War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars. From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain impressed American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. Incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, which happened five years before the war, inflamed anti-British sentiment in the US. In 1811, the British were in turn outraged by the Little Belt affair, in which 11 British sailors died. Britain supplied Native Americans who raided American settlers on the frontier, hindering American expansion and provoking resentment. Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America contributed to the American decision to go to war. On June 18, 1812, US President James Madison, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress, signed the American declaration of war into law.
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations limited to the border, the western frontier. American prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity in New England, where it was derogatorily referred to as "Mr. Madison's War". American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal failed. In 1813, the Americans won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, at the Battle of the Thames defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy, securing a primary war goal. A final American attempt to invade Canada was fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the Americans repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions of the northern and mid-Atlantic United States from Canada.
Fighting took place overseas in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In neighbouring Spanish Florida, a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation. With the abdication of Napoleon, the war with France ended and Britain ceased impressment, rendering the issue of the impressment of American sailors moot; the British were able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, annihilating American maritime trade, but attempts to invade the U. S. ended unsuccessfully. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24. News of the peace did not reach America for some time. Unaware of the treaty, British forces invaded Louisiana and were defeated at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815; these late victories were viewed by Americans as having restored national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity.
News of the treaty arrived shortly thereafter. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes. Historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812; this section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States. As Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair. H. W. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; the approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was about vindication of American identity." Americans at the time and historians since have called it the United States' "Second War of Independence". The British were offended by what they considered insults such as the Little Belt affair.
This gave the British a particular interest in capturing the United States flagship President, which they succeeded in doing in 1815. In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via the Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, which Britain was fighting in the Napoleonic Wars; the United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law. Historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy."The American merchant marine had nearly doubled between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton and 50% of other U. S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of commercial competition; the United States' view was. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.
While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, it competed in wartime with merchant shi
Daniel Webster was an American statesman who represented New Hampshire and Massachusetts in the United States Congress and served as the United States Secretary of State under Presidents William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore. He was a prominent attorney during the period of the Marshall Court. Throughout his career, he was a member of the Federalist Party, the National Republican Party, the Whig Party. Born in New Hampshire in 1782, Webster established a successful legal practice in Portsmouth, New Hampshire after undergoing a legal apprenticeship, he emerged as a prominent opponent of the War of 1812 and won election to the United States House of Representatives, where he served as a leader of the Federalist Party. Webster relocated to Boston, Massachusetts, he became a leading attorney before the Supreme Court of the United States, winning cases such as Dartmouth College v. Woodward, McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden. Webster became a key supporter of President John Quincy Adams.
He won election to the United States Senate in 1827 and worked with Henry Clay to build the National Republican Party in support of Adams. After Andrew Jackson defeated Adams in the 1828 presidential election, Webster became a leading opponent of Jackson's domestic policies, he objected to the theory of Nullification espoused by John C. Calhoun, his Second Reply to Hayne speech is regarded as one of the greatest speeches delivered in Congress. Webster supported Jackson's defiant response to the Nullification Crisis, but broke with the president due to disagreements over the Second Bank of the United States. Webster joined with other Jackson opponents in forming the Whig Party, unsuccessfully ran in the 1836 presidential election, he supported Harrison in the 1840 presidential election and was appointed secretary of state after Harrison took office. Unlike the other members of Harrison's Cabinet, he continued to serve under President Tyler after Tyler broke with congressional Whigs; as secretary of state, Webster negotiated the Webster–Ashburton Treaty, which settled border disputes with Britain.
Webster resumed his status as a leading congressional Whig. During the Mexican–American War, he emerged as a leader of the "Cotton Whigs," a faction of Northern Whigs that emphasized good relations with the South over anti-slavery policies. In 1850, President Fillmore appointed Webster as secretary of state, Webster contributed to the passage of the Compromise of 1850, which settled several territorial issues and enacted a new fugitive slave law; the Compromise proved unpopular in much of the North and undermined Webster's standing in his home state. Webster sought the Whig nomination in the 1852 presidential election, but a split between supporters of Fillmore and Webster led to the nomination of General Winfield Scott. Webster is regarded as an important and talented attorney and politician, but historians and observers have offered mixed opinions on his moral qualities and ability as a national leader. Daniel Webster was born on January 18, 1782, in Salisbury, New Hampshire, at a location within the present-day city of Franklin.
He was the son of Abigail and Ebenezer Webster, a farmer and local official who served in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. Ebenezer's ancestor, the Scottish-born Thomas Webster, had migrated to the United States around 1636. Ebenezer had three children from a previous marriage who survived to maturity, as well as five children from his marriage to Abigail. Webster was close to his older brother, born in 1780; as a youth, Webster helped work the family farm, but was in poor health. With the encouragement of his parents and tutors, Webster read works by authors such as Alexander Pope and Isaac Watts. In 1796, Webster attended a preparatory school in Exeter, New Hampshire. After studying the classics and other subjects for several months under a clergyman, Webster was admitted to Dartmouth College in 1797. During his time at Dartmouth, Webster managed the school newspaper and emerged as a strong public speaker, he was chosen Fourth of July orator in Hanover, the college town, in 1800, in his speech appears the substance of the political principles for the development of which he became famous.
Like his father, like many other New England farmers, Webster was devoted to the Federalist Party and favored a strong central government. Webster was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa honor society. After he graduated from Dartmouth, Webster apprenticed under Salisbury lawyer Thomas W. Thompson. Though unenthusiastic about studying the law, Webster believed that becoming a lawyer would allow him to "live comfortably" and avoid the bouts of poverty that had afflicted his father. In order to help support his brother Ezekiel's study at Dartmouth, Webster temporarily resigned from the law office to work as a schoolteacher at Fryeburg Academy in Maine. In 1804, he obtained a position in Boston under the prominent attorney Christopher Gore. Clerking for Gore –, involved in international and state politics – Webster learned about many legal and political subjects and met numerous New England politicians, he grew to love Boston. After winning admission to the bar, Webster set up a legal practice in Boscawen, New Hampshire.
He became involved in politics and began to speak locally in support of Federalist causes and candidates. After his father's death in 1806, Webster handed over his pr
North Fork (Long Island)
The North Fork is a 30-mile-long peninsula in the northeast part of Suffolk County, New York, U. S. parallel with an longer peninsula known as the South Fork, both on the East End of Long Island. Although the peninsula begins east of Riverhead hamlet, the term North Fork can refer collectively to all the hamlets and villages within the townships of Town of Riverhead and Town of Southold. Beginning about 75 miles east of Manhattan, the North Fork is the easterly part of the North Shore of Long Island. Along with The Hamptons, the area is part of Long Island's "East End". At Riverhead proper, Long Island splits into two tines, hence the designations of The South Fork and The North Fork; the dividing line between the two forks in the west is the Peconic River. The North Fork is composed of all of the Town of Southold in the east and part of the Town of Riverhead in the west; the body of water north of this region is Long Island Sound. The southern water boundary comprises several connected bodies of water, including the Great Peconic Bay, Little Peconic Bay, Gardiners Bay.
Lying between the North Fork and the South Fork are several islands, including Robins Island and the two large islands of Shelter Island and Gardiners Island. Shelter Island lies between the North and South Forks, ferries provide shuttle service between Greenport Village and Shelter Island Heights, as well as between Shelter Island and North Haven along The South Fork; the easternmost tip of the North Fork is Orient Point. Beyond that point are three additional significant parts of the Town of Southold, Plum Island, Great Gull Island, Fisher's Island; these islands and the North Fork itself originated as the Harbor Hill Moraine. The North Fork offers panoramic views of Long Island Peconic/Gardiners Bay. Wineries, apple orchards, potato farms and sod farms characterize the North Fork. At the tip of the fork are Orient Point County Park and Orient Beach State Park as well as an busy ferry terminal connecting Long Island and eastern Connecticut. West to East, Jamesport, Mattituck, New Suffolk, Southold, East Marion and Orient Point are among the hamlets of the North Fork.
The North Fork offers fishing and clamming on the bay and Sound and adjacent creeks and beaches. Local seafood is sold and served. Like the South Fork, home to the famed Hamptons region, the North Fork is a region popular with second home owners and summer vacationers, but it has a much more rural feel and character than the Hamptons; the North Fork is accessible via roadways from the west, most notably New York State Route 25. The Long Island Rail Road provides limited weekday, limited weekend service as far as Greenport on the Ronkonkoma Branch; the Hampton Jitney provides seven days per week, year-round express bus service between Long Island's East End and New York City. Ferries connect the North Fork to New London, Connecticut. Ferries connect the North Fork to the South Fork by means of Shelter Island roads. From the North Fork, visitors can access via ferry Shelter Island. Ferry service is available on the bay side of the fork as well; the North Fork is home to more than 30 vineyards, many of which run tasting rooms for the public to sample and buy their wines.
The first of the area's vineyards, was founded in 1974, today continues as Castello De Borghese. The vineyards and wineries are an important part of the area's economy; the vineyards and wineries stretch from Baiting Hollow in the west to Southold in the East, with new vineyards planted in Greenport and Orient. Many multi-generational family farms are still in operation throughout the region as well, their farmstands are a popular attraction. During the Fall Harvest Season many of the farms host pumpkin picking and other attractions revolving around the harvest theme, have given rise to the term, "agritainment". On fall weekends traffic backs up on both primary roads with many people making the drive from suburban areas of Long Island and NYC to participate in the Harvest Season activities; the North Fork lies east of the terminus of the Long Island Expressway, is served by three primary east to west roads, Route 25 called Main Road, Sound Avenue, County Road 48 called Middle Road. At the easternmost point, Cross Sound Ferry runs daily car and passenger ferries to and from New London, Connecticut.
The Long Island Railroad provides daily service to the region. Wading River — shared with the Town of Brookhaven Calverton — shared with the Town of Brookhaven Baiting Hollow Reeves Park Masluk Center Roanoke Centeville Riverhead Northville Aquebogue Jamesport South Jamesport Laurel — shared with the Town of Southold Laurel — shared with the Town of Riverhead, though the majority of the hamlet of Laurel is in Southold Town Mattituck Oregon Cutchogue New Suffolk Robins Island Peconic Nassau Point Southold Bayview Cedar Beach Biexedon Reydon Shores Greenport Stirling East Marion Orient Orient Point North Fork of Long Island AVA North Fork Chamber of Commerce
New York State Route 25
New York State Route 25 is an east–west state highway in downstate New York in the United States. The route extends for just over 105 miles from east midtown Manhattan in New York City to the Cross Sound Ferry terminal at Orient Point on the end of Long Island's North Fork. NY 25 is carried from Manhattan to Queens by way of the double-decked Queensboro Bridge over the East River. NY 25 is unique among New York State Routes on Long Island, as it is the only one to leave the geographical boundaries of Long Island, albeit minimally. NY 25 runs along several differently-named roads. In the borough of Queens, it is called Queens Boulevard, Hillside Avenue and Braddock Avenue. Braddock Avenue ends upon crossing over the Cross Island Parkway. At that point, NY 25 turns east onto Jericho Turnpike, which runs along the Queens-Nassau border from Braddock Avenue to 257th street. Continuing east through Nassau and western Suffolk counties, NY 25 retains the name Jericho Turnpike. Further east, the highway becomes Main Street in Smithtown, Middle Country Road in central Suffolk, Main Street again in Riverhead, Main Road in eastern Suffolk.
Two alternate routings exist bearing the designation NY 25 Truck, both along the North Fork of Long Island. They began as two separate routes, one between Laurel and Mattituck and the other in the vicinity of Greenport. NY 25 begins near Second Avenue in Manhattan, at the western end of the double-decked Queensboro Bridge spanning the East River and Roosevelt Island. East of the bridge NY 25 becomes Queens Boulevard at the intersection with NY 25A, in the Long Island City section of the borough of Queens. Queens Plaza is based around this section of the road. In Long Island City, NY 25 runs southeast beneath the elevated tracks of the IRT Flushing Line. At Thompson Avenue, the route turns to run eastward as the multi-lane divided Queens Boulevard, straddling the Flushing Line's elevated structure eastward to 48th Street, at which point the Flushing Line turns northeast onto Roosevelt Avenue and Queens Boulevard becomes 6 lanes in each direction, with main and service roads. In Woodside, NY 25 meets I-278 at exit 39.
In Elmhurst, the road runs over the eponymous subway line starting at the intersection with Grand Boulevard and Broadway. In Corona, the road intersects the Long Island Expressway and the northern terminus of Woodhaven Boulevard. Outside of Rego Park, NY 25 turns southeast towards Forest Hills and Jamaica. In Kew Gardens the route is connected to the westbound and eastbound roadways of Union Turnpike and passes over the Jackie Robinson Parkway without access. Near Jamaica, the road meets I-678 at a partial interchange. Three blocks southeast of I-678, NY 25 turns east and is known as Hillside Avenue, a city street that begins at Jamaica Avenue in Richmond Hill near the site of the former LIRR station; this section of NY 25 has several lanes in the Jamaica-Hollis area. In Queens Village the route connects with both I-295 and NY 24 at an interchange that serves as NY 24's western end and I-295's southern terminus. East of I-295, NY 25 intersects the western terminus of NY 25B. In Bellerose, the roadway turns east onto Jericho Turnpike.
This section, to just before 257th Street, is the border between the Bellerose and Floral Park neighborhoods of Queens to the north and the villages of Bellerose and Floral Park in Nassau County to the south. The westbound lanes are in New York City. NY 25B and Hillside Avenue merge into NY 25 in Mineola. NY 25 parallels the Northern State Parkway. NY 25 again intersects with the Long Island Expressway in Jericho. NY 106 and NY 107 interchange with NY 25 in downtown Jericho, however the exit is not numbered; the northern end of the Seaford–Oyster Bay Expressway terminates at NY 25 in Syosset. NY 110 intersects at the 32.76 miles mark, in South Huntington. NY 454 begins at an intersection with NY 25 in Commack. Just after the NY 454 intersection, NY 25 meets the Sunken Meadow State Parkway by way of an interchange. NY 25A, a spur of NY 25, becomes concurrent with NY 25 in Smithtown. In Village of the Branch, NY 25A leaves to the north. New York State Bicycle Route 25 begins along NY 25A at this intersection.
NY 347 intersects at 47.93 miles in Nesconset. In Coram, NY 25 intersects with NY 112. NY 25A ends at NY 25 in Calverton, NYS Bike Route 25 joins NY 25 on its way to Orient Point, with occasional diversions in Riverhead and Greenport. Four miles NY 25 encounters the Long Island Expressway one final time at another interchange. 20 miles further eastward, in Greenport, NY 25 intersects with NY 114 at its northern terminus. NY 25 continues on the northeastern end of Long Island for the final ten miles. NY 25 ends at the Orient Point Ferry Landing. An attraction along NY 25 in Orient is Orient Beach State Park. NY 25 was assigned in the mid-1920s along all of what is now NY 25A east of the New York City line and its current alignment from the modern east end of NY 25A to Greenport. At the time, the section of modern NY 25 between the New York City line and Smithtown was state-maintained but unnumbered, it was designated as NY 25A c. 1927. In the late 1920s, NY 25 was realigned to follow Jericho Turnpike and Middle Country Road between Smithtown and Riverhead while its former align
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
Southold, New York
The Town of Southold is one of ten towns in Suffolk County, New York, United States. It is located on the North Fork of Long Island; the population was 21,968 at the 2010 census. The town contains a hamlet named Southold, settled in 1640. Algonquian-speaking tribes, related to those in New England across Long Island Sound, lived in eastern Long Island before European colonization; the western portion of the island was occupied by bands of Lenape, whose language was one of the Algonquian languages. In surrounding areas, the Dutch colonists had established early settlements to the northwest: on the upper Hudson River was Fort Orange, founded in 1615. Lion Gardiner established a manor on Gardiners Island in East Hampton in 1639. Just across from Long Island, the Connecticut Colony, or Connecticut River Colony, was established in 1636; the Puritans established New Haven Colony separately in 1638 though it was surrounded by Connecticut Colony. New Haven Colony was a theocracy, governed only by church members.
English Puritans from New Haven Colony settled in Southold on October 21, 1640. They had purchased the land in the summer of 1640 from the group of Indians related to the Pequot of New England, who lived in the territory they called Corchaug. Settlers spelled the Indian name of. In most histories Southold is reported as the first English settlement on Long Island in the future New York State. Under the leadership of the Reverend John Youngs, with Peter Hallock, the settlement consisted of the families of Barnabas Horton, John Budd, John Conklin, John Swazy, William Wells, John Tuthill. In 1650, the Treaty of Hartford established a boundary between Dutch and English claims through Oyster Bay on the North Shore; the Dutch colony was the western part of Long Island, the English dominated the east. The population of Southold at that point was about 180; the harbor at Greenport, on the North Fork, became important in trade and whaling, because it froze over. Settlers developed the interior land for agricultural purposes.
Both New Haven Colony and Connecticut Colony had sought to establish Southold as a theocracy. The New Haven Colony did not permit other churches to operate at all, while the Connecticut Colony allowed freedom of religion. New Haven supervised Southold until 1662, when New Haven towns began shifting their allegiance to the surrounding Connecticut Colony. By 1664, New Haven colonists all had decided to join Connecticut, the New Haven colony ceased to exist. Southold was supervised by the Connecticut Colony until 1674; when the Dutch took control of the colony of New York in 1673, the English-settled eastern towns, including Southold, East Hampton, Southampton, refused to submit. When New York was retaken by the English in 1674, these eastern towns preferred to stay part of Connecticut. Although Connecticut agreed, the government of James, Duke of York forced the matter for them to be part of the Province of New York. Governor Sir Edmund Andros threatened to eliminate the residents' rights to land if they did not yield, which they did by 1676.
The Duke of York had a grudge against Connecticut. New Haven had hidden three of the judges who sentenced his father King Charles I to death in 1649; the town called as its second minister Rev. Joshua Hobart, a Harvard graduate from Hingham and son of Rev. Peter Hobart; the latter was the founding minister of Old Ship Church, the nation's oldest church in continuous use. Rev. Joshua Hobart was installed in 1674 and served until his death in 1717, when he was 88 years old. Rev. Hobart's brother Josiah was one of the earliest settlers and initial trustees of East Hampton, Long Island, as well as High Sheriff of Suffolk County; the name Southold is believed to be an elision of Southwold, a coastal town in the corresponding English county of Suffolk. John Youngs, the minister, one of the founders of the Town, was born and brought up in Southwold, England. Youngs was a member of St. Margaret's Church in nearby Reydon. Within the Town's limits is an area known as Reydon Shores a reference to the Reydon, England known by Youngs.
The Town's name may refer to a "holding" to the south ), from whence the original settlers hailed. In the meantime, the population of Southold grew from 180 in 1650 to 880 by 1698. In the late 19th century, the Long Island Rail Road extended its line on the North Shore to Greenport; this enabled summer vacationers to travel to the destination by train. Due to the light on the North Fork from water on both sides, the area attracted many artists, including William Merritt Chase; the area was agricultural, long dominated by for potato farming. In the late 20th century, large areas of the North Fork were redeveloped as vineyards; this area of Long Island has developed a respectable wine industry. In November 1994, the village of Greenport voted to abolish its police department and contract with the Southold Town Police for law enforcement; the town is at the northeastern end of Long Island, New York on a peninsula called the North Fork and its extensions Plum Island, Fishers Island. The Long Island Sound separates the town from Connecticut.
The eastern end of the peninsula, near Orient Point, is north of the Town of Shelter Island, but the town is separated from the South Fork of Long Island by the Great Peconic Bay and the Little Peconic Bay. The western end of the town is the border of the Town of Riverhead, it is twenty-one miles from Orient Point to the border with Riverhead. Robins
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai