Local Government Association
The Local Government Association is an organisation which comprises local authorities in England and Wales. The LGA seeks to promote better local government, it represents the interests of local government to national government. 435 authorities are members of the LGA as of 2016, including 349 English councils and the 22 Welsh councils via the Welsh LGA, as well number of smaller authorities including fire authorities and national parks. The Chief Executive is Mark Lloyd; the LGA was formed on 1 April 1997, in the middle of the 1990s UK local government reform which created unitary authorities. The association is the direct successor to several peer-type associations, most the Association of County Councils, the Association of District Councils and the Association of Metropolitan Authorities. There continue to be Special Interest Groups within the LGA representing groups of authorities; these are per-type— the County Councils Network, the District Councils' Network, the Special Interest Group of Municipal Authorities, UNISIG, representing Unitary Authorities, but include groups for coastal authorities, authorities with high ethnicity, authorities with sparse populations, among others.
Sir Jeremy Beecham Sandy Bruce-Lockhart, Baron Bruce-Lockhart Sir Simon Milton Dame Margaret Eaton Sir Merrick Cockell David Sparks Gary Porter, Baron Porter of Spalding Sir Chris Clarke, Liberal Democrat group leader 2001–2005 Richard Kemp CBE, Liberal Democrat group leader 2005–2011 Marianne Overton, Independent Group Leader 2011–present The LGA was part of a wider Local Government Group that comprised: Local Government Improvement and Development Local Government Employers Local Government Regulation Local Government Leadership Local Partnerships These bodies worked with local government organisations with the objective of strengthening local government's capabilities and providing support for specific issues that are of widespread importance to local government, for example national pay bargaining. The members of the Local Government Group were rebranded in July 2010 as part of the Local Government Group's'Getting Closer' initiative. However, in 2011 the decision was taken by the association's new leadership to revert to the original LGA style and brand and by April 2012 the sister organisations had all been folded into the LGA as part of a wider efficiency and restructuring exercise.
The LGA has its Head Office at Local Government House in Smith Square, London. Its members are various types of English and Welsh local authorities, including county councils, metropolitan borough councils, London borough councils, non-metropolitan district councils and unitary authorities; the LGA does not cover parish and community councils, which are represented by the National Association of Local Councils and by One Voice Wales. In 2008 the Association published the National Improvement and Efficiency Strategy with the Department for Communities and Local Government, which saw the creation of a stronger regional presence in the form of nine Regional Improvement and Efficiency Partnerships which were given £185m of devolved funding from DCLG to drive improvement in local government. In addition there are regional bodies such as London Councils, Welsh Local Government Association, Local authority leaders' boards in England outside of London, which bring together local authorities at the regional level.
The regional groupings are: East of England Local Government Association East Midlands Councils London Councils Association of North East Councils North West Regional Leaders Board South East England Councils South West Councils Welsh Local Government Association West Midlands Councils Local Government Yorkshire and Humber The Welsh members are part of the affiliated Welsh Local Government Association, a constituent part of the LGA, but retains full autonomy in dealing with Welsh affairs. By contrast in Scotland the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities and in Northern Ireland the Northern Ireland Local Government Association are wholly distinct bodies with similar roles to those of the LGA in England and Wales. Combined authorities are a new form of voluntary association of councils which allow for a single transport authority, as well as power to exercise any function of its constituent councils that relates to economic development and regeneration, they can receive certain delegated functions from central government in order to deliver transport and economic policy more over a wider area.
In some cases these have replaced regional bodies. Current combined authorities are: Greater Manchester Combined Authority Liverpool City Region Combined Authority North East Combined Authority Sheffield City Regio
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
London Councils is the local government association for Greater London, England. It is a cross-party organisation that represents London's 32 borough councils and the City of London, it was formed in 1995 as a merger of the London Boroughs Association and the Association of London Authorities. In April 2000 it gained further functions. London Councils is a think tank and lobbying organisation, provides some services directly through legislation that allows multiple local authorities to pool responsibility and funding. London Councils is based at 59½ Southwark Street; the Association of London Government came out of a merger between the London Boroughs Association and the Association of London Authorities in 1995. The ALA consisted of many Labour, councils which had left the LBA in the 1980s. To coincide with the creation of the Greater London Authority, the ALG merged with the London Boroughs Grants Committee, the Greater London Employers Association, the London Housing Unit and the Transport Committee for London on 1 April 2000.
In October 2006 it changed its name from the Association of London Government to London Councils to avoid confusion with the Greater London Authority and the Local Government Association. The membership of London Councils comprises the 32 London borough councils, the City of London Corporation, the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority and the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime; the GLA was a member of the ALG for a period, before Mayor Ken Livingstone fell out with leading councillors and withdrew. The two organisations co-ordinate their work; the members of the Executive Committee of London Councils is as follows: Cllr Clyde Loakes, Waltham Forest Cllr Ravi Govindia, Wandsworth London Councils fights for more resources for London and is committed to getting the best possible deal for London's 33 councils. It develops policy, lobbies government and others, runs a range of direct services designed to make life better for Londoners. London Councils represents London local government to national government, European institutions and other bodies, lobbying for investment and funding.
The direct services it provides on behalf of the boroughs, include the Freedom Pass providing more than a 1.2 million older and blind people free travel on London's buses and trains, the Parking and Traffic Appeals service, the Taxicard and Lorry Control schemes, London Care Placements and NOTIFY – the service that helps homeless families access services. The grants committee provides funding for many local groups who work across London boroughs on issues such as employment, domestic violence and advocacy and distributes European Social Fund grants; the current Chair of London Councils is Cllr Peter John OBE, Labour leader of Southwark London Borough Council, who replaced Claire Kober on 7th June 2018. Previous chairs were: Cllr Peter John OBE, Southwark, 2018-Present Cllr Claire Kober, Labour, 2016-2018 Mayor Jules Pipe, Labour, 2010–2016 Cllr Merrick Cockell and Chelsea, Conservative, 2006–2010 Mayor Sir Robin Wales, Labour, 2000–2006 Cllr Toby Harris, Labour, 1995–2000 London Councils is run by a committee made up of all the leaders of London's borough councils and meet each month to discuss and agree policy issues of importance to Londoners and their councils.
The committee is supported by a cross-party executive of eleven senior members which acts as a forum for detailed policy development. Each member of the executive holds a specific policy area portfolio. Politically, the Executive comprises councillors in proportion to the party representation on London councils. London Boroughs Grants Committee Transport and Environment Committee took over Freedom Pass from Transport Committee for London. London Housing Unit Committee was a "sectoral joint committee" and not all London borough councils were members. In 2008, a new directorate of London Councils was formed: Capital Ambition; this was formed from the merger of the previous London Centre of Excellence, London Connects and London's regional improvement and efficiency partnership, Capital Ambition. Over the three-year period, Capital Ambition provided funding for projects run by London's authorities and local strategic partnerships that were designed to deliver efficiencies, improve performance and support innovative ways of working.
Capital Ambition is now closed to new applications for funding although funding for some existing projects will continue until 2015. List of electoral wards in Greater London Local Government Association London Councils Capital Ambition Freedom Pass PATAS Taxicard London Care Placements NOTIFY
Regional assembly (England)
The regional chambers of England were a group of indirectly elected regional bodies that were created by the provisions of the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. There were eight regional chambers, one for each of the regions of England except Greater London, which had opted for an elected mayor and assembly in 1998. All eight regional chambers had adopted the title "regional assembly" or "assembly" as part of their name, though this was not an official status in law; the chambers were abolished over a two-year period between 31 March 2008 and 31 March 2010 and some of their functions were assumed by newly established Local authority leaders' boards. Greater London has a directly elected London Assembly, established by separate legislation and is part of the Greater London Authority, their original defined role was to channel regional opinions to the business-led regional development agencies. Their role included scrutinising their regional development agency; each acted as a Regional Planning Body with a duty to formulate a Regional Spatial Strategy including Regional Transport Strategy, replacing the planning function of county councils.
The eight regional chambers as defined by the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998 were not directly elected. About two-thirds of assembly members were appointees from the county and district councils and unitary authorities in each region, the remaining one-third were appointees from other regional interest groups; the London Assembly has 25 directly elected members. Its role is defined in the Greater London Authority Act 1999; each chamber had adopted the title "regional assembly" or "assembly". They were: East of England Regional Assembly East Midlands Regional Assembly North East Assembly North West Regional Assembly South East England Regional Assembly South West Regional Assembly West Midlands Regional Assembly Yorkshire and Humber Assembly The London Assembly was established as a directly elected body by separate legislation and is part of the Greater London Authority, it continues to exist after the abolition of the eight regional chambers. Each assembly corresponded to a region of England.
In May 2002, the UK government published a White Paper, Your Region, Your Choice, outlining its plans for the possible establishment of Elected Regional Assemblies. These assemblies were to be responsible for regional strategies dealing with sustainable development, economic development, spatial planning, waste, housing and biodiversity, they would be funded by central government grant, with powers to raise additional funds from a precept on the council tax. The Assemblies were expected to be elected by an Additional Member System similar to those used for the London Assembly, the Scottish Parliament and the National Assembly for Wales; the Regional Assemblies Act 2003 made provisions for referendums to be held to create such assemblies, to simplify the structure of local government where this is done. Three such referendums were planned, for the regions of North East and North West England and Yorkshire and the Humber. On 12 February 2004, Local Government Minister Nick Raynsford announced that elected Assemblies would be able to direct local authorities to refuse strategic planning applications that are not in the region's best interest.
They would be able to look across local boundary constraints and ensure planning decisions are made with region-wide interests taken into account. On 8 July 2004 it was announced that the referendums would be held on 4 November, but on 2 July Raynsford announced that only the North East England vote would go ahead on that date; this region was chosen because the government thought it was the most to approve the proposal. However the voters rejected the assembly by 696,519 votes to 197,310; this overwhelmingly negative vote was seen as an insurmountable obstacle to elected regional assemblies elsewhere in England outside London. On 8 November, Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott told the House of Commons he would not move orders for the other two regions within the effective time limit of June 2005 permitted by the Act; the no vote by the North East affected the Labour Government's attempt to address the West Lothian question, because the government had canvassed regional assemblies as a partial solution to this Question.
The English Regions Network is the umbrella organisation for England's eight partnership Regional Assemblies. While the London Assembly works with ERN on some issues it is not a full member of the Network; the Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott presented a Draft Regional Assemblies Bill to Parliament in July 2004. The bill defined their powers; the draft bill proposed the following structure: The assembly would be a body corporate with a distinct legal identity. Each assembly would be composed of between 25 and 35 assembly members elected by the Additional Member System; the assembly would select one member as the Chairman and another as Deputy Chairman to preside over its debates. The assembly would have an between two and six Executive Members; the draft bill would have given the assemblies the following powers: Promotion of economic development Promotion
Government of the United Kingdom
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is commonly referred to as the UK Government or the British Government; the government is led by the Prime Minister. The prime minister and the other most senior ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet; the government ministers all sit in Parliament, are accountable to it. The government is dependent on Parliament to make primary legislation, since the Fixed-terms Parliaments Act 2011, general elections are held every five years to elect a new House of Commons, unless there is a successful vote of no confidence in the government or a two-thirds vote for a snap election in the House of Commons, in which case an election may be held sooner. After an election, the monarch selects as prime minister the leader of the party most to command the confidence of the House of Commons by possessing a majority of MPs.
Under the uncodified British constitution, executive authority lies with the monarch, although this authority is exercised only by, or on the advice of, the prime minister and the cabinet. The Cabinet members advise the monarch as members of the Privy Council. In most cases they exercise power directly as leaders of the Government Departments, though some Cabinet positions are sinecures to a greater or lesser degree; the current prime minister is Theresa May, who took office on 13 July 2016. She is the leader of the Conservative Party, which won a majority of seats in the House of Commons in the general election on 7 May 2015, when David Cameron was the party leader. Prior to this and the Conservatives led a coalition from 2010 to 2015 with the Liberal Democrats, in which Cameron was prime minister; the Government is referred to with the metonym Westminster, due to that being where many of the offices of the government are situated by members in the Government of Scotland, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive in order to differentiate it from their own.
A key principle of the British Constitution is. This is called responsible government; the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy in which the reigning monarch does not make any open political decisions. All political decisions are taken by Parliament; this constitutional state of affairs is the result of a long history of constraining and reducing the political power of the monarch, beginning with Magna Carta in 1215. Parliament is split into the House of Commons; the House of Commons is the more powerful. The House of Lords is the upper house and although it can vote to amend proposed laws, the House of Commons can vote to overrule its amendments. Although the House of Lords can introduce bills, most important laws are introduced in the House of Commons – and most of those are introduced by the government, which schedules the vast majority of parliamentary time in the Commons. Parliamentary time is essential for bills to be passed into law, because they must pass through a number of readings before becoming law.
Prior to introducing a bill, the government may run a public consultation to solicit feedback from the public and businesses, may have introduced and discussed the policy in the Queen's Speech, or in an election manifesto or party platform. Ministers of the Crown are responsible to the House. For most senior ministers this is the elected House of Commons rather than the House of Lords. There have been some recent exceptions to this: for example, cabinet ministers Lord Mandelson and Lord Adonis sat in the Lords and were responsible to that House during the government of Gordon Brown. Since the start of Edward VII's reign in 1901, the prime minister has always been an elected member of Parliament and therefore directly accountable to the House of Commons. A similar convention applies to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, it would be politically unacceptable for the budget speech to be given in the Lords, with MPs unable to directly question the Chancellor now that the Lords have limited powers in relation to money bills.
The last Chancellor of the Exchequer to be a member of the House of Lords was Lord Denman, who served as interim Chancellor of the Exchequer for one month in 1834. Under the British system, the government is required by convention and for practical reasons to maintain the confidence of the House of Commons, it requires the support of the House of Commons for the maintenance of supply and to pass primary legislation. By convention, if a government loses the confidence of the House of Commons it must either resign or a General Election is held; the support of the Lords, while useful to the government in getting its legislation passed without delay, is not vital. A government is not required to resign if it loses the confidence of the Lords and is defeated in key votes in that House; the House of Commons is thus the Responsible house. The prime minister is held to account during Prime Minister's Questions which provides an opportunity for MPs from all parties to question the PM on any subject
The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Derbyshire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire and Rutland; the region has an area of 15,627 km2, with a population over 4.5 million in 2011. There are five main urban centres, Leicester, Lincoln and Nottingham. Others include Boston, Chesterfield, Grantham, Kettering, Mansfield, Newark-on-Trent and Wellingborough. Relative proximity to London and its position on the national motorway and trunk road networks help the East Midlands to thrive as an economic hub. Nottingham and Leicester are each classified as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network; the region is served by East Midlands Airport, which lies between Derby and Nottingham. The high point at 636 m is Kinder Scout, in the Peak District of the southern Pennines in northwest Derbyshire near Glossop. Other upland, hilly areas of 95 to 280 m in altitude, together with lakes and reservoirs, rise in and around the Charnwood Forest north of Leicester, in the Lincolnshire Wolds.
The region's major rivers, the Nene, the Soar, the Trent and the Welland, flow in a northeasterly direction towards the Humber and the Wash. The Derwent, rises in the High Peak before flowing south to join the Trent some 2 miles before its conflux with the Soar; the centre of the East Midlands area lies between Bingham and Bottesford, Leicestershire. The geographical centre of England lies in Higham on the Hill in west Leicestershire, close to the boundary between the Leicestershire and Warwickshire; some 88 per cent of the land is rural in character, although agriculture accounts for less than three per cent of the region's jobs. Lincolnshire is the only maritime county of the six, with a true North Sea coastline of about 30 miles due to the protection afforded by Spurn Head and the North Norfolk foreshore. Church Flatts Farm in Coton in the Elms, South Derbyshire, is the furthest place from the sea in the UK. In April 1936 the first Ordnance Survey trig point was sited at Cold Ashby in Northamptonshire.
The Royal Society of Wildlife Trusts and The Wildlife Trusts are based next to the River Trent and Newark Castle railway station. The National Centre for Earth Observation is at the University of Leicester; the region is home to large quantities of limestone, the East Midlands Oil Province. Charnwood Forest is noted for its abundant levels of volcanic rock, estimated to be 600 million years old. A quarter of the UK's cement is manufactured in the region, at three sites in Hope and Tunstead in Derbyshire, Ketton Cement Works in Rutland. Of the aggregates produced in the region, 25 per cent are from Derbyshire and four per cent from Leicestershire. Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire each produce around 30 per cent of the region's sand and gravel output. Barwell in Leicestershire was the site of Britain's largest meteorite on 24 December 1965; the 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake was 5.2 in magnitude. Areas of the East Midlands designated by the East Midlands Biodiversity Partnership as Biodiversity Conservation Areas include: Charnwood Forest Coversand Heaths Derbyshire Peak Fringe and Lower Derwent Humberhead Levels Leighland Forest The Lincolnshire Limewoods and Heaths The Lincolnshire coast The Peak District Rockingham Forest Sherwood Forest Rutland, SW Lincolnshire and N Northamptonshire The Wash Areas of the East Midlands designated by the East Midlands Biodiversity Partnership as Biodiversity Enhancement Areas include: The Coalfields The Daventry Grasslands The Fens The Lincolnshire Coastal Grazing Marshes The Lincolnshire Wolds The National Forest The Yardley-Whittlewood RidgeTwo of the nationally designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty are: The Peak District The Lincolnshire Wolds Several towns in the southern part of the region, including Market Harborough, Rothwell, Kettering, Thrapston and Stamford, lie within the boundaries of what was once Rockingham Forest – designated a royal forest by William the Conqueror and was long hunted by English kings and queens.
The National Forest is an environmental project in central England run by The National Forest Company. Areas of north Leicestershire, south Derbyshire and south-east Staffordshire covering around 200 square miles are being planted in an attempt to blend ancient woodland with new plantings, it stretches from the western outskirts of Leicester in the east to Burton upon Trent in the west, is planned to link the ancient forests of Needwood and Charnwood. Sherwood Forest in Nottinghamshire attracts many visitors, is best known for its ties with the legend of Robin Hood. Regional financial funding decisions for the East Midlands are taken by East Midlands Councils, based in Melton Mowbray. East Midlands Councils is an unelected body made up of representatives of local government in the region; the defunct East Midlands Development Agency was headquartered next to the BBC's East Midlands office in Nottingham and made financial decisions regarding economic development in the region. Since the Conservative-Lib Dem coalition government launched its austerity programme after the 2010 general election, regional bodies such as those have been devolved to smaller groups now on a county level.
As a region today, there is no overriding body with significant financial or planning powers for the East Midlands. The East Midlands' largest settlements are Leicester, Derby, Chesterfield, Mansfield and Kettering. Leicester is the largest
Politics of England
The Politics of England forms the major part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with England being more populous than all the other countries of the United Kingdom put together. As England is by far the largest in terms of area and GDP, its relationship to the UK is somewhat different from that of Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland; the English capital London is the capital of the UK, English is the dominant language of the UK. Dicey and Morris list the separate states in the British Islands. "England, Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, Guernsey and Sark.... is a separate country in the sense of the conflict of laws, though not one of them is a State known to public international law." But this may be varied by statute. The United Kingdom is one state for the purposes of the Bills of Exchange Act 1882. Great Britain is a single state for the purposes of the Companies Act 1985. Traditionally authors referred to the legal unit or state of England and Wales as "England" although this usage is becoming politically unacceptable in the last few decades.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom is located in London, as is its civil service, HM Treasury and most of the official residences of the monarchy. In addition, the state bank of the UK is known as the "Bank of England". Though associated with England for some purposes, the Isle of Man and Guernsey have their own parliaments, are not part of the United Kingdom, the European Union or England. Prior to the Union, in 1707, England was ruled by the Parliament of England. Since the Union, England has not had its own government; the English Parliament traces its origins to the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot. Hollister argues that: In an age lacking precise definitions of constitutional relationships, the ingrained custom that the king governed in consultation with the Witan, implicit in every important royal document of the period, makes the Witenagemot one of Anglo-Saxon England's fundamental political institutions. In 1066, William of Normandy brought a feudal system, where he sought the advice of a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics before making laws.
In 1215, the tenants-in-chief secured the Magna Carta from King John, which established that the king may not levy or collect any taxes, save with the consent of his royal council, which developed into a parliament. In 1265, Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester summoned the first elected Parliament; the franchise in parliamentary elections for county constituencies was uniform throughout the country, extending to all those who owned the freehold of land to an annual rent of 40 shillings. In the boroughs, the franchise varied across the country; this set the scene for the so-called "Model Parliament" of 1295 adopted by Edward I. By the reign of Edward II, Parliament had been separated into two Houses: one including the nobility and higher clergy, the other including the knights and burgesses, no law could be made, nor any tax levied, without the consent of both Houses as well as of the Sovereign; the Laws in Wales Acts of 1535–42 annexed Wales as part of England and brought Welsh representatives to Parliament.
When Elizabeth I was succeeded in 1603 by the Scottish King James VI, the countries both came under his rule but each retained its own Parliament. James I's successor, Charles I, quarrelled with the English Parliament and, after he provoked the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, their dispute developed into the English Civil War. Charles was executed in 1649 and under Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth of England the House of Lords was abolished, the House of Commons made subordinate to Cromwell. After Cromwell's death, the Restoration of 1660 restored the House of Lords. Amidst fears of a Roman Catholic succession, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 deposed James II in favour of the joint rule of Mary II and William III, whose agreement to the English Bill of Rights introduced a constitutional monarchy, though the supremacy of the Crown remained. For the third time, a Convention Parliament, i.e. one not summoned by the king, was required to determine the succession. Treaty of Union agreed by commissioners for each parliament on 22 July 1706.
Acts of Union 1707, passed by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. Act of Union 1800, passed by both the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Once the terms of the Treaty of Union were agreed in 1706, Acts of Union were passed in both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, which created a new Kingdom of Great Britain; the Acts dissolved both parliaments, replacing them with a new Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain based in the former home of the English parliament. All the traditions and standing orders of the English parliament were retained, as were the incumbent officers, English members comprised the overwhelming majority of the new body, it was not considered necessary to hold a new general election. While Scots law and Scottish legislation remained separate, new legislation for both former kingdoms was now dealt with by the new parliament.
After the Hanoverian George I ascended the throne in 1714 through an Act of Parliament, power began to shift from the Sovereign, by the end of his reign the position of the ministers — who had to rely on Parliament for support — was cemented. Towards the end of the 18th century the monarch still had considerable influence over Parliament, dominated by the Englis