South Lanarkshire, with a population of 17,505. The name is originally Cumbric blaen tir "top of the land", Gaelicised, it is bounded by the River Clyde to the north, the Rotten Calder to the west, the Park Burn to the east and the Rotten Burn to the south. Blantyre was the birthplace of the 19th-century explorer and missionary. Blantyre has a number of small hamlets. High Blantyre is the area to the east and south of Burnbrae Road and continues to High Blantyre cross at the north, it is thought to be the area of earliest settlement, with a Bronze Age village near Auchintibber 2 miles south of Blantyre Parish Church. To the west is Greenhall Park, where the Calder flows to join the Clyde near Newton. Blantyre is loosely divided in half by High Blantyre. At the west-end is Priory Bridge – named after the former priory to the north, home to monks from around 1235. There is Coatshill and the village, the oldest industrially developed part of Blantyre. Glasgow Road continues south via Springwell and joins to Burnbank.
Next to the David Livingstone museum, at the end of Station Road, is an iron suspension footbridge which crosses the River Clyde giving pedestrian access to Bothwell. On 22 October 1877, Blantyre was the site of the Blantyre mining disaster, where 207 miners were killed when a coal mine exploded due to methane gas. A monument to the disaster of which the youngest victim was a boy of 11 is at High Blantyre cross; the site of the mine now lies under the East Kilbride expressway. Hamilton Glasgow 8 miles Bothwell 2 miles Uddingston 3 miles Cambuslang 2.5 miles Rutherglen 5 miles East Kilbride 4 miles Motherwell 5 miles Blantyre presently has a football club competing in Scottish Junior Football Association competitions, Blantyre Victoria. Known as the Vics, they won the Scottish Junior Cup in 1950, 1970 and 1982. There is another football club in Blantyre Celtic; the original club went out of existence in the early 1990s however, in 2010, they reformed as an amateur team. The town of Blantyre has long had links with speedway racing.
In the pioneer days a group of riders who appeared at White City in Glasgow were known as "The Blantyre Crowd". They operated their own track at Airbles Road in Motherwell in 1930 and this was known as Paragon Speedway; the Blantyre Crowd operated a more professional version on the same site in 1932. Speedway was staged at the Greyhound Stadium as the home of the Glasgow Tigers in the late 1970s/early 1980s before the new road forced a move to Craighead Park which closed down at the end of the 1986 season. Blantyre Skate Park has received a lot of business as the youth company Radworx has been operating within it as well as some other skate parks; the skate park contains a 4 ft spine section as well as an 8 ft halfpipe, alongside a 6 ft counterpart. There is a 2 ft mini-bowl and a credible street section which contains two fun boxes as well as a 5-set. During World War II, an Anti-aircraft battery and associated camp for military personnel known as the'Whins' or'Blantyreferme' was set up on open land off the Blantyre Farm Road between Newton and Blantyre.
However, some of the AA battery buildings survived into the 21st century and were incorporated – along with a former clay quarry nearby – into the landscape of Redlees Urban Park developed by the local council. Primary schools St. Blane's St. Joseph's High Blantyre Primary David Livingstone Primary Auchinraith Primary High school Calderside Academy Blantyre contains many amenities, including: Blantyre Leisure Centre – sports centre with swimming pool Blantyre Asda Stonefield Park – with a purpose-built skate-park Victoria Nursing Home David Livingstone Centre – museum built in the birthplace and former home of David Livingstone Six churches Blantyre Congregational Church St. Joseph's David Livingstone Memorial Church St. Andrew's Saint John Ogilvie Blantyre Old Parish Church David Dale House – South Lanarkshire Council facility named after another famous Lanarkshire dweller, famous for his connection with New Lanark Blantyre Credit Union Terminal One – Fully equipped Youth Centre with state of the Art Multimedia equipment, Recording Studio and Rehearsal Room, Community Internet Cafe, Mobile youth facilities including 3 x DIGIBUS's and mobile climbing wall and lots more.
In August 1983, a democratic non party political pressure group was formed in Blantyre called Blantyre Youth Council, which aimed to represent young people's views in the town and engage young people in campaigning for better facilities. The youth council contributed over the next few years to developing youth involvement in the local volunteer centre and community council. BYC set up a youth enquiry service for young people and a Claimants Union which advised young people and adults; the youth council conducted a series of public meetings for youth throughout the town and conducted a survey amongst the town's youth which demonstrated a need for more and cheaper facilities for young people. The full-time Youth Enquiry Service Base was in the Elizabeth Scott Centre. In 1984, as part of their "Working with young People" policy, Strathclyde Regional Council created Blantyre Youth Development Team ag
Park and ride
Park and ride facilities are parking lots with public transport connections that allow commuters and other people heading to city centres to leave their vehicles and transfer to a bus, rail system, or carpool for the remainder of the journey. The vehicle is retrieved when the owner returns. Park and rides are located in the suburbs of metropolitan areas or on the outer edges of large cities. A park and ride that only offers parking for meeting a carpool and not connections to public transport may be called a park and pool. Park and ride is abbreviated as "P+R" on road signs in the UK, is styled as "Park & Ride" in marketing. In Sweden, a tax has been introduced on the benefit of free or cheap parking paid by an employer, if workers would otherwise have to pay; the tax has reduced the number of workers driving into the inner city, increased the usage of park and ride areas in Stockholm. The introduction of a congestion tax in Stockholm has further increased the usage of ride. In Prague and ride parking lots are established near some metro and railway stations.
These parking lots offer low prices and all-day and return tickets including the public transport fare. Park and ride facilities allow commuters to avoid a stressful drive along congested roads and a search for scarce, expensive city-centre parking, they may well reduce congestion by assisting the use of public transport in congested urban areas. There is not much research on the cons of park and ride schemes, it has been suggested that there is "a lack of clear-cut evidence for park and ride's assumed impact in reducing congestion". Park and ride facilities help commuters who live beyond practical walking distance from the railway station or bus stop, they may suit commuters with alternative fuel vehicles, which have reduced range, when the facility is closer to home than the ultimate destination. They are useful as a fixed meeting place for those carsharing or carpooling or using "kiss and ride"; some transit operators use park and ride facilities to encourage more efficient driving practices by reserving parking spaces for low emission designs, high-occupancy vehicles, or carsharing.
Many park and rides toilets. Travel information, such as leaflets and posters, may be provided. At larger facilities, extra services such as a travel office, food shop, car wash, or cafeteria may be provided; these are encouraged by municipal operators to encourage use of park and ride. Park and ride facilities, with dedicated parking lots and bus services, began in the 1960s in the UK. Oxford operated the first such scheme with an experimental service operating part-time from a motel on the A34 in the 1960s and on a full-time basis from 1973. Better Choice Parking first offered an airport park and ride service at London Gatwick Airport in 1978. Oxford now operates ride from 5 dedicated parking lots around the city; as of 2015, Oxford has the biggest urban park & ride network in the UK with a combined capacity of 5,031 car parking spaces. One of the largest park and rides in Saudi Arabia is located at Kudai in Mecca, it helps people go the Masjid al-Haram. There is a Shuttle Service operated by SAPTCO that takes people during Ramadan from the Kudai Parking to the Masjid al-Haram.
Some railway stations are promoted as a park and ride facility for a town some distance away, for instance Liskeard for Looe and Lelant Saltings for St Ives, both in Cornwall, England. Names of stations in the UK with large parking lots outside the main urban area are suffixed with "Parkway", such as Bristol Parkway, Tiverton Parkway, Oxford Parkway. At Luton Airport Parkway and Southampton Airport Parkway, the stations are there to serve air as well as road passengers. In the United States, it is common for outlying rail stations to include automobile parking with hundreds of spaces. Boston, for example, has built several large parking facilities at its commuter rail and metro stations near major highways and large arterial surface roads around the periphery of the city: Alewife, Forest Hills, Hyde Park, Quincy Adams, Route 128, Woburn; the local transit operator, the MBTA, offers ride spaces. B & R is a name for using cycle boxes or racks near public transport terminals together with P & R parking lots.
This system can be promoted through integrated fare and tickets with public transport system. Many railway stations and airports feature a "kiss-and-ride" or "kiss-and-fly" area in which cars can stop to discharge or, less pick up passengers; the term first appeared in a 20 January 1956 report in the Los Angeles Times. It refers to the nominal scenario whereby a passenger is driven to the station by partner. Deutsche Bahn has announced that it will be changing the English expressions for Kiss and Ride, Service Points and Counters to German ones. In Italy the new Bologna Centrale railway station uses the "ride" signs; some high-speed railway stations in Taiwan have signs outside stations reading "Kiss and Ride" in English, with Chinese characters above the words that read "temporary pick-up and drop-off zone". Kiss and Ride are getting popular in Poland. Cities with such areas include Kraków, Warsaw or Toruń. Locally they are known by its English name, i.e. "Kiss and ride" and while the sign is non-standardized, all of them contain the letters K+R.
Park and ride schemes do not necessarily
A passing loop or passing siding is a place on a single line railway or tramway located at a station, where trains or trams travelling in opposite directions can pass each other. Trains/trams going in the same direction can overtake, provided that the signalling arrangement allows it. A passing loop is double-ended and connected to the main track at both ends, though a dead end siding known as a refuge siding, much less convenient, can be used. A similar arrangement is used on the gauntlet track of cable railways and funiculars, in passing places on single-track roads. Ideally, the loop should be longer than all trains needing to cross at that point. If one train is too long for the loop it must wait for the opposing train to enter the loop before proceeding, taking a few minutes. Ideally, the shorter train should leave second. If both trains are too long for the loop, time-consuming "see-sawing" operations are required for the trains to cross. On railway systems that use platforms high-level platforms, for passengers to board and disembark from trains, the platforms may be provided on both the main and loop tracks or on only one of them.
The main line has straight track. If the station has only one platform it is located on the main line. If passenger trains are few in number, the likelihood of two passenger trains crossing each other low, the platform on the loop line may be omitted; the through road has straight track. A possible advantage of this layout is that trains scheduled to pass straight through the station can do so uninterrupted; this layout is used at local stations where many passenger trains do not stop. Since there is only one passenger platform, it is not convenient to cross two passenger trains if both stop. An example is Scone railway station, but the northern end was rearranged to resemble a main and loop configuration. A disadvantage of the platform and through arrangement is the speed limits through the turnouts at each end. In the example layout shown, trains take the left-hand track in their direction of running. Low-speed turnouts restrict the speed in one direction. Two platform faces are needed, they can be provided either at a single island platform or two side platforms.
Overtaking is not possible at this kind of up-and-down loop as some of the necessary signals are absent. Crossing loops using up-and-down working are common in British practice. For one thing, fewer signals are required if the tracks in the station are signaled for one direction only. In France, they use spring switches and the speed is restricted in both directions; the speed restriction in one direction can be eliminated with higher-speed turnouts, but this may require power operation, as the longer and heavier high-speed turnouts may be beyond the capability of manual lever operation. It is possible to cross trains at stations equipped with only a siding. At Bombo, the crossing loop had no platform, as freight trains became longer it became inadequate to hold them. Molong used to have a short loop, but it was replaced by a long stretch of a former branch line, a dead-end siding. Berry has had its short loop removed and an shorter dead-end siding substituted. Long freight trains do not need to cross each other here, freight trains can cross passenger trains waiting in that short siding provided that the freight train arrives second and leaves first.
If a crossing loop is several times the length of the trains using it, is suitably signalled trains proceeding in opposite directions can pass each other without having to stop or slow down. This reduces the time lost by the first train to arrive at the crossing loop for the opposing train to go by; this system is referred to as a dynamic loop. In the AusLink project for the Junee to Melbourne line every other section of single line will be duplicated to provide so-called passing lanes. About 220 km of the 450 km line will be duplicated. In Sweden, the passing loops are 750 m long, made for cargo trains. Passenger trains are much shorter, at least on most single track lines, less than 200 m; the signalling system now allows two passenger trains to cross without stopping, but one has to slow down to 40 km/h, because of the limited length of the loop and the sharp curves in the switch points. For Norway an investigation has been made about future high-speed railways, using 250 km/h as cruise speed.
The most promising link would be a new Oslo-Trondheim railway, suggested to be a single track along a 370 km-long route. It is suggested to have about 15 km-long passing loops, more like 15 km double track, located about 80 km apart; this would enable passing at 160 km/h, but there could be only one train per hour per direction on the rail line. See High-speed rail in Norway; some railways fit catchpoints at the ends of crossing loops so that if a train overruns the loop, it is derailed rather than collide with an opposing train. Since the available space for crossing loops is limited, they do not have an overlap between the starting signals and the end of the double line. In Australia, the Australian Rail Track Corporation policy provides for overlaps of about 500 m and 200 m in an effort to avoid derailment or colli